Botanical Names → Sinhala names   උද්භිද නම් → සිංහල නම්


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ස්ථාන නාම සම් බන්ධ භාෂීය උද්භිදය ගැනය
Ethno-botany, an adjunct to Place-Names studies
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ගම්-නම් මුල් පිට
Place-names Main page
Sinhala Technical Terms
සිංහල තෙක්න වදන්

pitcher plant


Botanical Names → Sinhala names


Prepared by Ch.Dharmawardana,  email:  place.names@yahoo.com.

Some References

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Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes, Links
Abelmoschus angulosus, A..moschatus Kapukinissa - - -
Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Bandakka pitali vendai -
Abelmoschus moschatus Val Bandakka? latakasturika kantukasthuri -
Abrus melanospermus, Abrus pulchellus Ela Olinda - - A slender perennial twiner, glabrous with long internodes, stems slender, cylindrical, branched with smooth wrinkled brown bark; leaves alternate with stipules.-
Abrus fruticulosus (Chinese Prayer Bead) - - vidathari iMAGES
Abrus precatorius (Jequirity, Crab's Eye, Rosary Pea) Olinda raktika kakachinchi kunri -
Abutilon indicum (indian mallow) Beheth Anoda - thuththi -
Acacia catechu (Cutch Tree, Catechu, Black Cutch) Kaippu, Tho~ra - karunkali, karangalli -
Acacia chundra, Acasia sundra Kihiri, Rat Kihiriya - karangali A small tree with a dark brown bark and purple young shoots.
Acacia farnesiana Seenidda - velvel -
Acacia ferruginea Ela Kihiriya - - -
Acacia tomentosa Ali katu - Aani mulla -
Acalypha indica Kuppamenia haritamanjari kuppaimeni An annual herb-leaves simple, alternate, 3.7~cm long, attractive to cats.
Acanthus illcifolius Katu Ikili - Kazhuthai Mulli, Kalutaamul See also Trapa bicornis = ikiliya, related to mangroves.
Placename: Katukiliyavala (Kalutavalai)
Achyranthes aspera Karal Heba- - nayuruvi -
Acorus calamus Wadakaha- - vacampu, vasambu Medicinal; An aromatic, marshy herb with a stout creeping and branching rootstock-
Acronychia pedenculata Ankenda - - Medicinal: Fractures,Ulcers,Purigatives,Scabies-
Adansonia digitata- Aliya Gaha- - - A very large tree with a smooth, pinkish-grey bark; leaves alternate, palmate compound, deciduous-
Adenanthera aglaosperma- Masmora- - - -
Adenanthera pavonina Madatiya kusandana tilam, manjadi Large Tree-
Adhatoda vasica, Adhatoda zeylanica Adathoda vrasa atatotai -
Adina cordifolia Kolon - mancal katampu, kadambai -
Aegiceras Corriculatum Heen Kadol - Vithilikanna related to mangroves
Aegle marmelos Beli - kuvilam -
Aerva lanata Polpala - cirupilai Medicinal herb, diuretic taken as a tisane: Annuab herb, 60-75 cm tall, often woody at base ; stems green, erect or prostrate, with numerous, slender, cylindrical, more or less cottony, hairy branches leaves simple, alternate, 1.2-2.5 cm long, 0.9-2.5 cm broad, oval or spathulate-oval-
Agave vera-cruz - Hana- - - -
Ageratum conyzoides Hulantala- - appakkoti -
Aglaia roxburghiana Puwangu, Puvangu - cokkalai, kannikkompu Place name: Puvangudiva;
Morphology: A moderate-sized or large tree with a smooth, dull greyish orange bark and young parts covered with minute ferruginous scales; leaves compound, alternate, exstipulate, pinnate, rachis ~5 cm long. An anti-inflemmatory.
