සිංහල තෙක්න වදන්
Technical Terms in Sinhala - mainly for Computer science, nanotechnology and quantum physics, chemistry and biology.

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Maps with Sinhala place names
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A simple scheme for writing Sinhala words with a standard English key board. englsih2sinhala map (e2s map)
The sinhala words given at this website in English characters have not yet been systematically converted to this e2s-map format.

Technical Tems in Sinhala, Mainly for Computer Science, Nanotechnology and Quantum Physics.
පරිගනක විද්යාව, ක්වන්ටම් භෞතික විද්යාව සහ නැනො තෙක්නිකය සඳහා සිංහල වදන්

This list as been prepared by
CDW using available background material, and in recognition that scientific terms will slowly diffuse into general non-technical sinhala usage due to the increasing technicization of society. Hence it is important to ensure that wrong usages and inappropriate forms do not get entrenched. Users are invited to send in their corrections, comments and suggestions to:   chandre.dharma@yahoo.ca

Online english-sinhala dictionary with many technical words



Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
Abend This message arises when a computer process ends abnormally Annimaava
A n ni m va   (e2s map)
Access-control-list, (ACL)
permission to enter, e.g., in ACL Aathulveema, prevesha ප්‍රවේශ
peves Paalaka Laisthuva

Ae thu l vee ma, p ra ve~ sha,
pe ve s, p la ka, lae i, s, thu va   (e2s map)
access-time control e.g., access-time control to limit channel capacity preve~sha kaalika paalanaya, preve~sha kaalika vaenala dhaaritha paalanaya
Accuracy the word is derived from Latin source words which mean "needle, sharpness", a sense still retained in French. We render the Singhalese as "thiunuva" "thiunuthaava" etc. This, the accuracy of the calculation is only up to four significant figures, would become, in sinhala, "meme gananayehi thiunutaava vaed(th)agath ilakkan hatharak pamani". "Niravadithva" could be used as a non-technical informal equivalent. Thiunuthaava

thi yu nu th va   (e2s map)
Action In quantum physics ACTION is a dynamical quantity similar to "work", evaluated as a path integral connecting the initial and endpoint of the path. Non-technicl meanings would include
ක්‍රියාව, කාර්යය, කිරිය

sa k ri ya th va   (e2s map)
Active, (opposed to passive) an active component is in use, or powered Sakriya, සක්රිය
(as opposed to akriya, inactive or passive)
Active-Matrix Active-matrix is a technology used in flat-panel and other displays. Matrix is a system made up of columns and rows. "kuluPe~liya" signifies the column (Kuluna)-row(Pe~liya) structure. The word න්‍යාසය does not adequately bring out its meaning. Sakriya kuluPe~liya
සක්රිය කුලු ේපලිය
Access, (Microsoft Access) A database application for windows MS-Access
  • actual
  • actuality
  • real
  • reality
  • virtual
  • imaginary
  • unreal
li>An actual process is is something which corresponds to data excternal to the computer.
  • actuality is being associated with an actual process
  • A real*8 array is made up of real numbers of 8-bit words. A real image appears as a bright object on a screen.
  • reality is associated with actual proceses
  • A virtual memory is an additional amount of memory that may be available to a computer user during run time. A virtual image is not captured on a screen.
  • imaginary numbers are no more imaginary than real numbers. "kalpitha sangkya yath sangkya valata vad vise~sayen avyaja nove~.
  • unreal is NOT the same as "imaginary" in our context.
    • thathya, thath, තත්
    • thatyathva, තත්යතාව
    • sathathya, yath යථා
    • saththathvaya, saththva සත්තාව
    • vyjika
    • kalpika
    • athathya, athath
    Ad hoc (e.g., Ad-hoc. Link) Means (in Latin), done just for a specific purpose "Ema Sandaha" Bandhaya (link)
    Address This is where a file or signal is sent. This is similar to the "postal address". Bur instead of "Lipinaya", we prefer the word "lipiyomuva", the target (yomuva) of the information "packet" Lipiyomuva, Lipinaya
    • Alternatative, alternative energy sources
    • alteernating current
    • "Alternative energy sources are needed to complement the current supply", is typical usgage. Translating this as ""vikalpa" is unfortunately very common. "Vikalpa" connotes a negatative or disruptive idea. The usage "alternative energy source", or "alternative chemical pathway" or "alternative X" implies a "supplementary X" or a "secondary X". We suggest "anuthara X", or even "amathara X" where suitable. "Anuthara" is etymologically the closest to "Alternative". "vikalpa" may be used when one wants to describe a "dissidant", or "breakaway" from the a mainstream concept. That is, "Vikalpa" and "Sangkalpa" are some what like anatgonistic conceptualizations.
    • Household current supply is usually alternating current which changes the direction of flow 50 times per second (fifty cycles/sec).
    • Anuthara, Anuthara shakthi pramoola
      අනූතර ශක්තී ප්රමූල
    • Prathyavartha Dhaaraava (Ddrva)
    Analog "Analog" representation of data uses a continuum, as opposed to digital representation where discrete units (digits) are used. Akanda, Akhanda
    Analog "Analog", in the sense of being similar. prathisama, prathisamaya, ප්‍රතිසම
    ADC Analog- to-Digital conversion Akandayen-ankithyata haeraveema
    ADF Automatic Document Feeder, hardware Svyang Lipi saepayaavakaya
    ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. In sinhala "Sama-aethi means symmetrically placed. Thus a-samath stands for asymmetric. The word "Vaela" is used for"line. But other appropriate forms may be used. Asamaethi Angkitha Daayaka Vaela
    අසමැති අංකිත දායක වැල
    Adware software that is supported by advertisements are Adware, as seen on web browsers. Velandaanga, Velanadakaaya
    Aeteology e.g., disease of "unknown aetiology" guptha heithuka rogaya
    AGP Accelerated Graphics Port. This is a piece of hardware (graphics card expansion port that resides on the mother board AGP ports runs at 66MHz, unlike PICs which run at 33MHz. Veegika Chtira Doratuva (Dvaaraya)
    වේගික චිත්ර දොරටුව
    AIFF Audio Interchange File Format on Apple, is similar to WAVE files on Windows Sravana-Huvamaaru Gonu-aakruthiya
    AIDF Audio Interchange document Format Sravana-Huvamaaru Lipi-aakruthiya
    AIX Advanced Interactive Executive
    AIX allows the system administrator to divide memory, CPU, and disk access between various jobs. Unix and Linux systems.
    Pramukha antharkarreeya Vidhaayakaya
    Alert Box This pops up on your screen when the computer is warning you etc. San(j)ya kotuva
    සංඥා කොටුව
    Algebra from the Arabic "Al-gebra" Veeja ganithya
    Algorithm a coded mathematical procedure or commands Veejakaetiya
    වීජකැ ටිය
    Ambipolar, (opp of unipolar) e.g., in "AMBIPOLAR conduction", both positive and negative charges in a conductor contributes to the current. ubhaya-dhraevika, (e~ka draevika)
    (e2s map)
    API Application-Program Interface
    An API is a set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when building software for a specific operating system
    Praayogika Vidhakaeti Athuru-muhuna
    Applet This is a Java script that can go into a webpage, but it cannot access system resources. We use the work "Kaendaweema" as the root word for constructing the sinhala form for applet. Kaendaveem-ketiya
    Application It is a program resident on the computer, and "applied" to do jobs. They differ from system software in a general sense. Praayogikaya, ප්‍රායෝගිකය
    Area (i)The AREA specified in the textbox is only for typing in ASCII characters. (ii) square measure (i)cheriya, චේරිය
    (ii)varaga pramaanaya
    Aerial, Antenna This is a metallic structure or wire which sticks out and broadcasts or receives e-m radiation. The word is from the Latin "sailyard" which sticks out of a ship. "Guvan kambiya", and Aadrava have also been used. Pitaskoora, පිටස්කූර
    ahaskoora, Adravaya ආද්‍රව
    Aerial e.g., An aerial object was seen moving between clouds. ahasgatha
    ARP Address Resolution Protocol. This is used for mapping an IP address to a MAC address, enabling unique network identification. Lipiyomu Vigraha Prathikaarakaya
    Array Arrays are matrices, or more often vectors. We use the word Pe~liya (row) or Kuluna (column) as appropriate. For matrices we use the name "kulupe~liya". Panthiya, kulaya etc., used for 'set" can also be used. Pe~liya, පේළිය
    Kuluna, කුලුණ
    Artificial intelligence AI An important area of computer science, known as ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, is focused on building computers which do the operations that we attribute to human intelligence. In sinhala th word "kruthima" has been used to render the word "artificial". While that word is appropriate in materials science (e.g, for plastics as synthetic materials), we use the word "nispaaditha", or "nirmpitka" to give sense that this is an engineered product. Nishpditha buddiya, nirmpitha buddiya
    නිර්මාපිත බුද්ධිය (e2s-map used)
    ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Coding is "san(g)ketum:, while decoding is "Heliketum", as explained under those words. Aemerikaanu Sammmatha Sanketum Pravurthi Huvamaaruva, ඇස්කි
    ASCII character set This is the standard key board in the utf-8 Unicode implementation Aski san(g)ketha kulaya (panthiya, samo~haya), ඇස්කි සංකේත කුලය
    Aski charoopa kulaya,
    ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode. This is a networking technology where data is transfered in small packets or cells of a fixed (48 bytes for the data and 5 bytes for the address) cell size Asamavita Huvamaaru madaya (ම්දය)
    Asymmetric as in Asymmetric digital subscriber line ( ADSL), "a-sama-aethi" is compounded to make Asamaethi; or asammithika asamaethi, අසමැති
    asammithika, අසමිමිතික
    Atom, atomic particle The word ATOM has been literarily translated as "parammanuva" පරමාණුව in popular sinhala. We prefer to call it "aetoma", or aetomanuva when we need to emphasize an atom fragment Aetoma, ඇටම
    Aetomanuva ඇටමාණුව
    Atto-second (as)
    this is 10-18 seconds. aeto-thathparaya
    Audio e.g., audio file format Sravana ශ්‍රවණ
    • Automatic, auto
    • automatic document feeder
    • auto-sorter
    e.g., automatic document feeder, auto-sorter etc. are typical uses of the word in IT
    • Svayang-kriya, ස්වයංක්‍රිය
    • Svyang Lipi saepayaavakaya
    • Svayang vaargikaya