see also Myristica horsfieldia
Agrostistachys ciricacea- Beru- - - -
Alangium lamarkii- Ruk Anguna- - - -
Alangium salviifolium - - ainkolam -
Alangium salviifolium Ruk Anguna- - alincil -
Alastonia scholaris- C.f., Alstonia S. Ruk Attana - - - Place name: Aettampana (Adampan)
Albizia amara - Iha - - - -
Albizia lebbeck Mara, Maara, Sooriya Mara - bhandi, sirisah -
Albizia odoratissima Sooriya Mara, Albezia, Girizeniya sirisa karuvagai Morphology:A very large tree with a thick, grey bark, spreading branches and pubescent young parts;leaves alternate, bipinnate compound, large, 10-15 cm long, pubescent with a single large sessile gland near the base and generally one between bases of termi.-
Allamanda cathartica Val Ruk Attana - - - -
Allium ascalonicum Rathuloonu- - - -
Allium sativum Suduloonu - - puntu, vellulli -
Allium choenoprasum L.(Chives) Sivi loonu - - Not native to SL, name perhaps from Portuguese "Cibolinha". The Latin "chive" is derived from "thin tissue" and agrees with the sinhala "civiya" and the pali-sanskrit "cheevra". Allophylus cobbe - Kobbe - - - -
Alocasia indica, A- macrorrhiza Habarala - - - Morphology:A robust herb with bright green, large, triangular-sagittate, slightly repand leaves withstrongly marked, whitish midrib and 6\u20148, strong, pale, secondary nerves. -
Alocasia macrorrhizos Nai Habarala - - - -
Aloe sp- Vel Komarika - - - A perennial herb with a very short, thick, cylindrical, simple, woody stem sending out at the base numerous stolons; roots fibrous and fleshy; leaves not very- numerous, sessile, densely crowded on the short stem with wide, dilated bases, spreading below.-
Aloe vera Komarika kumari nali -
Alpinia calcarata- Heen Araththa- - - -
Alpinia galanga Maha Araththa- - arattai,perarattai -
Alstonia scholaris, c.f., Alastonia S. Ruk Attana saptaparna elilaippalai see also under Datura
Attampana (Adampan), Attampanthala (Adampantalavu) Podidompe (Sinnadampan)
Alstonia venenata Midella raja-adana sinnappalai, palamunnipalai -
Alternanthera sessilis Mukunuwenna, Mukunuvaenna matsyaksaka ponnankanni, kotuppai A prostrate herb with numerous, subquadrangular, glabrous stems, 15-60 cm long.-
Alysicarpus vaginalis - Aswenna Aesvaenna- - - A semi-woody herbaceous annual with numerous long stems ~60 cm long, ascending, branched, wiry, glabrous, often rooting at the base; leaves alternate, 1-foliate, variable, ~1.2 cm long, on petioles about a third as long, varying from linear-lanceolate.-
Amaranthus oleraceus, A- paniculatus, A-spinosus. Thampala - - - See Amaranthus Tricolor for the common "Tampala".
A- paniculatus is a tall annual, ~1.2 m high with stout, grooved and striate, glabrous or slightly pubescent stems ; leaves simple, alternate, ~5 cm long, ~2.5cm broad, elliptic lanceolate, acute or acuminate, base cuneate, nerves slender, numerous.