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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    • Backup
    • Backup files
    Set of reserve files, or earlier versions, kept aside for safety, in another computer on on other storage. The word "upastha" has been used and is derived from "secondary" or "upa"
    • Suraeki සුරැකි, upashttha,
    • Suraki Gonu
    band, bands In radio transmission a "band" of frequencies is considered, and the spread of frequencies in the band is the bandwidth. In semi-conductor and solid state physics, energy bands are sets of continuum energy eigenstates which occur together, followed by bandgaps. We use "patiya" for band, rather than "patthaya පථය as "patthaya" implies a path. Patiya, Pati
    bands narrowbands, widebands,
    (see also subbands, energybands))
    describes the capacity for information transfer pati, heeni-pati, mahatha-pati
      bandgap (see energy bands)
    The conduction band (which has negatively charged carriers) and the valance band (positively charged carriers) of a semiconductor are separated by an energygap called the bandgap. In si-MOSFETS this is around 1.1 eV. The word bandgap is also analogously applied to frequency separation in transmission bands. Note that energy E and frequency ν are connected by the quantum physics (plank law) law E=hν where h is the Plank constant. pati hidaessa, පටි හිදැ ස්ස
    bandwidth The bandwidth gives a measure of the capacity for data transfer over a channel or line. In radio transmission a "band" of frequencies is considered, and the spread of frequencies in the band is the bandwidth. In semi-conductor and solid state physics, energy bands are sets of continuum energy eigenstates which occur together, followed by bandgaps. We use "patiya" for band, and "mahatha" for "width" Pati-mahatha
    • tunnel barrier
    • barrier voltage
    • Schottky barrier
      Many semi-conductor structures contain layers which act as a Barrier to current flow. The barrier can be adjusted by applying a bias
    • A tunnel barrier is sufficiently thin that carriers can flow by tunnelling through
    • barrier voltage is the bias on the tunnel barrier.
    • This is a brrrier to electron flow that usually exists at a metal-semiconductor contact, named after the German scientist Walter Schottky. The effect is used in Shottky diodes.
      bddakaya බාධකය
    • bing gma bddakaya
    • bddaka voltejaya, bddaka volte~yathva
    • Shotki bddakaya
    • Batch
    • Batch File
    • batch job
    • Aset of jobs or items
    • This is a script file which calls other programs and executes them to run the "batch jobs, usually in some submitted sequence. Unix and Linux use shell commands, while windows DOS use command.com programs
    • A job left in a que of other jobs to be done as a "batch"
    • kattiya
    • kaTti-Kruthi Gonuva
    • kaTti-kruthiya
    Baud The "Baud" rate is the number of distinct symbol-change rate used in electronics and telecommunication. If the symobloms are 0 and1, then the Baud rate is the same as the number of bits per second (bps). Since this was named after the French scientist Emile Baud, it is the same in Sinhala Baud
    Bcc Blind Carbon Copy, a Bcc e-mail will not show the names of the receipent list Andha lipi laeisthuva
    Beam This word is used in many areas of engineering and physics. Atomic beams, molecular beams, beams of light can all be rendered into sinhala as "Dhara", with the appropriate adjective added on. Thus "atomic beams", i.e, a stream of atoms sent in a given direction, would be "aetomika dhara". Dhara
    Beta Software Software being tested out before release. Bilindu murdhukaanga, Bilindu Murdhukaaya
    • Negative bias, positive bias
    • forward bias, reverse bias
    • bias voltage
    • applied bias
    • effective bias
      The bias is the voltage measure with respect to a reference zero and applied to an electrode.The sinhala word is redivied from "aediya" (ඇදිය), or aede~ma, i.e., deviation from the neutral value.
    • Negative bias, positive bias, refers to the sign voltage applied to a terminal.
    • forward bias is a positive, reverse bias intercahnges the voltages across source and drain.
      • The Difference between source and drain electrodes.
      • The applied bias is the bias voltage
      • effective bias is the value of the bias, after correcting for the drop in bias due to surface over-voltages and other effects.
      aediya &nbs; ඇදිය
    • idiriaediya, prathiaediya
    • aedi volte~jaya, aedi volte~yathava
    • Yedo~ aediya
    • kriymika aediya
    (e2s map)
    biject e.g, in mathematics, "bijection". See also projection dvikara-shepanaya
    Binary A representation using only 0 and 1. Thus the number 3 is represented as 11, and 5 is 101 Dwithva, ද්විත්ව
    bilingual, multi-lingual competence in two (or multiple) languages Debassi, Bahubasi
    Dwi-dhasika, Bahu-Bashika
    BIOS Basic Input-Output System of a computer Moolika ayapaadanaya-avapaadanaya
    Bit "Binary DigIT" shortened. Dwithawa-An(g)kaya DwItha,   ද්විත
    Bitmap A bitmap is a map of dots, or bits (thus the name), that looks like a picture unless you look too close to the screen DWIthA roopaya
    Bitrate This is the number of bits per second (bps) transmitted DWIthA Veegaya
    ද්විත ව඀ගය
    Blob Binary Large Object, a type of binary storage type Maha DWIthA Vasthuva
    • Blockade
    • Coulomb blockade
    • Spin blockade
    • Blockade is a prevention of the flow of carriers or energy.
    • Coulomb blockade occurs when electrons coming into a quantum dot or other nanostructure are prevented from entering due to the Coulomb repulsion of the electrons which are already in the nanaostructure. This is also called the Hubbard repulsion
    • Spin blockade occurs when, say, an up-spin electron already occupying a nanostructure (e.g., a quantum dot) prevents electrons of like spin from coming in, due to the Pauli exclusion principle (Pauli Blocking).
    • Avaro~danaya
    • Coulomb Avaro~dhanaya, Habrd avaroddanaya
    • brahamana Avaro~dhanaya, Pauli avaroddanaya
    Blog Blog is short for Web-log. Web is rendered as "Jaalaya in Sinhala. Keeping a log is to maintain a "lipiyas" or write up Jaalvaarthaava, Daelvatha
    Blogging, Blogger derived from above Web-Log. See under weblog. Jaalanaya, Jaaliyanna
    Blog sphere the world of blogging Jaa-lekha-golaya
    Blu-ray Optical disc using blue-laser read out, useful for High Definition data and large amounts of data Nil raesa
    Bluetooth It is a wireless communication technology using 2.4 GHz frequency enabling a close proximity network between, say, cellphone, computer and video camera. Nil Datha
    Bookmark Marks the url address of a webpage, and stores it in "favorites"(explorer) or as "bookmarks" in Firefox Poth Lakuna
    Boolean logic
    This is the logic language, containing four elements,AND, NOT, OR, and XOR, used in writing algorithms and logic circuits. This is named after the mathematician George Boole, and hence we use the adjective derived from the name Boole Boolaka
    Boolak Tharkanaya, Boolaka Nyaya
    Boot the computer This is to turn the computer on and initiate the start-up instructions from the computers read-only-memory (ROM) etc. Pariganakaya PUBUDANAYA
    Boot Disk The most common boot disk is an internal hard drive, which is use to start up from. The operating system installed on the hard drive is loaded during the boot up. Pubudu Thaetiya
    Boot Sequence This is the sequence of events occurring when the computer starts up. First the basic input-output system (BIOS), then the CPU loads them to the RAM and the operating system is picked up from the boot disk Pubudu kriyapela
    Bot Probably a short-form for Ro-bot "spider" engine which does web-searching, greet people when they enter chat rooms, collect HTML documents and link them crawling around like "spiders" Botuva, බොටුවා
    Bounce an e-mail The whole message received by you is resent to someone else, without explicit transmission of the "bouncers"(you) details. e-mail is "Vidyuth-panivuda, written as "Vee-panivuda" or "V-thaepal", "v-lipiya" etc. Vee-lipiyak Punaa-paenneema
    Box as in dialogue box (debas kotuva), alert box Kotuva,
    bps, bps number, BPS bits per second Thathparayata DWIthA ganana
    Broadband high bandwidth communication, and uses a wide range of frequencies. When only a narrow band is available, one can only send simple messages, like Morse code. mahatha-pati, Pulul-pati
    Browser This is a software utility available on the computer to display and interact with text, images, video etc. The Firefox, Internet explorer, and Opera are common browsers. Pradarsakaya
    Bullet Bullets are used in highlighting the start of a sentence in lists. Please do not use the very ugly "Bulataya" Thilakaya, Pottuva
    Bug, Bugs The inadvertent errors in a computer program (code) are called "bugs". In sinhala we call them "Gullo", and "debugging" is "gullo gaelaveema". Gulla, Gullo
    Buffer This is a short-term storage, in a random access memory (RAM). We use the word Gaeba (from Garbhaya) in sinhala for memory. 'Athuru-ageba" signifies the transient nature of this memory. Athuru-gaeba
    Bus, frontside bus, expansion buses These are sets of wires inside a computer that allow data to be passed back and forth. The front side bus connects the CPU to the rest of the components. The sinhala "Baessuma" implies that the currents are sent down (bassnava) the "Bus". Baessuma
    Byte, information byte Usually this is eight "bits", while a "bit" is a binary digit (0 or 1). The eight-bit byte is called an "Octet" to be precise. But it need not be an octet, and the byte is the basic unit of information for the given computer system. It is the information unit, made up by "binding together" a set of bits. So we use the sinhala form "bad(th)witha", that is a "badhdha" set of bits (dwitha) Bad(h)vitha බද්විත, Pravurthi bad(h)vitha

    C Go to the top of the List

    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    C, C++ These are programming languages which evolved from earlier, ALGOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL and other languages, and used mostly on UNIX machine. Now they are used for most platforms. No translation is needed. C, C++
    Cable modem Cables are heavy duty carrier wires, and modem is a shortening of modulator-demodulator. See discussion under "modem" Ke~ble muhuyathnaya,
    කේබල් මුහුයත්නය
    ke~bal modama
    calculation e.g., as in, the accuracy of the calculation is only up to four significant figures. This would become, in sinhala, "meme gananayehi thiunutaava vaed(th)agath ilakkan hatharak pamani". gananaya
    • majority carriers
    • minority carriers
    • charged carriers,uncharged carriers,
    • neutral carriers
      carriers are the particles which carry charge or energy currents in devices, or in fields.
    • majority carriers. If positive charges (valance band) are more numerous (number per unit volume = density), they are the majority carriers. Usually negative charges are more numerous. Bahujana should nOT be used for "majority", as that is reserved for people or for living organisms.
    • minority carriers, are fewer in number per unit volume.
    • charged carriers carry electric current. Uncharged carriers, e.g., phonons, can carry energy.
    • bahu-ghana gaamiyo~
    • sulu-ghana gaamiyo~
    • ropitha gaamiyo~, aropitha gaamiyo~
    • napuntha gaamiyo~
    Cartridge "The ink CARTRIDGE on printers contain noxious chemicals". The sinhala word is made up of "randuva", or "holder", and "Kalamana" or "Kadamana", i.e., things needed for the job. KaDara ngdu va
    Cascade e.g., Cascading style sheet used in webpage design. The sinhala word is made up of Vaeteema (Vaetum, fall) and Kadeema (kada, break) Vaetum Kada
    Cashe Ce.g.,Cashe memory, This is a memory that the computer looks up to see if it has already "hidden away" the information, perhaps from aa previous execution. French "caché " means hidden. See disc. under memory. Rahas DaeGaeba (දෑ ගැබ)
    Cat States "Cat states" are a name derived from "schrodinger's Cat Paradox". A system can be in a prepared in a mode (eigenstate) A or B, represented by 0 or 1, say. Quantum theory allows the existence of all superpositions of A and B. See the write up under Schrodinger's Cat, eigenstates, mode. As explained under "eigenstates", we use the sinhala term "yathathvaya" for eigenstate. kayita yathathva
    • Theory of causality
    • micro-causality
    The principle of cause and effect or determinism. Micro-causality involves causality at a micorscopic level and not just in an average sense. See uncertainty principle.
      He~thu PPalathvaya, හේතුඵලත්වය
    • He~thu-ppala vaadaya
    • kshurda he~thu PPalathvaya
    CCD short for "Charge Coupled Device". This is an array of phtocells which get charged when an light (an image) falls on it, and creates optical images. Extensively used in digital cameras nowadays, and originally designed for astrophysical applications. Aaropana-sambanditha- Upaakramikaya"

    ro~ pa na,-sa m ba n di tha,- u pa k ra ma ya, (e2s map)
    CD Compact Disc. The CD's are compact in the sense that they provide dense storage of digitized information, to be read via a laser reader. Thus we use the sinhala term ""san-ghana" sanghana thaetiya
    channel The source and the drain in a transistor is connected by a channel formed in the Si-SiO2 interface. Aela
    • character
    • character encoding UTF-8
    • character allocation
    • This word is similar to "eigen" used in german, and indicates the "inherent character". In fact the english word "character", and the sinhala "charitha" can be related to the same indic-linguistic roots. We use "charitharoopa", or "charoopa" for characters in the sense of keybord symbols or screen symbols. The word "sangke~thaya has also been used by some writers,m and is more like "symbol", and may also be used in a rough way.
    • See under UNICODE.
    • The Unicode-range for Sinhala, U+0D80 ... U+0DFF, has been adopted as the standard character allocation.
    • charitharoop, charoopa, sagke~thaya
    • UTF-8 charoopa sangkaeteema
    • acharoopa anudaanaya
    Chart The CHART may be a table, a Pie-chart, a histogram etc" Prasthaaraya, pasura
    Chemical vapour Deposition CVD In addition to MBE, chemical vapour deposition CVD is used for controlled growth of nanomaterials. See also Etching. Rasaayanika vaashpa adhi-paththanaya

    ra s ya ni ka, v sh pa, adipaththanaya(e2s map)
    • chirality
    • chiral molecule
    • chiral fluid
    • Chirality is a measure of "handedness", or lack of a center of symmetry. See also "helicity".
    • Substances containing chiral molecules (e.g., glucose), rotates the polarization of light.
    • 2-dimensional electron sheets in a magentic field are chiral liquids.
    • prahuruva
    • prahuru anuva
    • prahuru dravaya
    chronic as in "Chronic kidney disease" chiraapath vakugadu roegaya. chiraapath
    Circuit e.g., circuit-switched network (CSN). We use the word "Pathaya" as our stem word, and "san(g)" introduces the sense of completing a circle. Note that the English "path",and "Pedi", etc are all related to the same stem. Often the letter "P" gets replaced by "V" in language evolution, and "vedhi, veedi" are also related to the same stem. The sinhala word "paripathaya" is also sometimes used, and the exact implication of the suffix "pari" is not clear. Perhpas it is like in "paripoorna", and implies some superior quality. paripatthaya, (e2s map)
    san(g)patthaya, සංපථය
    CDMA This is an acronym for "Code Division Multiple Access". This is a digital wireless transmission technology used in cell-phone communication etc. ketum-bedeem Bahu-pevesa
    Charge e.g., negative and positive charges, e.g., charge-coupled devices. Aaropanaya
    Chip A chip is a small-piece of semiconductor (e.g., Si) on which an integrated circuit (IC) is etched or embedded. VLSI enables one to assemble millions of components (transistors etc) on a chip which may be one 1/4-inch square.WE use the sinhala word "Peththa" for a chip, and "Pathi" in the plural. Peththa
    class, group, set as in character set, i.e., (san(g)ketha panthiya, or non-Abelian group samoohaya, panthiya, kulaya, raashiya
    classical physics, as in: classical physics, classical mechanics. the translation "sambhaavee", "sambhaavya" etc., suggest "respectable", and is, in our view not suitable. "prathamavargeeya", or "klaasica" may also be used. chiraagatha bhauthikaya, chiraagatha yaanthranaya, chitaagatha yaanthrikaya
    Clean room This is a highly purified room or laboratory, similar to a hospital operating theater in some sense, but even more highly controlled, and used for micro-fabrication of computer components Shuddaa-gaaraya
    • double-click
      e.g., cursor is positioned to a menu item and "clicked". Do not use "clik-karanna". The Sanskrit-Pali form "Klesha" gets softened in sinhala to "keles". A suitable rendering in sinhala for the phrase
      "click on the second box on the menu" would be:
      Menuve deveni kotuve kiLanna"
    • .g. apply a "double click" on the left menu, may be rendered as Debidi kilikayak vam menuvata yodanna.
      kiLikanna (verb), kiLIkkaya (noun)
    • Debidi kilikaya
    Borrowed from biology, and means an identical copy of the original.Examples: (1)a computer made by a party other than the parent company, such as PC clones or Macintosh clones. (2)copy of a code or a data base. Its is derived from the Greek work κλών meaning "branch". But translation with that sense would not convey the modern meaning that we have some sort of "identical copy". We have adopted a modification of the sinhala word for "twin", Nivun. e.g., exact clone would be rendered as: "niyama nivuna". The works "prathiroopanaya", or "klona" may also be use, as in many Indian languages. Nivuna, klona
    nivinkaranaya, klonakranaya
    Cluster This could mean a number of sectors of the hard-disc grouped together. Or, it could be a cluster of CPUs all operating together to form a type of supercomputer (c.f., high-performance grid computing).We use the sinhala word "pokura", "pokuru" etc., for these cases Pokura
    CMOS Short for Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Here a p-type MOSFET is complemented with an n-type MOSFET. A MOSFET is short for "metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistor(FET). The CMOS part can be used as memory without transistor action. See MOSFET, Transistor etc for their sinhala forms. Anupooraka Looha-oxide ardha-san(g)nayanakaya.
    Code this has the same meaning as program, and is a a set of instructions to a computer. This word has also been rendered as "Kootha" or "Ko~tha". ketuma, Viddha-ketuma,
    Kootha, කෝත
    coefficient e.g., the coefficient of expamsion, i.e., prasaarana sangunakaya sangunakaya
    Coherence, e.g., in quantum coherance
    two waves are in "coherence" if they maintain their phase relations over a given period of time. Entanglement in QM is destroyed be de-coherence. If "phase" is translated as "sthithiya", then coherence can be translated as "samsthithiya". If "kalaava" or "sangathiya" is used for phase, we use "samkalaava" or susangathiya for coherence samsthithiya, samkalaava, susangathiya
    asamsthitiya, asamkalaava, asangathiya
    • color
    • colour consservation
    • A quantum particle may have special characteristics, designated by quantum numbers associated with its "colour" and "flavour". See "chromodynamics", and "dynamics"
    • When such particles interact, the colour quantum number remains unchanged
    • varnaya
    • varna sangrakshanaya
    commutation relations
    two operations do not commute if the order of operations matter. For example, putting a sock before putting the shoe has different effect from putting the shoe before the sock. The two operations do NOT commute. In quantum mechanics, operations are represented by mathematical operators like differentiation (d/dx) convolution etc; even the operation of finding an object at the location x is represented by the operator x. Given any arbitrary state (represented by some mathematical function f(x), the actions x d/dx f(x), i.e., d/dx acting on f(x) first gives a different result from d/x x acting on f(x). The difference, indicated by [x, d/dx]f(x) = [x d/dx-d/dx x]f(x) is known as the commutator of the two operators. If the plus sign is used, i.e., [x d/dx + d/dx x] f(x) is called the anti-commutator. the non-commutation of the momentum operator and the position operator is the source of the Heisenbeg uncertainty principles. piri-pavasuva
    pari-pavasu sambandhathaa
    Commutator, electric
    a device used to reverse the direction of an electric current dishaa-parivarthakaya
    Command prompt When the computer is ready to accept commands (i.e, in a DOS shell or in a Unix or Linux environment), a symbol (e.g, a triangular arrow head) shows that the computer is ready to accept commands. This is not seen in "point-and-clik" usage of computers, as in windows and other menu-driven interfaces. Vidhaana illuma