A. Spinosus is much shorter, green. -
Amaranthus polygonoides- vael Tampala- - - A prostrate, glabrous herb with many spreading branches ; leaves small, 0.7\ufffd cm long, 0.5\ufffdm broad, obovate or obovate-lanceolate or spathulate, obtuse or rounded at apex, sharply apiculate. tapering to the petiole.-
Amaranthus tricolor Thampala tanduliyah ? cerikkirai,thandukkeerai Palahena (Palachenai) Palamotte (Palamoddai) Thampalagama (Tampalakamam)
Amaranthus viridis Koora Thampala tanduliyah kuppaikkirai, vakucakkirai -
Amorphophallus campanulatus Kidaran - - karakarunai, boomi sallaraikilangu -
Ampelocissus indica - Rata Bawlath Vael ? - - - -
Anacardium occidentale Kadju kajutaka muntiri, andimangottai -
Anaectochilus setaceus Vana raja mala - - -
Anamirta cocculus Thiththawel - Thiththavael Anamurthi- kakkai-k-kolli -
Ananas comosus Annnasi bahunetra, paravati anashap-pazham, poonthazham pazham -
Ananas sativus Annasi anannasa, ama annaci -
Andrographis paniculata Heen Kohomba- - nilavembu, nilavempu -
Andropogon contortus Itana - kavattampul? a grass
Andropogon squarrosus saevandara - - a grass
Angel mamelos, see Aegle marmelos Beli - - -
Anisochilus carnosus Kapparavalli - karppuravalli Medicinal: Stimulants,Coughs,Expectorants
Anisomeles indica - Yak Wanassa - - - -
Anisophyllea cinnamomoides - Welipiyanna, Vaelipiyana- - - -
Annona Muricata Katu Anoda, Anona - - -
Annona reticulata Vaeli Anoda lavani- aninuna, manilayatta -
Annona squamosa Anona sitaphala atta, sitapalam -
Anogeissus latifolia Dawu, Davu - - namai,vekkali A small or medium-sized tree with an erect trunk, very smooth whitish-grey bark and glabrous young parts; leaves simple, alternate or subopposite without stipules.-
Antiaris toxicaria Riti gaha - nettavil A tall evergreen tree about 40-45 m tall with a straight, trunk buttressed at the base and vertically panelled, mottled black and white bark; leaves simple, alternate, 10-20 cm long, oblong or oval-oblong, acuminate, mucronate, cuspidate, subcaudate, entire.-
Apium graveolens L. (Celery) Saeldiri, සැල්දිරි Ajmoda - Callari The name most likely came from the Latin "sedano". Not native to Sri lanka.
Aponogeton crispus - Kekatiya - - - A submerged, fresh-water herb with a tuberous, subspherical, stoloniferous rootstock leaves long-petioled. -
-Aporosa lindleyana Kebella, Kaebaella - - -
Ardisia humilis - Balu Dan - - - -
Areca catechu Puwak, Puvak puga, kramuka kamugu, pakku -
Areca concinna - Len Beri - - - -
Argyncia nervosa Girithilla - - kadal palai ? -
Argyreia nervosa, A- populifolia Girithilla - kakkatan -
Arisaema leschenaultii - Wal Kidaeam Val Kidaeam, Val Kidaram- - - Monoecious or dioecious luberous herb tuber globose, about 5 cm diameter roots from the upper side of the tuber stem about 15 cm long, clothed with long mottled sheaths; leaf solitary ; petiole stout. 30-60 cm long, pale green. mottled and handed with red.-
Armoracia rusticana G. M. Sch., Cochlearia armoracia, Armoracia lapathifolia (horseradish) Giniraabu, Rataraabu - - May have come from "Rabano", Poruguese, or "Boereradijs' (Dutch). Not native to Sri Lanka
Artanema longifolium - Gas Kotala - - machipatchai ?- -
Artocarpus Altilis Dell - palavu, Palaa, pila There are many species of breadfruit. They are hybrids of Artocarpus Altilis and Artocarpus mariannensis.
Artocarpus mariannensis Wal Dell ? - palavu, Palaa, pila ? There are many species of breadfruit. They are hybrids of Artocarpus Altilis and Artocarpus mariannensis.