    Vi dd na, i l lu ma, (e2s map)
    Compact Flash (CF),
    This is a type of "FLASH memory", more common in cameras, PDAs etc. Sanghana kshanikaya,
    Sanghana kshanika Daegaeba (දෑ ගැබ)
    • Community portal
    • community service
      This is usually a closely knit group of people, or organisms.
    • A university campus webpag would have a COMMUNITY PORTAL to bring together local information, offer services like email and discussion forums, etc to the campus community.
    • This can have an IT meaning, or the ordinary meaning of social service within the community.
    • Prajana dorakada
    • pra-jana se~vaya (e2s map)
    Column A matrix is made up of rows and COLUMNS of numbers, The word "Theera", or strips does not connote the orthogonality of rows and columns. Kuluna
    Compile, compiler In this process the COMPILER converts the instructions given in the code (program) written in a high-level language (e.g., C++ or Fortran) into machine language, linking libraries and other applications and utilities. This is analogous to a "translation", but also different. So we sue the word "San(g)varthanaya", analogous to "parivarthanaya" to denote "compile", compilation etc in sinhala San(g)varthanaya, san(g)varthakaya
    Complementary This is something which helps to complete or balances another part. Thus p-doped materials are COMPLEMENTARY to n-doped materials in a C-MOS structure. Anupooraka
    • Computer
    • quantum computer
    • This is a machine with memory, and capable of executing a set of instructions, given as a configuration of bits , to process input data and output results.
    • A quantum computer CPU uses Qbits instead of bits. Currently there are only very rudimentary quantum computers, as physics research projects.
    • Pari-ganakaya
    • Kwantam-pariganakaya
    Conform e.g, as in, to CONFORM to a protocol will use "pilipadeema",
    conform to a template may use "prihadeema as well.
    Pilipaedeema, Pirihadeema
    Conformation e.g., as in " conformation of the dye molecules can be important for the optical response". The "protein folding" problem attempts to predict the protein conformation in its energy landscape. Pirihadhiya, පිරිහැදිය
    PILIHADIYA, පිලි හැදිය
    Configuration e.g., as in "the device configuration is decided by the specific hardware and software to be used". Parimukhaya, pilimuhuna
    Connection e.g., as in Internet connection firewall (ICF) Sambandhanaya
  • conservation
  • conservation of mass and energy
    • some physical properties remain unchanged under interactions and transformations.
    • mass and energy are separately conserved (approximately) in low energy processes. At high energy, and at all energies, it is the total (both mass and energy) which is strictly conserved, since energy amd mass can be inter-converted.
    • sangrakshanaya
    • sambbaraya saha shakthiya sangrakshanaya.
    • contact resistance
    • quantum point contact (QPC)
      A contact is made to a semiconductor using a silver, gold, Al or some such metal deposited on it.We use "sangsparssha" as the sinhala word, noting the meaning of its its Pali/Sanskrit sources.
    • The contact resitance is the resitance across the contact, i.e., in going from the bulk region of the metal wire to the semiconductor.
    • In nanostructures, the contact region may be so narrow that the current flow has to occur through quantum energy levels known as subbands.
    • Sangsparsha prathiro~ddyaya
    • Kwntum-lakshya Sangsparsha
    Context, contextual e.g., as in contextual menu. The word applies more generally than to "text" material, and hence we have used a general "Aaashrika" stem. Pariaashraya, pariaasarika
    parisikaya, parisrikaya (e2s map)
    contour e.g., as in an integration contour, or a contour on a map or graphic connecting places of equal altitude. san(g)vakraya
    Control Panel This allows the user to modify the system settings, display, keyboard mouse settings etc. Paalaka Thalaya
    Cookie, cookies reference-file data sent to your computer by a webserver. Then, when you visit the site, the site will load certain pages according to the information obtained from the cookie. The sinhala word "Kokis" is already derived from "Cookies". Kokis
    • current copy
    • old copy, older copy oldest copy
    • new copy, newer copy, newest copy
      e.g., copy of a file, or an application
    • "Current" copy here means the version valid at this instant. Translating it as "Kaleena (කාලීන) is not quite correct, as the word "Kaleena" means "in time", or "contemporary". It may perhaps be used, but we prefer "unukaala", where "unu" implies "just born" or even the colloquial "hot". See also under current
    • see also under "version"
    • unukaala (උනුකාල) kopiya
    • parana kopiya, paranatha kopiya, paranama kopiya
    • nava kopiya, navatha kopiya, navama kopiya
    CPU This short for "Central Processing Unit", or the "processor". Here "central" means "central to everything, or "moolika". However, to remain consistent we use the form "Keendrika" for "central". Keendrika kriyaa-varthaka aekkaya කේන්ද්රික ක්රියා වර්තක එ්කකය
    Cron is short for "cron job", process mostly utilized on unix and Linux systems, based on a timing process. Thus it may send an e-mail once a week, or do backups on a set time. Kron
    • current copy
    • current events
    • current version
      "Current" means "at this instant", it also implies a flow. Translating it as "Kaleena (කාලීන) is not quite correct, as the word "Kaleena" strictly means "in time", or "contemporary". It may perhaps be used, but we prefer "unukala", උනුකාල, where "unu" implies "just born" (unana lada) or even the colloquial use of it as "hot" (unu-unu pravurthi). See also under current
    • see also under "version"
      unukala, varthamaana, valangu, prasara
    • unukala (උනුකාල) kopiya
    • unukala siddi, unukaala siduveem
    • unukala paesma, unukaala pravaachaya
    Cursor The cursor is usually linked to the mouse and indicates (with an arrow or some such pointer), the active point on your screen. For example, it is where the next character may be typed in. It is derived from the Latin word "runner", c.f., "courier" in French. We use the fact that the cursor is like a pointer, i.e., "dhaavana-thuda" or "daathuda" ito render its sinhala form. ddthuDa, dthuDa, දාතුඩ
    Cyber NOrbet Wiener and other pioneer scientists used the word Cybernetics (from the Greek Kybernets - steersman who controls and guides the boat) for the science of information control. The adjective "cyber" was simply taken and attached to all sorts of objects associated with the Internet, and today it is applied to any aspect of the "virtual world" that you can access via a computer. It is actually NOT a part of scientific scientific to attach cyber- to any word and use it. Only accepted scientific word is "cybernetics". For loose usage, we can conveneitly take over the same word into sinhala. Cyber,

    sa yi ba r (e2s map)
    Loosely,the virtual world accessible via the net Cyber-lokaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    damping A signal, or energy flowing in a transmission line, or stored in a given state of a chip will degrade with time. This is called "damping", or attenuation. See write up under "spectral width" dubalanaya
    damping factor This is a measure of the rate of damping of an excitation or signal. Its inverse is the "lifetime" of the signal (actually, a half-life). This is rendered as "dubalanaya+an(g)kaya". If the energy of the state or mode is known it is the imaginary part of the complex energy. dubalana(g)kaya
    Data Data is that which is known, ie., "Daththa" sinhala
    also, that which is given, "Donee in Fr., and "Dun Dae" in Sinhala
    Daththa දත්ත,
    "Dae (දෑ)"
    Database This is data or information stored in ana organized way. Because it is organized, we use the form "sa(g)-moolyaya for base. Compare also German. "Sammlung" or Zuzamenfassung. Daththa san(g)moolaya,
    දෑ සමුලුව
    Data memory a storage for data (දෑ) Daegaeba දෑගැබ
    Debug, debugging Removing the bugs (errors) in a computer code is called debugging. The sentence
    "This program has been debugged" may be translated to sinhala as
    Me vidha-kaetumé gullo galava aetha.
    gullo gaelaveema
    debugger this a code-application which helps to debug programs gulusodakaya
    Default This is the value or state taken up by a setting in the computer if you do not specifically set it, or it is its previous pre-set value, or "factory setting". The specifically set value is the "niyama agaya" or "thath-niyaamaya", and the default is the "pera-niyaamya" pera-niyama
  • depletion
  • depletion layer
  • mineral depletion
    • reduction in availability or density
    • A depletion layer, i.e, a region where the number of electrons is depleted, is formed when the gate voltage applied to a channel in a transistor is negatively biased.
    • excessive mining leads to ore depletion
    • oonapadanaya
    • oonapaaditha paththama
    • kkanija oonapaadanaya
    DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration protocol. For example, a server running a network uses this procedure to dynamically assign IP addresses to other computers on the network.protocol. "Dynamic"is rendered here, for these processes as "gaameeya", while static processes would be "nigaameeya", The "server", modifies the configuration of the host machine dynamically. The host is rendered as "parigruhu", from the stem "gruhaya". Gaameeya parigruhi san(g)vyuha Prathikaarakaya
    Decode, decoding Decoding is the process of extracting a message which is in a signal but not directly readable as it is encoded. See code, coding, encoding, program, and algorithm for explanation of the choice of the word "aketuma" for coding in sinhala. "heli-kaetuma" is to reveal or "heli-kireema" heli-kaetuma
    • Definition
    • define
    • definite
    e.g., The "definition" of a word or concept helps to demarcate it so that everyone can be sure that they are discussing the same "thing". In many subjects, including in mathematics, concepts are defined by sets of rules that tell you how to use a concept or word.
    For example, "We define" numbers as anything that obeys the rules of arithmetic" → "(Api sankhyaavaka yanu a(g)nka ganithayehi neethi valata yatath vana oinaema raashiyak yayi nirvachana dhemu)". අපි සංඛ්යාවක් යනු අංක ගනිත යෙහි නීති වලට යටත් වන ඕනෑම රාශියක් යයි නිර්වචන දෙමු
    Aelian de Silva has suggested "divithaeruma". However, this has not come into common use.
    • nirvachanaya නිර්වචනය
    • nirvachana deema, nirdishta kireema etc.
    • nirdhista
    demodulation A carrier wave sent by wireless or via cable is modulated with the signal. This has to be extracted from the signal by a process called de-modulation, and is done by the "modem" (see write up). Demodulation restores the signal and we render it into sinhala as "yathaakaranaya" yathaakaranaya
    Density Functional Theory (DFT) This is the most successful first-principles quantum approach to materials simulations in nanotechnology, atomic physics etc, and in doing fully quantum calculations of macroscopic systems. Ghanathva srithika Vaadaya
    ඝනත්ව ශ්‍රිතික වාදය
    deposition e.g, deposition of Si on a SiO2 substrate. See also MBE, CVD adhipaththanaya
    • Determinism
    • Theory of determinism
    • deterministic processes
    If causality is rigorously valid, the future is perfectly predictable, and we have pure determinism. "niyaatha vadhaya sathYak nam anaagatahya niyamitha vee aetha". See "indeterminacy principle."
    • Niyaatha bhaavaya, Niyaathathvaya
    • Niyaatha vdaya
    • niyth kriyaavali
    Device This is any "gadget" (hardware) or "application"(software) which has been designed to execute a certain process to achieve an objective. A camera is a "photographic device". Upaa-kramikaya, Upaangaya
    Dialogue e.g., as in Dialog Box San(g)vaada kotuva
    සංවාද කොටු‍ව
    Directory The file system is broken into directories., e.g., C-Dir Koshaya කේෂය, C-Kos
    Digital this a representation using numbers, i.e., in jumps, (digital clock) rather than a continuous way which is an "analogue" representation (clocks hand). An(g)kitha
    Document any component of a file. A file will be called a "gonuva", a directory is a "koshya" Lipiya
    Diode A device having two electrodes, e.g., used for rectification Dvi-agraya
    double-click e.g. apply a "double click" on the left menu, may be rendered as Debidi kilikayak vam menuvata yodanna. Debidi kilikaya
    drain, the carriers flowing into a devices from the source, exit by the terminal known as the DRAIN. See "source", or aavitha niravitha
    Drive e.g., as in tape drive. We use a sinhala form derived from "bramanaya". bramaya
    Driver This is a program that interacts with a device (e.g., a printer) via an application. It has been translated as "Dhavakaya", but this may not be too good. bramakya, dhaavakaya,ධාවකය
    Dual, dual-time e.g., dual-time Green functions, two-time Green functions, dual control, etc Dthvithva, dvithva-kaalika Green sritha, dvi-kaalika Green srihta, dvipaalaka,dvyiDha
    Dynamic active process, time evolving process Gammeeya
  • dynamics
  • classical dynamics
  • chromo-dynamics
  • dynamical laws
  • dynamical map
  • electrodynamics
    • the motion of an object, or, also, the science of such motion.
    • dynamics which does not use quantum mechanics.
    • dynamics which takes account of colour, flavors, and strangeness etc of particles, i.e., an extended form of quantum field theory.
    • laws of dynamics, e.g, those of Newton, or Heisenberg.
    • dynamics of charged particles and the electromagnetic field
    • gamanaya, gmana vdiyva
    • chiragatha gamanaya
    • vivarna gamanaya
    • gaamana niytha.
    • gaamana mApanaya
    • vidyuth-gmanaya, vidugmanaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    e2s map A method of writing sinhala using the english keyboard. see details "e2s-map" kiyanne sinhala vachana ingrisi yathuru puvaruva paavichchi kara liveemaya. Mehidee shabdayak dig kireema sandaha raeli-ira (~) sangke~thaya paavichchi karamu.
    Editor e.g., as in "there are many types of EDITORs used in computer applications for editing text, graphics material etc". Notepad, Word, wordperfect etc., are well known, while VI and nedit are known to experts, and to Unix, Linux users. Sangskaaraka, Saekasuva
    Effective- The EFFECTIVE electric field inside a semiconductor is usually much smaller than in free space due to its high dielectric constant. kriymika-
    Eigen as in eigen-state, eigenfunction etc. The word is German, and means the "proper" object, what ever it is applied to. "Yatha", yath
    Eigenstate Any system exists in a variety of states. If there are two states, they are usually denoted by 0 and 1. However, their physical state is described in quantum physics by "eigenstates" or modes which have to be determined from quantum mechanics, by diagonalizing the system Hamiltonian. These "modes" are known as eigenstates. yathathva, yathaatathva
    Eigenmodes Same as eigenstates, but used more typically in discussing microwave modes, acoustic vibrational modes, or energy levels etc. Yathpattha, yathmattam
    Eigenvalue, eigenvalues This name comes from mathematics. In physics and IT applications the eigenvalues are the energies of the various states of the system, i.e, eigenenergies. Yath-agaya, Yatha-agaya
    eject, ejection {see also projection etc] e.g., the ink is ejected from inkjets under the command of the computer. The opposite of "ejection" is "injection". pitu-se~panaya, pitu-prakshe~panaya
    Element e.g., as used in "the diodes are introduced as elements in a display array". The word element has been rendered as "san(g)ghataka", in some glossaries and it may be used here. However, normally, the suffix "san(g)" indicates "complexifying", where as we need to render the sense that elements are simpler units. We recommend the simpler from moolanga Moolanga
    Mo~langa   (e2s map)
    • electrode
    • electrodynamics
    • electromagnetic (field)
    • Electronics
    • reference electrode
    • reference-standard electrode
    • This is a contact or terminal which brings carriers to a device or battery
    • science of the motion of charge particles and fields.
    • the energy field associated with flowing currents and magnets.
    • this is an electrode whose potential is used as the reference value. These are prepared according to a set receipe. Al/AgCl electrodes, or "glass electrodes" are commonly used in electro-technology.
    • Vidyuth-agraya, vidugraya
    • vidyuth gaamanaya, vdugmanaya
    • vidyuth-chumbaka kshe~thraya, vidusum kshe~thraya
    • Vidyuth-theknaya, Vidutheknaya   (see spintronics)
    • sammmatha vidugraya
    • sammuthi vidugraya
    e-mail electronic-mail, Fr. "courier-electronic" shortened to couriel. In sinhala we use "Vidyuth-panipuda", "Vidyuth-lipi" etc., shortened to "V-lipi", "v-panivuda", "v-taepal" etc. as well as e-lipi. vee-taepal",
    vee-lipi, වී-ලිපි,   e-lipi, e-ලිපි
    • empirical
    • non-empirical
    • esoteric
    "daththamoolka, anubhaavika, praayogika, praayogaasritha and prathyaksha ප්‍රත්යක්ෂ " are words found in the current literature. We suggest the use "prathyaksha" (e.g., empirical knowldge → prathyaksha dhAneema ප්‍රත්ත්‍යක්ෂ දැනීම or "dhaththYaksa" dhAnema, where the "akshya" means an "eye" on "practice" (prathya) or on "data" (daththa).

    Non-empirical knowledge would then be "nathyaksha gnana", while "esoteric knowledge" would be "gupthakshya gnanaya".
  • prathyaksha, ප්‍රත්ත්‍යක්ෂ or ප්‍රත්යක්ෂ
    daththYaksha, දත්ත්‍යක්ෂ
  • niththYaksha, නිත්ත්‍යක්ෂ
  • gupththyaksha, ගුප්ත්‍යක්ෂ
  • encode, encoding this is the process of setting up a sequence of symbols, (which stand for data, commands etc.,) when writing a program, modulating a signal etc. The process may have to be retrieved by decoding. See our rendering of the word "code", program, "algorithm", "modem" etc., into sinhala to understand our selection of words here. Thus "decoding" is "heli-kaeteema" san(g)-kaeteema
    • energy bands (see bandgap)
    • energy subbands
    • energy bandgaps
    • energy scales
    • energy landscape
    • When atoms are placed closed to each other as in a solid, their energy levels going up to form BANDS OF ENERGIES, and regions of energies where there no energy levels (these are band gaps).
    • If energy bands are confined within a nanostructure, e.g., a quantum well, each energy band breakups into discrete subbands.
    • The conduction band (which has negatively charged carriers) and the valance band (positively charged carriers) of a semiconductor are separated by an energygap called the bandgap. In si-MOSFETS this is around 1.1 eV. The word bandgap is also analogously applied to frequency separation in transmission bands. Note that energy E and frequency ν are connected by the quantum physics (plank law) law E=hν where h is the Plank constant.
    • energy scales of elementary particles are measured in GeV, while atomi c energy levels are of the order of eV, while molecular energies are in mili-eV or calories.
    • energy landscape is a concept used in physics based approaches to "natural selection" etc.
    • shakthi pati
    • shakthi upapati
    • pati hidaessa,
      පටි හිදැ ස්ස
    • shakhi maana
    • shkark paradhrushiya
    entanglement, entangled states see Cat Paradox, cat states, EPR paradox. These are modes or eigenstates formed by superposition of several pure states. They are relevant to quantum computers and quantum mechanics. Paetaleema, Paetaluna yathathva, patiloma yathathvaya
    පටිලෝම යතත්වය
    Enter The sentence "this data should be ENTERED as hexadecimal numbers, may be rendered into sinhala s "Mema daththa shad-dashaka san(g)kya lesa aagatha kala yuthuya". Aagatha
    Error Correction Code (ECC) the word "error" is used in, e.g., Error correction code. The state of a Parity bit, an extra binary value sent along with the data, is used to check if an error has occurred. WE use the word "Dosha", or "Dos" in this context. This is usually a hardware code. Error correcting codes are also theoretically important in realizing workable quantum computers dos sodhana vidhaa-kaetiya,
    දොස් සෝදන විධා කැටිය
    Encapsulated e.g., in Encapsulated Postscript (EPS). This is an image-file format which is an elaboration postscript. Postscript is the final data format accepted by printers. Thus "encapsulation" here implies that the postscript has been "boxed" to maintain its integrity in transferring files. Aavarthika
    Equation The name EQUATION is used in various text editors (e.g., Latex) to define an environment where complex mathematical equations are type in. Sameekaranaya
    Ethernet This is used in local-area networks (LAN). Ethernet connectors are like phone jacks (bit bigger), and connects to your computer and to the wall outlet carrying the LAN. This is trademark name. Eethenet ඊතනෙටි
    Encryption Encryption is a way of safeguarding information from unauthorized snoopers. Encryption is a process where a message is scrambled, and it has to be decoded with the correct "key" before it could be understood. We use the sinhala word "gupta" as the stem for this word. Gupthanaya, gupthakaranaya
    Epitaxy Atomically controlled customized materials can be grown using Molecular Beam EPITAXY methods. Note Sheevaraya, Cheevaraya or Seevaraya is layer.Epitaxy is a method of layer-growth of materials. Upa-paththanaya
    Etching In ETCHING an epilayer using chemical vapour, masks are used to obtain a controlled ETCH Vikhaadanaya
    Eukaryotes, eucaryotes Since 1957, biology, Greek Eu + karyon means Good + kernal, compares with Sanskrit Su +karkatak and we use the Sinhala form Sookarka. e.g., "Eukaryotic cells are single-cell organisms continuing a nucleus", is put in to Sinhala as " Sookark ko~sha yanu nyastiyak aethi e~ka ko~shika jeveen ya.(see prokarote = praakarka Sookarka,
    Exabibyte The exbibite is a short for exa-binary-byte and is exactly 260 = 10246 bytes. exa-dvi-Bad(h)vitha
    Exabyte, Exabibyte this is one billion-billon (quadrillion) bytes, or more exactly, 264 byte. That is roughly a billion giga- bytes. The exbibite is a short for exa-binary-byte and is exactly 260 bytes. exa-Bad(h)vitha, එක්ස බද්විත
    executive, executable these are command files or processes which can make the computer do things. see AIX Vidhaayakaya, Vidhaayaka
    expectation value most likely value, probable value, In quantum mechanics, expectation value of an operator O(x) is denoted by <(x)>, and refers to the mean value of the operation taken over many experimental realizations over the field x. In the formal definition, the bra-ket <...> implies over a suitable density matrix. The expectation value is the probable measured value of the operator evaluated at x apeikshita agaya, sambahvya agaya
    Extranet e.g., One may have an intranet, and an extranet hovering over a set selected users and linking to the internet. The internet is public, the intranet is usually limited to a site and a set of privileged users, while the extranet may connect several select sets of users. baahira daela
    Export, close In an IT application, (esp. with Abode) "export" is to close or "save" a file in a format different to the format natural to that application. Thus "exporting" is really reformatting the file. Similarly, before the import, the user had to "open" or import to another format. In WORD, GIMP and many such utilities "exporting" or "importing" is done by simply specifying the file extension desired. Prathiyaatha, Niryaatha
    Niryaathanaya, Parathiyaathanaya
    extension, (noun) see, file extension. here only the name is extended, as as add on. dheergkaya
    extension This is a true extension to the body of the file. dheerganaya
    extendable, extensible as in XML, "extendable markup language". Here it is the "ability" to be extended, that is being discussed. Hence "dheergika", "dheergana" etc are incorrect. It could be "dheergakaamee" or "dheergabandu", "dheera-gochara" etc. Digkaemi, දික්කැමි

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Fast e.g., as in Fast packet technology Pravega, ප්රවේග
    Feeder e.g., document feeder, supplier, sinhala word based on "saepayeema" saepayaavakaya
    • field-effect transistor
    • field-particle
    • field operator
    • field theory
      e.g, electric field, magnetic field, This is a continuum of energy or some specified physical property. This is represented by a mathematical function which depends on position and time, e.g., electric field E(x,y,z,t), where x,y,z,t are the three space positions, and t is the time instant.
    • see discussion under transistor
    • In the quantum theory, an excitation of a field is a particle. Thus photons are the field-particles of the electro-magnetic field.
    • This is a mathematical object, which, when acting on the mathematical function defining the field, creates an excitation, or annihilates an excitation.
    • field theory, is the method in theoretical physics for dealing with fields and their operators.
    • Kshe~thraya ක්ෂේත්‍රය
    • Kshe~thra-phala samplaakaya
    • Kshe~thra anshuva
    • Kshe~thra kaarakaya
    • Kshe~thra vaadaya
    (see e2s map)
    Femto, femto-second (fs) this is 10-15 seconds. femto-tathparaya, femto-paraya
    figures as occurring in the phrase: the accuracy of the calculation is only up to four significant figures, would become, in sinhala, "meme gananayehi thiunutaava vaed(th)agath ilakkan hatharak pamani". ilakkan
    File tis is a collection of documents. gonuva
    file extension e.g., a file name may be of the form file.doc, file.txt, file.tex, file.ppt, file.jpg, file.html, file.xml, file.kmz etc. gonu deehgakaya
    Firewall This is a computer code (application) which protects a computer or network from outside users who may be hackers, or sending files contaminated with viruses etc. Gini Vaetiya
    Fixed point e.g., fixed point arithmetic. Here the decimal point is held fixed by the computer, and the precision of the calculation is not related to a given number of significant digits. Achala-thith
    Flash e.g., a "flash of light" on a fluorescent screen is "aaloka flaishayak" flayishaya ෆ්ලයිෂය
    • flavour
    • flavour conservation
    • A quantum particle may have special characteristics, designated by quantum numbers associated with its "colour" and "flavour". See "chromodynamics", and "dynamics"
    • When such particles interact, the flavour quantum number remains unchanged
    • rasaya
    • rasa sangrakshanaya
    floating point e.g., floating-point arithmetic. Here the decimal point is moved (floated) to retain the same number of significant figures. chalana-tith
    FLOP floating-point operations/sec. A floating-point operation (i.e, e.g., moving the decimal point) per second is measure of a computers CPU speed for non-integer operations. tathparayata chalana-tith-karyya ganana
    folding e.g., the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shapes in its in vivo or media.
    a geological process that causes a bend in a stratum of rock
    the act of folding. "Akileema" is not quite what is needed here.
    vaalanya, sammijjanaya
    Format e.g., document format. The form "haeda gaenuma" means, to "take shape" and is not recommended. Aakruthiya, e.g., Lipi-aakruthiya
    font e.g., letter fonts pand(h)a,පන්ද
    Plural. pandu,පඳු
    e.g., Akshara pand(h)a,
    • freeware
    • freewill
    • free choice
    free here means unrestricted
  • freeware is a name applied to software where the source code is freely available for downloading. The word "nidahas" should nbot be used for the word "free" here. It means given "gratis", or donated (Indo-aryan source word "Dna").
  • freewill is the doctrine that humans and other sentient beings can influence their future by their own thoughts, or their "will", i.e., volition.
    • dnitha murduknga, daynga
    • nidael prakarmya
    • nidael chandaya
    function In mathematics a FUNCTION relates (maps) the variation in a set of variables to the value of the dependent variable. Srithaya
    function In C and other programming languages, FUNCTION is a procedure called into the code by the compiler, and is really a "function call", possibly to a mathematical function. In hardware there are actual physical FUNCTIONS performed by various utilities like printers. kiriyāvidhi
    Functional e.g., In Density Functional theory (DFT), it is shown that the physics of a quantum system can be expressed entirely as a FUNCTIONAL of the one-particle ground state density. A "functional" is roughly a function of a class of functions, and may be called a shrithkayak, shrithaa-shritiyak Shrithikaya, Srithaasrithaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    • gate voltage
    • gated structure
    • metalized gate
    • optical gate
      A gate is a barrier which can be controlled, and hence usually contains a metallic region connected to an external lead
    • voltage applied to the gate
    • The fabrication of the gate involves depositing metal on the semiconductor surface.
    • A gate controlled using light, rather than a bias voltage.
      kadulla, sorovva
    • kadulu volte~jaya
    • kadulu aethi kruthiya
    • lo~hitha kadulla
    • daesna kadulla
    Giga, Gigaabyte GB see also terabyte, mega etc., this is 230 which is effectively, 109. Giga-badh-dwithaya
    grand unified theory Theory of everything, or the single theory that replaces quantum mechanics and relativity. It is shortened to "GUT". unfortunately, "theory of everything" has been mistranslated as "podhu matha vaaadaya" where as it should be "sarava-vasthu vaadhaya" or something equivalent' to assert its over-encompassing character. "podhu" is not "common" or "all", but refer to some common denominator. sarva aekeekruth vaadhaya
    Graphics as in graphics portal Chitra, චිත්ර
    grid a grid, used in graphics, is made by drawing lines vertically and horizontally (or at selected angles) to form a Kris-cross pattern. We use "kotu-daela", as well as the less general rool-daela i.e., a net of lines, for "grid". Rooldaela is mostly for 2D-graphics applications and means "line-grid". kotudaela කොටු-දැල
    rooldaela රුල්දැල
    GUT Theory of everything, or the single theory that replaces quantum mechanics and relativity. It is shortened to "GUT" sarva aeheekruth vaadhaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    • Hadrons
    • Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
    • The most fundamental objects in nature are minute "string" which reveal themselves by their vibrations (excitations). These excitations are the "elementary particles" of nature. A special type of excitations, known as quarks, only occur in groups, bound together. Such bound states of particles are called Hadrons. Mesons and Baryons are two such types of elementary particles. In sinhala we use Drudaanu or, more formally, Hadranu.
    • The LHC is a large particle accelerator, an international facility, set up in Geneva, for creating very energetic beams of hadrons (e.g., protons) which are made to collide each other. The fragments from these collisions would enable us to detect so far undetected fundamental blocks of nature, like the Higgs particle, and check out competing theories of basic physics. As high-energy is also relevant to the questions of the origin of our specific universe, these experiments are important for cosmology as well. Also, these experiments, being at the cutting edge of technology, push technology forward in very fruitful and unexpected ways. The investment in these experiments is only a fraction of the money used by mankind for, say, the Iraq war, but the technological windfalls are literally incalculable.
    • Hadranu, Drudaanu
    • Mahaa Drudaanu Sanghattakaya
    Hardware hardware is the name given to the physical electronic and mechanical parts of a computer, and distinguishes it from software which defines the stored information and how that is processed etc. Drudaaanga, Daedia(n)ga
    • helicity
    • helicity number, winding number
    • helical
    • helix, double helix
    • helicity, like chirality, is a measure of "handedness", and is found in fundamental particles like neutrenos, or photons
    • This is a quantum number defining the amount of helicity. The winding number is more often used in topology, and in the theory of particles in magnetic fields.
    • helical structures are found in nature.
    • A structure wound to have a given handedness. Thus the double helix of DNA contains two helices wound together and held in place by hydrogen bonds.
    • huruva
    • huruv angkaya, ethum angkaya
    • hurookra
    • hurulla, dvithva hurulla
    heterostructure A semiconductor device whose behaviour depends on the existence of two or more different layers of materials is known as a hetero-structure. Thus GaAs and AlAs layers are used in some heterostructures. visama-aakruthiya
    Hexadecimal e.g., The Unicode chart gives the HEXADECIMAL values of the alphabet symbols. Shad-dashaka
    Host A "host" is any computer which can access other computers, and hosts a website webserver. A host can also be the firm or company which provides the device ie.e., hosting parigruhi
    hyperlink A HYPERLINK in a text enables the reader to go to another document by a mere click of the mouse. Adhi-bandhaya, adhi-aaenduma
    Hypertext see below adhi-likhithya
    Hyper Text Markup Language HTML This is the text language used to write web pages etc. It is called hypertext as it enables the text to embed links to other sites on the internet, and it contains "markup" tags which deal with the special links etc. Adhi-likhitha san(g)lakshitha baashaava
    Ad(h)ilikitha saelsum-yuth basa
    අධි-ලිඛිත සැලැසුමි යුත් බස
    Hypothesis a proposed "partially developed" idea which seems attractive but requires further support before becoming a mainstream theory. maanyaya, manaskalpaya, hithaluva