read about varieties of bread fruit
Artocarpus Indica Varaka muraja-phala muracapalam, Varukkai -
Asparagus gonoclados Hathavariya - thanneervittan kizhangu, Sirumal -
Asparagus racemosus Haathavari satavari catavari, kilavari, Sandavari. -
Asteracantha longifolia, (Hydrophila auriculata, Hygrophilia spinosa) Ikiriya, Neeramulliya, kokila kokilaksa nirmulli Diuretic, native remedy for kidney stones, HerbalTeas
A perennial herb with an ascending rhizome ; stems numerous, 60-120 cm tall, erect, nearly unbranched, somewhat compressed, thickened at nodes and hispid with long hair between nodes leaves simple. sessile. whorled.-
Atalantia ceylanica - Yakinaran - - - -
Averrhoa Bilimbi Bilin - - -
Averrhoa carambola Kamaranga - - -
Avicennia marina, A. officinalis (Mangrove) Manda - Kanna -
Azadirachta indica Kohomba nimba- vempu, vembu, veppa, Aratikohombe (Aladiwembu) Maha-Vaedi-Kohombe (Mavidivembu) Kohombagamathota (Kombanachchi) Kohombaweva (Veppankulam) Kohombavaella (Veppanveli)

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Bacopa monnieri Lunuvila, Lunuwila Brahami pirami, piramiyam, carumam Place names: Lunuvilaweva (Panemiyankulam); Medicinal: Aperients, Diuretic.
Balanophora fungosa Thippili - yanai, thippali -
Bambusa vulgaris - Una - - - -
Barleria lupulina - Ranvan Katukarandu - - - -
Barleria prionitis - Katu Karandu - - cemmulli - A small shrub, ~0.6-1 m tall, much branched, branches cylindrical, swollen above nodes labroUs with sle er, very sharp spines in leaf axils, each with 3-ivaricate branches leaves simple. -
Barringtonia acutangula - Ela Midella, Diya Midella - - - -
Barringtonia asiatica Midella - - -
Basella alba (Spinache), c.f., Brassica alba Nivithi, Niwithi, Gam nivithi upodika venpacali, sivappu vasalakkirai -
Bassia latifolia, B. longifolia Mee, Madupa Madhupa iluppai, kattu iluppai Ranmeeweva (Irana-illupaikulam), Madhupahena (Illupayadichenai) Meepathota (Illupaikadavi)
Bauhinia racemosa Maila anupushpaka- svetakanchana atti, vellai mantarai Mahilaweva (Mahilankulam) Mahiyapitiya (Mahiyapitti) Mahilataenna (Mylanthanai) Maligaspitiya (Mayilagasthidar) Vakulavaedda (Makilavettuvan) Maligaspe (Mailakaspai)
A small tree with a thick, knotted trunk, much branched, bark blackish, very rough and much furrowed; leaves simple, alternate, small, conduplicate, 3.1-3.7 cm long, broader than long, truncate at base, cut 1/3 down into two broadly oval, rounded lobes.
Bauhinia tomentosa Petan asmantaka- kattatti,tiruvatti -
Benincasa hispida Alu Puhul Rasaksa ? Poosani, Pusalikkai, Vaidyakumbalam Puhulvaella (Pullawali) Pulmoddai (Puhulmotte) Puhuleliya (Puloli)
Berrya cordifolia Halmilla - Chamndalai, Chavandalai, Kambamaram Halmillavatta (Camulaiyativattai)
Birixa orilana Ratakaha karachhada- varagumanjal, mantiravanci -
Blepharis repens - Samadana - - - A slender, perennial herb with prostrate, hispid-hairy, slightly branched, wiry stems; lea sessile, in a whorl, two of each whorl larger than others, oblong, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.3 cm broad, obtuse or rounded at apex, glabrous or slightly scabrid, fleshy and pale.-
Blumea mills - Kukula - - - n annual herb with an erect stem ~30 cm high, branched above.-
Bombax ceiba Katu-Imbul, Pulun Imbul Shalmali, purani- mullilavu, ilavu See: Ceiba pentandra
Bombax malabaricum Katu Imbul mahavriksha ? purani, mullilavu, Poolai Imbul weva (Ilavankulam) Pulunkaduva (Poolaakkaadu)
Borassus flabellifer Tal gaha - panai -
Boswellia serrata Galaba Gaha ?- glabra - vellai kunkiliyam, muraiyidam, muruntapali A deciduous, medium-sized tree with an ash-coloured, papery bark which peels off in thin flakes; young shoots and leaves pubescent ; leaves alternate, crowded at the ends of branches.-
Bougainvillaea spectabilis Katurolu - kirusnakeli,kiruttinakeli -
-Brachiaria mutica Diya Tana - - - -
Brassica alba (Spinache), see Basella Alba - -Nivithi - - -
Brassica campestris rapa sarshapa- siddhartha karuppukkadugu -
Bridelia retusa Kaetakeela, Katakela ekavira- asana adamarudu, mulvengai -A small Iree with a smooth, pale yellowish-grey bark and rusty; leaves simple, alternate, numerous Biodiversity study in the Lunugala area .