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    ID Identity Anyonyathava, svyangthaava, svaakaaraya
    ID management In computer systems, ID management involves software for password issuing, reset, verification, login protocol etc. Anyonyatha kalamanaava
    Idiom An "idiom" is a written or spoken specific "usage", adapted for that culture and language.
    Pandit A. M. Gunawardena (Comprehensive Grammar of the Sinhalese Language, published in 1891 by G. J. A. Skeen, Cey. Govt. Printer, and reprinted 1999 by Asia Educational Services, Delhi) gave the term "Bhashaa reethiya" in section 353 of his book as the Sinhala equivalant of "Idiom".
    Terms like WAK VIPRALAPA or WACHANAYEN KARANA VIPRALAPAYA are found in some dictionaries, and are, in out view, very unsatisfactory.
    Huru Vaekiya, Huru Vadhan, Huru Yedum
    හුරු වැකිය, හුරු වදන්
    හුරු යෙදුම්
    Idiosyncratic special characteristics indicative of a person's, or organism's strong sense of identity or wish to impose himself/herself. "thadhaathmaka", i.e., strong "aathma". thadhaathmaka, තදාත්මක
    Import, open In an IT application, (esp. with Abode) "import" is to open a file in a format different to the format natural to that application. Thus "importing" is really reformatting the file. Similarly, after the import, the user can "save" or "close" the file and "export" to another format. In word, gimp and many such utilities "exporting" or "importing" is done by simply specifying the file extension desired. Aayaatha, aayaathanaya
    Information information is conveyed in coded form, and processed by computers, brains (biological computer) etc. Information consists of ordered sequences of numbers, while no-information (noise, entropy) is made up of disordered sets of numbers. We use the normal sinhala word "pravurthi" while keeping in mind that the meaning in science and information technology is very precise, measurable and capable of quantitative definitions. See also entries under byte, bit pravurthi
    injection [see also projection, ejection] e.g, as in "an injection ID chip", also called an "injectable ID chip", see below. This is a bio-chip transponder that can be injected into an animal for identification. The world i.e., "aethula" is used to indicated projection inwards in the suffix "Aaa". Aa-kshepanaya, Aasepanaya
    injectable ID chip see entry under "injection" Aa-saepiya-haeki anyonyatha peththa,
    Aa-kshepana-sheela anyonyatha peththa
    Inkjet printers see discussion under jet thudu-naalaka mudrnaanga
    Insert one may INSERT txt into an image. "Aethul kereema" would be colloquially goo enough. Aaasiddha kereema, Aaasiddhanaya
    Insulator Opposite of a conductor. materials which keep charges localized. Rubber is a good insulator. "Asangnyaka" is non-conductor. To specifically say "insulator", we prefer "nisnadhikaya" Asangnyakaya, nisnadhikaya

    A sa ng n ya ka ya, ni sa ng ddi ka ya, (e2s map)
    Interactive e.g., as in advanced interactive executable (AIX) antharkareeya

    A n tha ra k ree ya,   (e2s map)
    interface e.g., application-program interface (API) Athurumuhuna, (antharmukha)
    Internet The internet was created in 1969 partly by military computer scientists, within the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and was known as the arpnet. IBM developed the BITNET. Today it is a public utility and has grown now into a massive network of computers and interconnections, using public telecommunication networks. Its technical power is associated with the use transmission protocols (TCP/IP) which are described in this glossary under those words. The world wide web is a part of the internet and not to be equated with the internet itself. The sinhala word "athura", that is rope bridges which connect, e.g., coconut trees which are tapped, truly represents the concept of "connectivity" inherent in the internet. Anthar-jaalaya, athuru-daela
    Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) mostly on windows XP systems Athuru-dael sambandhana giniwaetiya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    jargon e.g., as in computer jargon Vippalaapa
    Jet e.g., as in "Ink-jets are used in some printers. Ink-jet printers are cheaper than laser printers". A jet is usually a conical tube with a very thin orifice thudu-nalaya (Noun)
    thudu-naalaka (adjective)
    Justification, justify e.g., as in"the text has to be right justified for this presentation", would be Me paridaekkkuma sandaha likhithaya dakunata sanhituveema avashyayai san(g)hituva, san(g)hitavanna

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Byte Kilobyte KB, 1024 bytes, also kbyte, see also terabyte etc. Kilo-bad(h)dwitha
    Knol, Google Knol Knol, according to Google, is a "unit of knowledge". KNol is also an online encyclopedia similar to Wikipedia, but in development by Google and honouring authorship.. G(n)anuva
      Key, keyboard
    • escape
    • F-keys, control keys
    • exclamation key
    • tilda
    • ' left single quote, right single quote '
    • # or number symbol
    • @ or st sign
    • % or percentage symbol
    • ^ or caret sign
    • * star
    • (,) brackets, parenthesis
    • _ underscore
    • - short dash, hyphen, minus sign
    • + plus sign, = equals sign
    • {,[,],} curly and square brackets
    • | verticla bar
    • \ back-slash or oblique bar
    • / forward-slash or division bar
    • comma and fullstop (period)
    • semi-colan ; and colan :
    • greater than > and less than <
    • <| bra, |> ket
    the word "yathura", yathuru puvarava etc have got established in sinhala
      yathura, Yathuru puvaruva
    • Esc   gaelavum yathura
    • F-yathuru, paalaka yathuru
    • ! Vishmaya lakuna
    • ~  raeli-ira
    • ' vam viraamaya, dakunu viraamaya '
    • # angka yathura, angka lakuna
    • @ shthaana yathura
    • % prathishatha yathura
    • ^ udukona yathura
    • * tharuva
    • ( ) varahan
    • _ yati-ira
    • - keti-ira, rina lakuna
    • + dhana lakuna, = samaana lakuna
    • { } raeli varahan, [ ] kotu varahan
    • | lambaya
    • \ piTi-aelaya
    • / pera-aelaya,   bedum-ira
    • comaava, naevathuma lakuna, thitha
    • thith-comaava ; dethitha :
    • > adhikaya, "<" oonaya.
    • <| bra, |> ket
    keylogger, keystroke log e.g., as in computer programs used in spyware. The keylogger records each keystroke and transmits them periodically to the remote spy. There is also hardware that can be fixed between the keyboard and the computer to store the key strokes. yathuru-vaedum-vaarthaakaraya, yathuru-vaedum vaarthaava.
    Kilo, Kilobyte KB see also terabyte, mega etc., this is 210 which is effectively, 103. Kilo-badh-dwithaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    landscape e.g., in "energy landscape" paradhrushiya
    • epilayer
    • capping layer
    • substrate layer
    The epitaxial LAYER in a naonostructure is generally under strain. See also "deposition"
      paththama, paTTama, thaTTuva, stharaya
    • adhi-paththama, adhistharaya
    • siras paththama, sirastharaya
    • yatithala paththama, yatipaththama, yatistharaya
    Layout The LAYOUT for the document is part of the formatting template. Saelasuma, pasaarathiya
    Length scale, length scales
    micro scales, macro scales
    There are different length scales (energy scales, time scales) used in physics. e.g., "nano scale", micro-scale or macro-scale dhugu maanaya, dhigu maana.
    kshudra maana, maheisha maana, or paThula maana
    Line e.g., in digital subscriber line (DSL) Vaela, වැල
    Line grid See discussion under "grid". rooldaela රුල්දැල
    linear e.g., linear relation exists between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas at constant volume. Other examples: "linear array", "linear function →: "reiKika shrithaya" E~kaja, ඒකජ
    reiiKika, රේඛික
    Link a data connection Bandhaya
    LAN Local area network, e.g., limited to an office complex. The word "che~ra" can also be used instead of "pradesha" Sameepa pedēs daela, Sameepa pradesha jaalaya

    Sameepa pede~sa dae la, sameepa prade~sha jlaya  (e2s map)
    Linuk An operating system based on the Unix concept and introduced in 1991 by Linus Torvalds of Sweden. This is an example of the success of "open-source" systems. Torvalds used part of his name and the name "Unix" (යූනික්ස්) to make the word "Linux", pronounced by Torvals as "Linooks" (ලිනූක්ස් ). However, Americans pronounce it as "LinAx" (ලිනක්ස්), and there are others who pronounce it as "Lainax" (ලයිනක්ස්.). In Sri Lanka, University acdemics like V.K. Samaranayake used to say "Linooks", while business customers and those influenced by the US tend to say "LinAx". It has many advantages over Windows operating system, especially for scientific work, web hosting and code development. ලිනූක්ස් මෙහෙයුම් පද්ධතිය
    Linooks meheyum Paddhathiya.
    • lipid
    • Lipid layer, lipid bilayer
    • Lipids are "substance made of fats". Greek "Lipo" is related to the sanskrit "(p)livo".
    • Lipida stharaya, lipida dvistharaya
    Lipida, ලිපිඩ
    Liposome Liposome, a word made up from the Grk. Lipo +some i.e.,'Oily+ body' refers to vesicles, i.e., bubbles containing a fatty outer layer and an inner watery region. 'Lipo' is related to the Sanskrit form "Plavo", or "Lavo. Thus we have reason to use the "lipo" form in sinhala with essentially the same meaning. Liposomaya
    Localization Localization of a free particle is determined by its de Broglie wavelength is written as "Nidaes anshuvaka sampattanaya ehi de Broglie tharanga aapthyen theeranaya vei". The word "pattana" is used in Skrt., Pali, to indicate a region of domiciliation. c.g., "patuna, pathana". Sampaththanaya සම්පත්තනය
    • upload
    • download
    • reload
    • overload
      This is used with respect to transfer of files, or items etc, from a computer or device. It is also used to adding a load, i.e., charging up a capacitor.
    • upload a file
    • download an application
    • reload the disc
    • ro~panaya
    • avaro~hanaya
    • punaro~hanaya
    • adhiro~hanaya
    (e2s map)
    log the log is, for example, the record of who logged in, who logged out etc. It could also be a record of all the keystrokes done by a person who has logged on. The "weblog" of the conversation while logged on is now used in another sense, shortened to "blog". Prevesha-varthaava, Pavasivaliya
    Login this is to initiate a session on a computer or a network, and this may require typing in a username and a password. parveshaya, pivisuma
    Logout signing off a computer or net work- samoo gaeneema. The word "nishkramanaya" has also been used, but is some what heavy. pirisamoova, pinisamoova, Nishkramanaya

    pi ri sa mo~ va, pi ni sa mo~ va, ni sh k ra ma na ya
    (e2s map)