Bruguiera cylindrica, B. sexangula (Mangrove) Mal Kadol - - -
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Mangrove) Mal Kadol - - -
Buchanania lanzan (almondette Tree) Morala - modamaram ? A tree, 12 m (?) tall, with a straight trunk and young branches clothed with silky hairs; leaves simple, a!terna entire, thickly coriaceous, ~12.5 cm long, ~6.2 cm broad, broadly oblong.-
Butea frondosa (Bastard teak, Flame of the Forest ) Pulas, Palas Parasan palacu, palasu, Murukku Parasanweva, Pulasweva (Parasangkulam)
Butea monosperma (Bastard teak, Flame of the Forest ) Pulas, Gas kela, Galkaela - - palacu Images

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Cacvaria Brachiata Davata - - -
Caesalpinia bonduc - (Nickar Nut) Kumburu - - kalarci, kazhar-shikkay - A stout climbing shrub with finely grey pubescent stems and straight small prickles; leaves alternate, very large, compound, main rachis ~12.5 cm long, cylindrical, finely woolly-pubescent.-
Caesalpinia crista - (fever nut, seabean) Diya-vavlaetiya, (Wavlatiya)- - - -
Caesalpinia major - (Nickerbean, Hawaii pearls) Kalu Wavlatiya, Kalu Vavlaetiya - - kazarci kalichikai An extensive climber with finely grey, downy branches armed with hooked and straight, hard, yellow prickles; leaves large, abruptly pinnate, 30\u201460 cm long, petiolás prickly- Picture
Caesalpinia sappan (Sapanwood) Patangi - - - A medium-sized tree 6\ufffd high with a prickly stem ~15cm diam-.
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) Thõra adhaki tuvarai -
Calamus rotang (Rattan) Heen wewel, heen vevael vetra- vetasa perambu, vaniram -
Callicarpa tomentosa Eela Gaha - kattukkumil, vettilaipattai -
Calophyllum bracteaum Keena - - -
Calophyllum inophyllum (Mastwood, Alexandrian laurel) Domba punnaga- punnai, pinnai Dombape (Punanai) Dombatuva (Punanaitupe) Dombape' (Punnalai) Dombakaduva (Punnalakadduvan)
Calophyllum tomertosum - eena, Tel-Keena - - - -
Calotropis gigantea Wara, Vara Sooryapathra, arka erukku, erukkam Flowers are frequented by Butterflies related to the Monarch Butterfly.
Calotropis procera Vaeli Wara? - vellai erukku -
Camellia sinensis, China tea The - thayilai -
Canarium zeylanicum Kekuna - - Pakkilipal A very large tree, with a pale, smooth, thin bark, buttressed roots and densely fulvous pubescent young shoots. leaves imparipinnate compound, alternate, Leaflets 3 pairs and a terminal.
Sinhala saying: "Val oouro kaekuna thalana vita haban kukulanta magul"
Canavalia obtusifolia Mooduvara - - This grows near the sea shore. "Vara" is a type of flowering plants appreciated by Monarch Butterflies.
Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) Ganja, Kansa ganjika- bhanga kanja, kanca Narcotic, this is described as "Triloka Vijayam" in Sanskrit texts. It is called "grass", "weed" in western street lore. In Colombo, street vendors will sell it (illegal) if you ask for a "mitiya". Use of marijuana is decriminalized (but no legalized) in Canada, Holland and a few other countries. Its possession etc., is a very serious offence with possibility of capital punishment in Singapore.