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Macro e.g., as used in " a whole set of simple keyboard commands can be replaced by a macro which can be stored in the F-keys of the keyboard". But the word "macro" is also used in other senses, and the general is is that a "macro is a larger composite of simpler units. Note that "sookoothya" has also been suggested, specifically based on "koothe" for "code". Mahakaaya
    Macro e.g., as used in "macroscopic length scales", mahesha dhigumaana.
    macroscopic physics, mahesha bhauthikaya.
    • map, mapping
    • one to one map
    • character map
    • This is a way of relating one set of objects to the members of another set. The word is used in software as well as in mathematics and physics. The geographic map is also a representation of the land on a sheet of paper or a display.
    • each decimal number is uniquely represented by a binary number, giving a one to one map.
    • Each character in English may be represented by a binary number, mapping the characters.
    • mApinaya, prkshe~panaya මැපිනය, ප්‍රක්ෂේපනය
    • ekata-eka mApinaya
    • chaaroopa mApinaya
    markup as in "hypertext markup language", HTML. The markups are the tags in HTML used for setting up links, embedding graphics etc. See hypertext, HTML, XML San(g)laxshana, saelakum
    • massive
    • mass-less
    • effective-mass
      The mass is the 'amount" of substance and has been translated commonly as "skandhaya". However, mass itself is related to "mansha", or meat, i.e., "mass", and we suggest that this too should be considered.
    • The w-Boson, Z-Boson and the Higgs Boson are massive particles
    • the photon is a massless boson
    • An electron in the free state, with mas m, becomes a quasi-particle when placed in a semi-conductor, where it has an effective mass m*. In Si-nanostructures, m* is approximately 0.1 of the free mass.
      Note that the elementary particles have a "mass spectrum", in that they have different rest masses even if they have the same energy. That is E=mc2 should not be naively invoked to claim that energy and mass do not appear as two distinct characteristics of matter.
      Maansha, Massa, Skandhaya
    • Maanshika, Mas-aethi, Skandhaya sahitha
    • Maansha-rahitha etc.
    • kriymika-masa
    memory The memory in a computer is a storage place for data and commands which are also in digital form. see data memory. daegaeba,
    දෑ ගැබ
    memory, cache cache is from the French caché daegaeba, rahas
    memory stick e.g., IBM memory-stick for transferring info from the computer to the memory stick via a USB port daegaeb koora දෑගැබ් කෝර
    memory card used in video devices like cameras daegaeb kolaya
    memory, virtual e.g., a computer may dynamically adjust the memory available to a user by providing him a virtual memory allocation. niman daegaeba
    menu e.g., in "pull-down menu". This is usually a list of available applications that one may "click on" to activate. Sinhala already has borrowed words, "Laisthuva" from Lista (Portuguese), and "Vattoruva". The word menu has been borrowed into English from the French. The sinhala word "menna", which signifies "what is here", can indeed justify our using "menuva" for "menu" Menuva
    Megabyte MB That is, a million bytes, 220, or ~106 MB mega-Bad(h)vitha, මෙග බද්විත
    Megaflop A million FLOPs (floating-point operations/sec)., i.e., 106 FLPs. A floating-point operation (i.e, moving the decimal point) per second is measure of a computers CPU speed. tathparayata chalana-tith-kaaryya megaya.
    Message e.g., as in "text message:. panivudaya
    messaging e.g., "as in text messaging" Paniveedanaya, පනිවේදනය
    Merge PDF files can be MERGED using GSview freeware. Ekgonuva, Ekgonu kereema, Ekkreema
    micro, micro-second (μ-s) this is 10-6 seconds. micro-tathparaya, mayikroparaya
    milli, e.g., milli-second (ms) this is 10-3 seconds. A microsecond is one thousand of a milli-second, i.e., 10-6 sec. mili-tathparaya, mili-paraya
    mode e.g., as in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). However, mode is a general term referring to any eigenstates of a system obtained by diagonalizing a suitable dynamical matrix or Hamiltonian. In physics these are known as eigenstates or energy levels, or energy bands. In microwave and optical-fire transmission as well, the cavity dictates the modes, just as an organ pipe dictates the vibrational modes which gives the different pitch of the organ. So we use the words "mattama", related to "level", as well as"padhaya(පදය), and also madaya (ම්දය) related to "pitch" or acoustic modes, to render the word into sinhala. Eigenstate or Yath-thathvya is the quantum physics equivalent and is the most fundamental usage. All may be used interchangeably, or selected appropriately according to the context. yath-thathvaya
    pad(ha)ya පදය
    madaya ම්දය
    mode coupling Two transmission modes ot wto signals, e.g., in a fiber optic, may couple due to interactions or leakages, and form a coupled mode. Tow vibrating pendula, if connected together to form coupled modes and describe Liassajo patterns. Hence mode-coupling is a very common phenomena in natural processes. mattam bandhanaya, mada(h)a bandhanaya
    pad(h)a bandeema පද බැඳීම
    mode spectrum This gives the spread in energy of the different modes, or eigenstates, or pitch of the dynamical system or opto-electronic system. See "spectrum" for a discussion pad(ha)   dili-patiya
    පද  දිලිපටිය
    mattam dilipatiya, mad(h)a dilipatiya
    Mode Energy If the frequency of a monochromatic mode is f, its energy is given by E=hf. Mattam shakthiya, pad(h)a shakthiya
    Mode width The energy of a mode becomes not sharply defined due to leakage and interactions. This the sharp "spectral line"(D(h)ili rekhava) becomes broadened, and the energy with (i.e, the line broadening) is in fact the mode width. This is NOT the bandwidth. The bandwidth the the spread in all the modes which form a continues band. Mattam mahatha, pad(h)a pullula
    Mode attenuation A signal traveling in a given mode of a fiber gets attenuated or weakened due to losses (mathematically, the energy acquires a complex character with a non-zero imaginary partE=E1+i*E2. The attenuation is the "damping" E2 mattam dubalanaya
    Molecule A molecule is a composite structure made up of atoms Anuva, molekiulaya
    Molecular Beam epitaxy MBE In MBE, layers of materials, of different chemical composition, are deposited atomic layer by atomic layer, giving the possibility of creating new types of crystals that do not exist in nature, and having exceptional purity, and with customized properties. Molekiulika dhara upa-paththanaya
    Modem Shortening of "modulator-demodulator", i.e, a device that modulates an analog signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the information. The broad-band internet connections to a service provider usually comes via a cable, or wireless, and is demodulated and given to the personal computer by the "cable modem" or the "wireless modem". Since modulation involves modifying the carrier wave, we use the sinhala words "muhukaranaya" (modulation) and "yathaakaranaya" (de-modulation) to make "muhuyathnaya" for Modem. The word "modama" could also be used, which is a straight adaptation from the English, without regard to the structure of the word. muhuyathnaya
    modulator see discussion under "modem". We use "muhukaranaya" which signifies the mixing of the signal with the carrier wave. See also demodulation. muhukaranaya
    • momentum
    • momentum operator
    • this is a dynamical quantity, say p, related to the energy E of an object by a dispersion relation. Thus, for photons,E=cp where c is the speed of light. For massive particles in the free state, E=p2/(2M) where M is the mass
    • This "operator" sums up the experiment needed to "measure" the momentum of a particle. It the mathematical operation on the wavefunction of the system which gives the mean momentum.
    • gamyathaava
    • gamyath kaarakaya
    Monitor This is the display device which interfaces the computer to the user. It is an LCD screen or cathode-ray tube (television screen). As it is the face (MUHUNA) of the computer, and it is also an "eye"(AESA) to you, we render Monitor as Munaesa, a word which sounds similar to monitor MUNAESA, මුනැස
    Mouse This is the hand-held device for interacting with the cursor. Its name is derived from its appearance. Hence in sinhala it is Meeya. In French it si Souris etc . Please do NOT use "MOUSAYA". Meeya
    Move a file e.g., "move this file to the subdirectory" would be "Me gonuva upako~shayata adinna". The word "thanaya", or "danaya" is the source word for "aedeema", to "drag". There is no need to say "thanya karanna", although that too would be correct. gonuvas thanaya

    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Nanotechnology Technology used in creating chips and other micro- and nano-dimensional components. Naeno-thakshanaya, Nano-thekkanaya
    Nerd (derogatory usage) A nerd is a person "obsessed" with technology and failing to have any sense of humour or appreciate other aspects of a problem Tekkaya
    Nerd,(admiring usage) A nerd is a very bright tech savvy genius who can survive without the usual comforts of life, and provide tech solutions to problems Theksooraya
    • neutral particle
    • neutral carrier
    • neutral observer, neutral monitor
  • a particle which has charge zero
  • uncharged flowing particles, e.g., photons, neutral atoms in atomic beams, where as ions are charged particles.
  • neutral observer, e.g., a referee or monitor of a game or a process.
    • napuntha
    • napuntha anshuva
    • napuntha gaamikaya
    • madyastha nireekshakaya, madyastha same~kashakaya
    nickname e.g., "In using a facility like Wikipedia one may use a nickname" Hurunama
    number portability This is a protocol which enables a mobile phone number portability that will allow subscribers to switch different networks while using the same number. The word "Portable" is derived via latin, from the sanskrit "parayaati", or para-yaathranaya", to move out". Words like Yathna, Yaema, yanawa etc in sinhala are derived or related to Yaathranaya. hence a valid technical usage is "parayaathnaya". The German "Fahren" comes from the first part (para) of "parayaati". Angka suvahaneeyathaava, angka parayaathanaya.
    අංක සුවාහිනීයතාව, අංක පරයාතනය

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    object e.g., as in object-oriented programming (OOP), see below Vasthuva
    objective e.g., as opposed to subjective, "samavithika" or hithAngi (සිතැංගි The word "samkaaranika", implies an evaluation of a conciliation ("sam") of "rationa" (kaaranika) inputs. This will be used in opposition to "samveidika" (subjective) implying an evaluation based on a conciliation of one's feelings (veidanaa). Vasthuvithika, dathAngi, දත්තැංගි samkaaranika,සංකාරනික
    object-oriented programming This is a programming language organized around "objects" rather than 'data" and "actions". For example, a Fortran or Pascal code inputs data, processes them and outputs results. In object oriented programming the programmer identifies the objects he has to manipulates and the program handles the communications between the objects. Vasthu-yomuka vidha-kateema
    Occam's razor, Ockham's razor e.g., this is a concept ascribed to the medieval logician Occam who argued that all extraneous, that is redundant elements and assumptions must be removed (cut off with the razor!) Occamge kaduva
    Octet e.g., as in most computes, each byte is an octet of bits. Ashtakaya, Atakaya
    Offline e.g., one may work "offline" on various files without having the internet connection activated. Vaela-asambitha, nobaenduna
    On-line e.g., connected to the internet or to a network Vaela-sambitha, sabaenduna
    Open (verb) The file extension defines the application to OPEN the file. Similarly, "close" would be "Vahana" Arina, Aavikarana
    Open-source This refers to any program whose source code is made freely available. Also, OPEN-SOURCE is a certified scheme under the name "open-source initiative (OSI). Vivurtha-mukthaya, Vivurtha moolaya.
    • operator (IT)
    • operator (physics and mathematics)
    • operation
    • commuting operator, non-commuting operator
    • a Computer operator manages the running of a computer system
    • In physics an operator represents an action on a system, represented mathematically by a mathematical operation (e.g., differentiation) carried out on a function (e.g., wavefunction) which represents the physical state of the system.
    • 2-dimensional electron sheets in a magnetic field are chiral liquids.
    If two operators A, B commute, they can act on a system in any order and the result is the same, i.e. AB is the same as BA. For non-commuting operators, AB is NOT the same as BA. If A is the operation of putting on a sock, and B is the operation of putting on a shoe, they are non-commuting operators.
    • kalamankaru
    • krakaya
    • k~rasiddiya
    • yo~githa kraka, ayo~githa kraka
    Option When a pull-down menu is opened, the available OPTIONS may be seen." ruchivara
    Organism e.g.,Bacteria are uni-cellular organisms. Here "organisms" is best rendered as "jeeveen", or possibly "san(g)jeeveen". However, in a sentence like A cluster of inter-acting computers may be regarded as an 'organism' , the translation may be more appropriately be "sanjeevayaa", but we do not recommend "jeevyaa". Jeevayaa. sanjeevayaa