A proposal to decriminalize Cannibas in Sri Lanka was made by Dr. Chandre Dharmawardana of the Department of C hemistry, Vidyodaya University, at a meeting of the Institute of Chemistry, Sri Lanka in 1972. Dr. Kottagoda, Dean of the medical colleage as well as Dr. Para Chandrasoma, Prof. of Psychiatry vehemently spoke against the proposal. Dr. Dharmawardana argued that Tobacco was far more dangerous, and in comparison, the existing criminalization of marijuana was mis-directed. The plant looks like the "daas mal (indian lilly) bush and grows very easily in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. The then member of Parliament for Hambanthota (Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa), and the Police were helpful in obtaining a specimen plant for the Institute of Chemistry sessions.
Canrium Zelanicum Kekuna, Kaekuna - - -
Capparis horida, Capparis moonii Wellangiriya, Vellangiriya - turatti A climbing shrub with long, divaricate branches,eaves simple, alternate, oval-lanceolate or oblong, 4. 2- 5 cm long. -
Capparis zeylanica (Ceylon Caper,Indian Caper ) Kinkini kinkani, tapasapriya adondai atontai -
Capsicum annuum (green peppers) Malumiris katuvira- pittakarini milakai -
Capsicum frutescenes (peppers, chillies) Miris maricha milagai The word "miris" is derived from the word "maricha" found in sanskrit, probably coming there from earlier proto- Rig Veda (10th centruy BCE) languages. Sinhala and Tamil (3rd century BCE) have picked up their "marcicha" stems from the sanskrit-prakrit forms.An ancient Buddhist temple of the Anuradhapura civilization (5 century BCE to 8 century CE) is known as "Mirisavaetiya" (Mirisavatiya), or "peper-wall" Pagoda (161-137 BCE). It is said that the king named this dagaba 'Mirisavatiya' because the king Dutugamuni who built this Dagaba forgot to present a food made with chilli (miris) to the Buddhist monks before he consumed it. It was the practise of the king to present a portion of all the food which is cooked in his palace to the monks before he consume it.
Carallia calycina Ubberiya - - -
Cardiospermum halicacabum, C microcarpum Wel Penela, Vael Penela jyotismati- indravalli kottavan, mutakkarran Medical uses as a tisane-
Careya arborea Kahata - - kumbi -
Carica papaya Paepol, Gaslabu erandakarkati- madhukarkati pappayi, pappali -
Carissa carandas Karanda, Maha Karamba karamardaka- kila, kala A small tree or a large shrub, with numerous, divaricate branches and vcry sharp horizontal spines, often branched .-
Carissa spinarum Karamba karamarda chirukila, sirukila Karambavila (Siruvilan) Karambapona (Karampon) Karambapitiya (Siruppiddy)
Carmona microphylla - Heen Tambala - - - A shrub, l-1.3 rn tall with numerous, slender, divaricate branches with a reddish brown - cracked bark leaves simple, small. ~0.7 cm long, ~0.6 cm broad.-
Carum Ajowan Assamodagam- - Amam -
Caryota urens Kitul mada- sritalah kuntarpanai, talippanai A tall unarmed palm, trunk ~13m tall and ~0.3m diam., cylindric, annulate, not soboliferous, flowering when full grown from axils of leaves beginning with the upper and thence successively downward, a male and female spadix alternating and then dying.-
Casearia zeylanica - Wal Waraka, Val varaka - - - -