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    packet e.g., as in "fast packet technology". When any file, ex. an e-mail message or webpage (HTML file etc) is sent on the internet, the transmission protocol (TCP/IP) divides the file into little chunks (packets) which can be optimally routed. Each packet has its number, address destination etc. and may travel in different routes, but get assembled at destination. This transmission technology is different from "circuit-switched" technology (e.g., voice telephone) where packets are not used. The word "paekat" is well recognized in sinhala and can be used here. Paekat
    paradigm A paradigm is a model that sustains a system of thought, literary or cultural activity or action. For instance, Greek plays provided a paradigm for subsequent classical dramatists. Newton's physics provided a paradigm for subsequent theories in physics etc. The word in Sinhala closest to the proto-Indo-european root is "paridharsiya". However, we note that some writers use "susamadhrashaya", "susamaadhrashiya". paripreikshya,paridharshiya
    Paradox e.g., as in the Zeno's paradox, or the EPR paradox. The latter is a "paradox" named after the three scientists Einstein, Podoslky and Rosen, who in 1935 tried to claim that the entanglement of two particles, as required by the quantum theory, leads to contradictions. In fact, EPR were at fault and there is no paradox within the quantum theory. A paradox is a line of reasoning which seems to lead to an untenable position from what ever end you approach it. The word "Ubhathokotika Prasna" had been used in the past for this type of problems. We use "patiloma vaaachaya" and also "Paetliprashna". Alternatively, the word "virodha-baashithaya" is used, e.g., in Sanskirt and Hindi. Patiloma vaachaya, paetali-paena, virodhabhaashithaya
    Page setup The PAGE SETUP is determined by the formatting. Since "sakaesuma" has been used in the sense of "editor< Editing" etc., it is not recommended here, except in a colloquial sense. Pitu pathanaya
    Passive e.g., a passive component Akriya
    • elementary particle
    • particle-physics
    • particle-accelerator
    • particle-collider
    • Higgs-particle
    • antiparticle
    • dual-particle
    • quasiparticle
      in quantum physics matter as well as fields have a particle character as well. These are the building blocks of all things, energy fields and all nature. All nature is subject to their laws. See also, String theory, Hadrons, LHD (large Hadron Collider)
    • Moola for elementary. These are: quarks, electrons, neutrinos, as well as field-particles like photons, mesons, W-bosons, Z-bosons, and the Higgs particle, their antiparticles, dual particles etc. These have begun to present a unified picture in the Salam-Weinberg-Glashow standard model, and now in string theory. The particles of gravity (gravitons) do not fit properly into the picture as yet. Heavy particles are called Baryons, while light particles are called leptons. Hadrons are "hard-bound" composites of quarks; they are barons and mesons.
    • particle physics is mainly elementary particle physics
    • Accelerators are as found in CERN, STANFORD etc.
    • After acceleration particle beams are collided, as in the LHC
    • Higgs particle has not yet been discovered.
    • the positron is the anti-particle of the electron.
    • super-symmetry requires the existences of a dual particle for every particle (not to be confused with antiparticles)
    • A particle "dressed up" with a field arsing from many-body interactions is called a quasiparticle. We use the Sanskrit word "Chaala" as the root word
    • Moolansuva
    • Moolanshu-Bhavthikaya
    • anshu-praveigikaya
    • anshu san(g)hattakaya
    • Higgs anshuva
    • prathi-anshuva
    • nivun-anshuva
    • Saalanshuva, Chaalansuva
    • Person
    • Personality
    the some total of characteristic that define a person, or an organism. "ThAnaththaa".
    e.g., ohugei thadhaathmaka thAnaththunYaya ohugei sa\nveidhee theeranavalin pilibiBu vei (his idiosyncratic personality is reflected in his subjective decisions):
    ඔහුගේ තදාත්මක තැනත්තුන්‍යය ඔහුගේ සංවේදී තීරනවලින් පිලිබිඹු වÝ
    • ThAnAththaa; තැනැත්තා
    • ThAnAththunYaya;
    Peta, Petabyte PB see also terabyte, mega etc., this is 250 which is effectively, 1015. Peta-badh-dwithaya
    Phase The phase of a wave (e.g., that of the wavefunction), is of great importance in quantum phenomena. It may be translated as "Sthithiya", kalaava, or "thaalaya" or "sangathiya" in the sense of being "in tune" as required in being coherent. Sthithiya sangathiya
    platter e.g., in the usage "each hard disc consists of several discs called platters. In each platter, the data is physically placed in concentric circles called tracks". thaetiya
    Port, portal e.g., as in Graphics port DoraTuva, දොරටුව
    Portal e.g., as in community portal. This would be "prajana dorakada" Dorakada
    • position
    • position coordinate
    • position operator
    • global positioning system   GPS
    • Position, depends on x,y, z, or distance to the east (right) of the origin, north of the origin, and height above the origin.
    • The coordinates are x,y, z.
    • This is a mathematical operation (e.g., differentiation) which when performed on a function representing the system, gives the current mean position of the object. It sums of the process of doing the experimental measurement.
    • Determines the position of a receiving system which gets signals from satellites moving on medium-earth orbits. Precise positioning requires x,y, z,t, i.e., four signals, while less accurate positioning requires three signals for x,y,z.
    • stthaqanaya, pihiteema
    • stthn krakaya, pihiteem kaarakaya
    • go~la stthaana niyaamaka pad dda thiya
      (e2s map)
    Power-point presentation PPP, (ppt file-extension) this is a Microsoft application widely used for seminar presentations as well as as a file extension type. "power-point" means that the "point" is made with a forceful argument used ppt. This need not be translated, but we have give a sinhala form which also abbreviates to PPP. Prabala-Penneem paridaekkuma
    presentation e.g., "this material is best explained using a power-point presentation". paridaekkkuma
    print, print-out (noun) e.g., as in, "find an original print of the letter", may be rendered as "lipiye mul mudrayak soyanna". mudraya, muddaraya, kopiya
    precision The precision of a computer calculation is different from its "accuracy". The precision depends on the length of the register (word representation) specified in the code. Thus, "single-precision" calculations use a 16-bit register, "double-precision" calculations use a 32-bit register and have a precision up to 232 which is about 1 part in a thousand million. However, if the input data is only good to four significant digits, the "accuracy" of the calculation is 1 part in a ten thousand. nishthithathaava නිෂ්චිතතාව
    prasudhiya, pasu(n)d(th)athaava
    printer (noun) e.g., as in Laser printer, line printer, ink-jet printer etc. The root word we use here are found in Pali (mudda) and Sanskrit (Mudra). Mudraana yanthraya, mudranangaya,
    muddaraa(n)ga මුද්දරාඟ
    printer (adjective) e.g., printer software mudrana mudrakangaya, muddara muduka(n)ga
    Probability, probable value also mean value, "expectation value" especially in quantum mechanics. probability is the likelihood of some even occurring, and is always a number between 0 and 1, but often given as a percentage. The probability of a "random (nirudhYaasa)" occurrence is 0.50 sambhaavithaava, sambhaavithaa agaya, apeikshitha agaya
    Process This implies a concatenated, transformative series of actions, usually specified by a code, being executed. The sinhala word "varthanaya" conveys this dynamic transformative character to the "kriya", or actions. Kriyavarthaya
    Processor This is the agent which executes the process, e.g., the CPU of a computer. Kriyavarthakaya
    project [See also biject, eject, inject, reject ] as in dynamics, to project an object in its orbit. Prakshepanaya, parisepanaya
    project an estimate of, say expenses, for the future, based on present knowledge., i.e., to extrapolate. parideerganaya, paridiguma, Prakshepanaya, parisepanaya.
    Project a plan of work that is being carried out or proposed. Prakshipthaya, parimuna
    program A program is a concatenation of commands, written in a suitable algorithmic language. commands are "vidhaana" in our Sinhalese usage, and the concatenated structure is designated as "kaetuma". Thus a program is "Vidhakaetuma". We see some sinhala usage of "kramalekhyya". Usually, "krama" is "method", while a program is definitely a systematic of commands, i.e., not just a list. Vidhakaetuma
    prokaryote, procaryote since 1957, in biology, Greek proto + karyon means early + kernal, compares with Sanskrit prag +karkatak and we use the Sinhala form Praakarka. e.g., "Prokaryotic cells are single-cell organisms without a nucleus" is put in to Sinhala as " praakarka ko~sha yanu nyastiyak naethi e~ka ko~shika jeeveen ya.(see eukaryote = sookarka. One may also use "Eukaraka". Sookarka, Eukarka.
    protocol e.g., address resolution protocol. This a computer procedure, usually an executable. Niyamaavaliya (නියමාවලිය) may also be used but in science a "niyamaya" is a law and not a command. prathikaarakaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Qbit, quantum-bit Unlike a standard computer bit which is in one of two binary states 0 or 1, a quantum bit is an entangled state (i.e, a superposition state or cat-state) made of of 0 and 1 (think of a unit complex number with a real and imaginary part) existing together. Multi-state qbits based on a superposition of states in a larger Hilbert space is also possible. Qbits are used in quantum computers. Ku-d(th)withaya,කු ද්විත
    Quality e.g., as in quality control, quality assurance etc. saagunyya, saguna
    Quantum e.g., the discrete unit, usually of energy. But the word is derived from "quantity" pramana-anshuva, pamansuva, quantama
    • quantum-dot (QD)
    • quantum-well (QWL)
    • quantum-wire (QWR), quantum string
    • quantum point contact (QPC)
      some sinhala writers unnecessarily write kvontam ක්වොන්ටම් where as, kvanatam ක්වන්ටම් gives the correct pronunciation. correct pronunciation of quantum
    • a nanostructure where carriers are confined in all dimensions
    • the carriers in a QWL are free to move in a plane, confined in the "growth direction". Avatha in Skrt. can be used for well, cistern etc. Again we have dipped into Sanskrit for a suitable rendering of "quantumwire", which is a liner nanostructure.
    • Carriers in a QW are confined in two directions.
    • see under "contact"
      kvantam ක්වන්ටම්
    • Kwantam-thitha
    • Kwantum-aavathaya
    • Kwantam-thanthuva
    • Kwantum lakshiya sangsparshaya
    quantum logic quantum theory is based on a calculus of operators. Logic gates which exploit two-by-two matrices which operate on 0,1 states can be used to formulate quantum computers which can act in a massively parallel manner. Kwantam tharkanaya
    Quantum Monte Carlo QMC Monte Carlo is the city in the south of France famous for its Casino. QMC is a method of doing quantum mechanics by simulation on massive computers, based on stochastic methods, hence the name . Monte Carlo. The method of simulation of classical systems, using computers and classical probability is also called Monte Carlo simulation. In quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), the probability measure has to provided from the square of an assumed wavefunction which is constantly optimized. The name is used in Sinhala and all languages, without translation. Kvantum Monte Carlo.

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    nikrama pravesha dattha-garbhaya
    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    RAM random access memory, usually a hard disc nikaru peves daegaeba නිකරැ පෙවෙස් දෑගැබ
    random random event, random number, random value etc. This means an occurrence without "evident cause", and its probability is 0.5. The sinhalese "nikam", or Nishkarma" is perfectly OK. But we suggest "nirudyaasa". The word "sasmabhavya", and similar forms are unsatisfactory if sambhaavya is used for "probable", since "sasambhavYa" implies more-probable". Nirudyaasa,
    recycle verb, adjective etc. Used printer cartridges should be trashed into the RECYCLE bin is a typical usage. Pilivarthana
    reject, rejection The sinhala words for eject, inject, project all depend on various on -ject prathi-k-shepa, pathisepaya
    release (noun) e.g, as in "this application is the second release after the beta version". Nikutha
    release (verb) e.g., the license details are released. Nikuth kireema
    ROM read only memory , e.g., the boot disc. Paatanayata seemitha daegaeba (දෑ ගැබ)
    RWM read-write memory paatana-lekhana daegaeba

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Scan e.g., to scan an image using a "scanner", CAT scan "Kaita skaaenaya" which may make a human tumor visible. skaaenaya
    Schrodinger's cat To illustrate the un-intuitive nature of quantum physics, Schrodinger conceived of the cat paradox. The two binary states 0 and 1 typical of quantum systems and computer bits are equated with the state of and death (state 0), and life (state 1). A cat is trapped in an opaque box containing a device that would kill it by triggering a device by pure chance at an unknown moment, e.g., by a radioactive decay source. As long as we cannot observe the cat we do not know in what state the cat is. Quantum mechanics would require the cat to be in an entangled state, ie., a linear combination of life and death. These are the "paradoxical "cat states" of Schrodinger. The moment the cat is observed, the cat collapses into one or the other of the two sates. This is called "the collapse of the wavefunction", and ensures the breakdown of causality. Such cat states are routinely observed experimentally for atoms, but not for cats. Schrodingerge balala, Shrodinger-gei kayitayaa
    Search, search engine The Google SEARCH engine is very popular. the form "sodisi" means circumspect rather than search, and not recommended here. Sevum, Sevum aenjima
    Search, search engine The VI editor SEARCHEs the document in a case-sensitive manner. In this context "sodsisi" is the correct usage. Sodisi
    set, group, class as in character set, i.e., (san(g)ketha panthiya samoohaya, panthiya, kulaya, rshiya
    e.g., as in darwin's "natural selection" or "swabhaavika varanaya" varanaya, pravaranaya
    vaaranika, pravaaranika, varanaathmaka
    server Computer or more specifically, the programs which provides the services to other computer programs (and users) is a server. Hosting is one such service. Then it is called a host-server or web server. සේවා දායකය sevaa daayaka,   sevaka
    significant e.g., as occurring in the phrase, this calculation has an accuracy only up to 4 significant figures, is rendered into sinhala as "mema gananayata vaedagath illkkan hatharka thiunuthaavayak aetha". vaedagath (e2s map)
    Software unlike hardware which describes the physical and electronic components of a computer, the software are data and instruction sets which occupy the computer by defining the electronic states (i.e, 0,1, configurations of bits) of the memory and CPU. Murdukaanga, මෘදුකාංග muduka(n)ga මුදුකංග
    Sorter, Separator e.g., document sorter Lipi vaargikaya
    • source (in IT)
    • source (in nanotechnology)
    • e.g., in " the SOURCE code for this application is available both in C++ and in Pacal". This may be rendered as "Mema praayogikayé: mul vidhakaetiya C++ saha Pascal valing thibé:.
    • the "source" is the terminal which supplies carriers to a semiconductor device.
    • Mul,Moolya, Moolaasrya (Mo~lsrya,  e2s-map)
    • Aavitha (vitha,  e2s-map)
    Speckle this is the glittering shift in the energy of a transmission mode, or in an image, arising from various interactions or dynamics. Dileema දිලීම;
    spectrum this is the set of energy levels, or states, or modes, available to any system, e.g., a vibrating plate, a waveguide, or semiconductor. It is used to signify the palette of colours available on a photo-shop type application. The WDM (wave division multiplexing) technology plays with the spectrum of the transmitted signal. Dili-patiya
    දිලි පටිය
    spectral line When light from an object, i.e., the signal coming in a fiber optic is sent through a prism, it splits into its spectrum, and discrete lines are seen, corresponding to each active mode. These are called spectral lines or modes, although strictly, there is a difference between a spectral level and a spectral line. Lines are formed by combining levels, as in the Balmer formula. Dili rekhaava
    • spin
    • pseudospin
    • spintronics
    • spinless particles
    • spin blockade, spin gate
    • spin waves
    • The spin of an electron is an intrinsic quantum property, quite unintuitive, as the particle has to do two rotations to complete the circuit. This is like having to go round the earth twice to get back to the starting point! The electron spin can have an up state or a down state, or an entangled state made up of both.
    • The pseudospin is another "spin-like" quantum property, found in nuclei. Also, when a two state bit (binary bit) is represented by the two up-down states of a spin, it is called a "pseudo-spin" representation.
    • Spintronics, is "electronics", done with the spin of the electron, rather than the charge of the electron.
    • spinless particles. A composite particle may have net spin zero (i.e., spinless) and is called a singlet because it is in a single state and not in a binary superposition.
    • spin blockade arises from the Pauli principle which forbids particles of the same spin to co-exist in the same location or eigenstate. Spin gates use such Palui blockade effects.
    • spin waves are waves set up when a whole lot of spins get together (as in a magnet), and they undergo collective oscillations about their equilibrium positions.
    • bramaya
    • chaala-bramaya  (see quasi-particle)
    • bramani-theknaya
    • nibramana ansu
    • bramana avaro~dhaya, bramana kadulla
    • brama tharanga
    • subatomic
    • subjective
    • subsidiary
    • strictly speaking "sub-atomic" refers to particle like electrons and nucleons, but not sub-nuclear particles like quarks. However, the word is loosely used.
    • subsidiary, as in a "subsidiary drive"
    • uoona-paramaanuka, upa-paramaanuka, upa-Atomika
    • upaanshika; උපාංශික
      "subjective" is a description used to define evaluations which depend largely on personal feelings or qualitative evaluations. "Veidana" are feelings, and a conciliation based on feelings is named "samveidhi".
    • samvithika, sithAngi, සිතැංගි
      • "subjective feelings" is translated as: "samveidhee hAngeem"
      • "his idiosyncratic personality is reflected in his subjective decisions" → "ohugei thadhaathmaka thAnathbhaavaya ohugei samveidhee theeranavala pilibimbu vei"; ඔහුගේ තදාත්මක තැනත්තුන්‍යය ඔහුගේ සංවේදී තීරනවලින් පිලිබිඹු වෙයි "objective" is implied to mean evaluations that are essentially independent of the observer, although it may still have instrumental bais. We may use "samvithika" or "sam veidika for "subjective", we use vasthu-vithika or samkaaranika or daththA\ngi (data based) දත්තැංගි objective for "objective".
  • samvithika, sithAngi, සිතැංගි samveidika, සංවේදික
  • Subscriber e.g., in ADSL, asymmetric digital subscriber line Parigrahika, පරිග්රාහික Daayakaya
    superposition This is used to indicate how two modes combine or "entangle" with each other when their amplitudes superpose. Thus the states in an entangled state are formed by superposing two eigenstates. The suffix "super" does not mean "overpowering" one eigenstate by another, but co-existence. These are essential concept of the quantum theory, and also fiber-optics, communication theory etc. saha-pathanaya
    • -switched
    e.g., in packet-switched technology PST), circuit-switched technology, etc. PST would be rendered into sinhala as "paekat sangbandhika thakkanaya". Note that it is NOT "saMbandhikaya"
      sangbhandhikays, sangbbanddikaya (e2s map)
    • -sangbandditha
    synchronous processes occurring at the same time instant, as opposed to asynchronous. the word "sama-kaaleena" is more appropriate for contemporaneous. Samavita, opp. of asamavita
    Style e.g., in Cascade style sheet, or in formatting Shayilaya
    String theory In STRING THEORY all fundamental particles are conceived to be excitations of fundamental objects known as "strings". Thanthu vaadaya