Cassia alata, also Cassia didymobotrya Eth Thora, Aeth thora - - A large shrub with very thick, finely downy branches; leaves large, subsessile, 30cm long, pinnate, leaflets 8-pairs, each 5 cm long.-
Cassia amara Sinkona - - -
Cassia angustifolia, see Cassia senna Senehe Kola - - A small shrub with stems 0.6 m high, erect, smooth pale green somewhat zigzag with long spreading branches.-
Cassia auriculata Ranavara, Ranawara avartaki- avarai, avaram A large, much branched shrub with smooth cinnamon brown bark and closely pubescent branchlets.-
Cassia fistula Aehaela, Ehela aragvadha- konrai, konnai, Mullaimaram A small or moderate-sized tree with slender branches and pale grey bark when young, brown and rough when old; leaves alternate, stipulate, abruptly pinnate compound, large.-
Cassia occidentalis Pani Thora - - peyavirai,ponnavirai A coarse annual, 30\u201490 cm high, stem slightly branched. nearly glabrous, furrowed, purplish.-
Cassia roxburghii Wa - - -
Cassia senna, see Cassia angustifolia Seneha kola - nilavirai, nelavakai ? -
Cassia siamea Wa - - mancatkonrai -
Cassia sophera Uru Thora - - ponnavirai-
Cassia surattensis Wal Ehela, Val Aehala - - -
Cassia tora Peti Thora - thagarai- -
Cassine balae Kabella, Kaebella - - -
Catharanthus roseus Minee Mal - - -
Cayratia pedata Garandi- Dul-Vael, Madiya Wael pedata tiripatakam, kattuperandai, kitamatti -
Ceasalpinia longana Monara Pila - - -
Ceiba pentandra Imbul, Kotta - ilavu See also Bombax Ceiba;
Produces a cotton-like fiber in its pods. The tree is called "white cotton" in English. Also,"Kapok". A tall tree with a smooth, greenish-white, glabrous bark and horizontal primary branches in whorls of three ; leaves alternate, digitate or palmate, closely placed on long petioles leaflets 5 or 7 on short winged stalks.-
Celastrus paniculatus, Celastrus panicuhtus Duhudu- - vaaluluvai -
Celtis cinnamomea Gurenda - - -
Celtis timorensis Brunda - - -
Centella asiatica Gotukola mandukaparni- parni~ vallarai -
Centipeda minima Visa Dooli - - A small, annual herb with numerous, prostrate, slender, branching stems ~5cm long, spreading from the centre; leaves simple, alternate, subsessile.-
Centranthera indica, Centratherum indica Dutu Saputa ? - kovai ?- -
Cerbera manghas, Cerbera odoloam Kaduru auddalakah- - -
Ceriops tagal (mangrove like) Rathu Kadol - Chirukandal -
Ceropgia candelabrum Wel Mota, Vael Mota - - -
Swietenia macrophylla Burutha - tettankottai Kaluburuthamaduva (Kollamarutamadu) Buruthamaduva (Maruthamadu) Buruthoya (Maruthodai)
Chloroxylon swietenia Handun bhillotaka- varimarai -
Chloroxylon swietenia Sandun Chandana vaimari Chandana (Chankanai)
Chrysophyllum LaaOlu - - -
Chukrasia tabularis, Chukrasia velutina Hulan-hik, Ull-hik - agil, Aayili, Malaivempu -
Cicer arietinum Konda Kadala - - -A viscid, much branched annual herb; leaves alternate, pinnate compound, 2. 5\u20145 cm long with usually a terminal leaflet, leaflets about 6 mm long, ovate-oblong to obovate, deeply toothed and strongly veined.
Cinamomum iteodaphne Kalu Nika ? - - -
Cinnamomum camphora Kapuru - - karppuram -
Cinnamomum dubium, Cinnamomum verum Kurundu - - -
Cinnamomum litseafolium Kuda Kurundu - - -
Cinnamomum tamala (Indian bay leaf) Baala Kurundu ? Tejapatra, tamalapattra ? - Talishapattiri, Ilavangapattiri Not native to sri Lanka, but has been planted in the Hill country.