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  • tunneling current
  • Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Tag This is an indicator on HTML and / to identify (i.e., tag) something. Thus a list item is tagged as <li>, while a data item in a table is tagged as <td >. The end of the data-item is indicated as </td>. Saelakuna
    task Bar This is a feature of webpages as well as windows (since windows 95) and contains clickble short-cuts to applications. Kaariya patiya
    Tech. short abbreviation from "technical" etc, see write up under "Technical" Thek., Thak.
    Technical The sanskrit root word "Thakshana" is in fact related to the western word via Latin, and we have an easy adaptation as "Thekna" Theknia, තෙක්න
    technician e.g., computer technician, camera technician Theknika (Skrt. Thaakshanika), theknikaya, theknikara
    technique e.g., the technique of ion implantation is used in semi-conductor technology. theknikaya, Thekkramaya
    Technology This has a more general sense than "technique. Thakkanaya, තෙක්නිකය
    Thaksasthraya, theksilpaya, shilpa
    Technologist this has to translated so as to distinguish from scientist or engineer, while they are also technologists. Shilpia, thekshaasthree, theknikaara
    tera, terabyte TB see also terabyte, mega etc., this is 240 which is effectively, 1012. tera-badh-dwithaya
    • positive and negative terminals
    • two-terminal device
      This is usually a wire or contact which brings or removes carriers from a device
    • the positive terminal has a higher voltage than the negative terminal.
    • A diode is a two-terminal device, while transistors are three-terminal devices.
    • Ddana saha rina agra
    • dvi-agra upngaya
    (e2s map)
    transform e.g., the Fourier or Laplace transform ---> Laplace pariroopaya pariroopanaya (verb), pariroopaya (noun)
    transformer e.g., electric voltage transformer Voelteeyatha parivarthakaya
    transformation e.g., in the transformation of larvae to insects pari-vinyaasaya
    treatment treatment as in a textual discussion, vigrahaya or chakhanaya
    treatment as in heat treatment "thaapa vilaayanaya"
    vigrahaya, chakhanaya, vilaayanaya
    text (noun) One must not make the mistake of imagining that "text" is just a collection of words, unless "word" is used in a more general sense. We prefer to treat "text" as "written" material, manipulable with an editor. Text is distinguished from non-character data, like bitmap. Thus we use "likhithya". Likithya, Likhithaya ලිඛිතය
    text- (adjective) in active process e.g., as in text box, te lekhana-, liyana-
    text body e.g., "this figure has to be embedded in the text body". Likhitha kaaya
    text box e.g., "photoshop application will open a text box when the left menu is clicked at ..." le(e)khana kotuva
    text editor editors like word, Nodepad, VI are text editors. See "editor". likitha san(g)skaaraka, likitha saekasuva
    text file This is a file saved as a "simple text file", and does not contain any special formatting and meta-characters put in by special, easy to use editors like Microsoft word. Word documents also can be saved as "text files", or "ASCII files", and carry the extension ".txt". When manually writing HTML files, it is easiest to use a text editor. Likitha gonuva
    text message, text messaging e.g., "cell phones allow text messaging and it is cheaper than voice" Likhitha panivudaya,
    likkhitha paniveedanaya ලිඛිත පනිවේදනය
    tilda This is the short wavy line ~ found on the standard key board. raeli-ira
    time scales
    time, as in space-time
    ~ found on the standard time scales may be Plank timescales, or time scales associated with electronic processes (femtoseconds), nano-time scales, or macroscopic time scales
    kaala maana, plAnk kaala maana, nAno-kaala maana, maheisha kaala maana
    • field-effect transistor (FET)
    • metal-oxide field-effect transistor (MOSFET)
    • Hetero-unction field-effect transistor (HJFET)
    • organic field-effect transistor (OFET)
      This is a three-terminal device where the third terminal controls the flow across the source (terminal 1), and the drain (terminal 2). The control implies amplification, modulation, rectification etc.
    • The third terminal affects the flow via the field effect on the carriers.
    • The flow is in a channel formed at a Si/SiO2 interface
    • Used mostly for GaAs/GaInAs transistors,where different (hetero) materials are used. In fact all transistors involve a hetero-junction.
    • Two organic materials (semi-conducting plastics) are used instead of Si-materials. We translate "organic (materials) " as "kbanika (dravya)"
    • kshe~thra-phala samplakaya
    • Lo~ha-oxsid kshe~thra-phala samplakaya
    • Vivarga-sandhi samplakaya
    • Kbanika samplakaya
    Transmission e.g., as in Transmission control protocol (TCP)/internet protocol (IP). Our sinhala form is related to the Pali peseti, pahinaati. Aelian de Silva suggests "tharaathearuma". sampēshanaya, samprēshanaya, sampaesuna;
    TCP Transmission control protocol. This together with IP, is basic to internet transmission, and is built into all operating systems unix or windows. sampaesun paalaka prathi-kaarkaya
    terabyte 1012 bytes, i.e., 1 followed by 12 zeros. tera-Bad(h)vitha, ටෙර බද්විත
    tracks e.g., see the usage "in these platters, the data is physically placed in concentric circles called tracks". We render it into sinhala as: "Mema thatuvala, yaata naemaethi ek-kendrika vurtha vala daththa bahavaa aetha". The word "yaatha" is based on the Pali word which is related to Yaaema (going), and to "track". yaatha
    TRC Sri Lanka's Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (TRC) Viduli Sande~sha Niyaamana komisama.
    විදුලි සංදේශ නියාමන කොමිසම
      tunnel, tunnelling
    • tunnel barrier
    • tunnel diode
      quantum particles can go through a barrier, unlike classical particles which are prevented from going over a barrier unless they have enough energy to jump over the barrier. Radioactivity is a result of nuclear particles tunneling out of the nucleus
    • see under barrier
    • Is a two-terminal device which uses the tunneling current
    • The tunneling current across a barrier is non-zero if the barrier is not infinite.
      bing-gaamaya, adho-gaamaya
    • bing-gaama bddayakaya
    • bin-gaama dvi-agraya
    • bing-gaama ddarava

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Uncertainty principle
    This asserts the essential impossibility of obtaining a precise knowledge of, for example, the position AND the speed of an object. This uncertainty is important only for nano-scale objects. Thus atoms, electrons and other subatomic components in computers obey the quantum theory where Heisenberg's uncertainty principle holds. Causality as normally understood does not hold. See also "Schrodinger's cat" anishchithathaa sidhanthaya, aniyaatha sidhaanthaya
    Unicode The Unicode chart assigned hexadecimal or equivalent decimal values to alphabetic characters, thus the letter A=&#3461; or &#x0D85; in hexadecimal. Unico~d, Uniko~tha, Uniketuma.
    Unified e.g., in "unified theory", aekeekruth vaadhaya
    unified treatment --> "aekeekruth chakhanaya" or aekeekrutha vigrahaya.
    unipolar, (opp. Ambipolar) e.g., in "UNIPOLAR conduction", i.e., only one kind of charge in a conductor contribute to the current. See Ambipolar, where both +ve and -ve charges contribute. e~ka draevika, (ubbaya -dhraevika)
    (e2s map)
    User, users e.g, some users prefer the Firefox browser. Parishheelaka, පරිශීලක
    pa ri shee la ka yo~   (e2s map)
    User-friendly e.g., see the usage "systems with graphical-user-interface (GUI) are more user-friendly than systems which demand advanced knowledge, as in unix operating systems. "User-friendly" is a simple term for "xenodochial". Parisheela-mithra,
    parisheela mmaka   (e2s map)
    Unix An operating system originally developed by AT&T and particularly useful for writing code with C, C++-type languages. It was used by Silicon-Graphics workstations. Today Linux has more or less supplanted Unix. යූනික්ස් මෙහෙයුම් පද්ධතිය.
    yoonix meheyum padhdhathiya.

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    VAN, virtual area network This is a high-bandwidth LAN which gives rapid access and more "community feeling. See entries under "virtual" etc. Niman pedesi daela, Nirmaanika presesha Jaalaya
    Variable variable, as opposed to a constant, Niyatahaya. Sachalyaya
    variable-length subnet mask (VLSM) This is a sequence of numbers of variable length that optimize packet routing within the subnets of a proprietary network. A subnet can be, e.g., a local area network (LAN) sachaly-aapthika pradesha jaalaya br> sachaliyaaphika pedes daela
    Vesicle A vesicle is ball-like container, usually made of a lipid layer with watery material inside, as in a living cell. "Kalaya" (pot) in sinhla has the idea of a container. Vaesikalaya
    • printable version
    • print version
    • archived version
    • new version, newer version,newest version
    • old version, older version, oldest version
      e.g, as in "this 3rd version of the software still exists as a beta-release". This is rendered in to sinhala as "Mema mudakaayé theven paesma thavamath beta-nikuthak vashayen pavathee. Paesma is from "paeheema" or maturing. That is, each "version" is a maturing of a previous version. The word "veluma" has been used by some authors, but it is mainly used to indicate a volume or kalapaapya of a magazine. But it may be used if there is no possibility of confusion. The word "pravachaya" has also been used and is satisfactory, esp. in references to spoken press releases.
    • This is the version that has been stripped of tags and other unprintable meta text, and may be given a file.dvi extension converted to postscript.
    • this is essentially a postscript file, and this is what is printed.
    • An archived copy of the file
      Paesma පැස්ම
      veluma, pravchaya
    • mudrnahuru Paesma
    • muddrana paesma
    • gabad pasema  (e2s map)
    • nava paesma, navatha paesma, navama paesma.
    • parana paesma, paranatha paesma, paranama paesma
    Video video tape (1935), video cassette (1971), videogame (1973) are new words, derived from the Latin "videra", i.e., "to see". Sinhlala usage "Vidah pae~ma", i.e., "illustration, has this implicit sense. විදෘශ්‍ය vidrusaya,
    Vidaehiya, Veedio~va

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    WAN Wide area network; this is in contrast to a local area network (LAN) Pulul pedes daela
    පුලුල් පෙදෙස් දැල
    Pulul Pradesha Jaalaya
    wavelength Different types of electromagnetic signals have different wavelengths. See the use of the word, as in WDM, see below Tharanga aapthaya
    Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) It is a method of combining multiple optical signals at various wavelengths for transmission in fiber-optic cables. The signal is analyzed at the receiver by a spectroscope, i.e, using filters sensitive to different wavelengths. Tharangaaptha Bedeem Bahu-sandanaya
    Web as in World wide web (WWW) Athurudaela, Antharjaalaya, Loka-Vyaptha Jaalaya
    Website An internet site that can be accessed and using a browser etc. Web Adaviya,
    Jaala Thaenna
    ජාල තැන්න
    Web server Thais is a computer (or the set of programs) which provides the service of web-hosting. Jaala sevadaayakaya, සේවාදායකය
    Window One may open sevel WINDOWS on the computer screen, to open several files. Kavluva

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    XML, extensible mark-up language See HTML. XML is means for cooperating groups to use each other's meta data, within a standard from the WWWW consortium. See individually, entries under extensible, markup, and language dheergakaamee san(g)lakshitha bhashava,
    digkaemi saelasum-yuth basa

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Yagi Antenna, Yagi-Uda antenna This is a directional antenna named after the Japanese inventor. The word antenna, is from Latin and suggests a sail-yard which "sticks out" Yagi pitaskoora
    Y-modem This is an error-correction protocol for modems which use 1024-byte data blocks. Y-muhuyathnaya
    Yotta, yottabyte see also terabyte, mega etc., this is 10-24 which is effectively, 1024. Yotha-badh-dwithaya
    Yocto, yocto-second (ys) this is 10-24 seconds. A pico-second (pico-paraya) is 10-12. Hence a Yocto second is a pico-pico second. Yokto-tathparaya, yoktoparaya

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    Technical term Context and Discussion සිංහල යෙදීම
    Zap e.g., as used in "a zap is a correction code which is overlaid on usually uneditable, e.g., binary, files which have been found to have a bug. The meaning is associated with the "sound" and means to "zap" or smother the error. We ca use the same word in sinhala. Zap.
    zip zip files are a file extension for a type of compressed files. zip
    zip codes these are numeric codes used in postal services in many countries. There are not "codes" in the sense of a collection of computer instructions. zip an(g)ka
    zip drive is a trademark portable disk drive used primarily for backing up and archiving personal computer files. Now one uses memory sticks instead. zip draevaya
    zettabyte this is a billion terabytes (see under terabyte). zetta-Bad(h)vitha (බද්විත)
    Zepto, Septo-second (zs) this is 10-21 seconds. zepto-tathparaya
    zone e.g., see below zoned-bit encoding, zone-density recording etc. kalaapaya
    zoned recording This is a method of optimizing the hard drive by placing more sectors in the outer tracks than in the inner tracks of the platters which make up the hard drive. kalaapa-vaarthaakraya (vaarthaa kirieema)

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