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Kurundu, කුරුඳු Twale, Tvak,Darusita Karuva கருவா, ilavankappattai, n.b., 'ilavangam" is also associated with cloves Kurundugolla (Karuvaachchoalai) Kurundukaenna (Karuvaakkeani) Kurundu watta (Karuvakaadu) Kurundanvaeva (Kurundankulama)
This is a highly desired type of cinnamon, specific to Sri Lanka. Attempts to transplant it has failed, except in South India and Burma.   Picturs and discussions, 2250 species of cinnamon
Cipadessa baccifera Halbembiya - - savattuchedi -
Cissampelos pareira Diyamiththa - - appatta, ponmucuttai A small woody twiner with straggling branches, young shoots whip-like and pubescent;leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, entire, small, 3.8\u20146.3 cm long, ovate-orbicular or reniform-orbicular.-
Cissus latifolia Wal Diya Labu - - -
Cissus quadrangularis Heeressa - pirantai, perandai - -
Citrullus colocynthis Yak Komadu - - varagamothankodi -
Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. Acida Dehi jambira ? elumiccai -
Citrus aurantium Ambul Dodang - - -
Citrus crenatifolia Naran, Naaran - - Naranthanna (Naranthanai)
Citrus grandis Embul Dodam, Aembul Dodang - - -
Citrus medica Sidaran - campiram - -
Citrus limon Dehi jambira elumichai -
Citrus nobilis Jamba naran - - -
Citrus reticulata Heen Naran - - -
Citrus sinensis Pani Dodang - - -
Clausena indica MeeGon Karapinccha - - -
Cleidion javanicum Okuru - - -
Cleistanthus collinus Madara - - oduppai, odugu A small tree with a corky, pustulate, reddish-grey bark and stout spreading branches;leaves simple, alternate, few, rather large.-
Cleistocalyx nervosum Bata Damba - - -
Clerodendrum inerme Galinda, Boearende - - kuppi, -
Clerodendrum infortunatum, C. serratum Gas-Pinna, Kalupinna bhandira- karukanni, Perugilai, vellaikkanni -
Clitoria ternatea Katarolu - kakkanam, kakkattan A perennial twining herb with long, cylindrical stems covered with scantily adpressed hair; leaves alternate, stipulate, imparipinnate compound.-
Clotalaria juncea Andana Hiriya. Andana Heeriya - - -
Coccinia grandis, Coccinia indica Kowakka< /TD> - kovai, matupakku -
Cocos nucifera, coconut pol, Thambili Naarikela,Nāḷikerika, Narikela Thennnai, Ila The origin of the word "Pol" has been extensively debated. Hettiarachchi has suggested an austro-nesian origin.
Cochlosermum gossypium Kinihiri - - -
Coffea arabica Kopi - kappi, kapikottai -
Coleus amboinicus Kapparawalliya, Kapparavalliya karpuravalli- muttainari -
Coleus elongates Gal Kapparawalliya, Kapparavalliya - - -
Colocasia esculenta Gahala - - cempu, pantaki -
Connarus monocarpus Radaliya - - -
Corallocarpus epigaea Gopalanga - aakaasagarudan A perennial, tendril climber with a large, turnip-shaped root and succulent, zig-zag, glabrous and glaucous stems.-
Cordia obliqua Bahuvara sukshmaphala- laghupichhila ? naruvili, villi Bahuvaramuraya (Kulamurippu) Bahuvara wewa (Naruvilikkulam)
Coriandrum sativum, (Coriander, Cilantro, Indian/Chinese Parsley) Koththamalli, Kutsumbari, Dhänyaka, Kustumbrü. kottumalli, Kotthmulli 'mulli' is a word for 'batu' However, "kotthamalli, as well as the Malayali and Tamil Kottthumalli may have come from the Sanskrit "Kutsumbari →Kuttumbali" → kottamalli
Well known ancient spice, and medical uses.
Corypha umbraculifera, (Talipot) Talapath, (Puskola path) Talapathra talippanai, talappam -
Coscinium fenestratum Wenivael gaeta, Baanvaelgaeta - - A woody climber with a smooth bark, young shoots densely and finely yellow-tomentose;leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, large.-
Costus speciosus Thebu kemuka- canda kostam, kottam -
Cotylelobium scabriusculum Namendora, Namenddara - - -
Couroupita guianensis Sal - Naagalingam tree, Kunturukkam Saalavanaya (Lavanai) Ambasaalava (Sempankundu) Saaliya weva
Crataeva religiosa Lunuwarana - A small tree with a grey bark, much branched, the young twigs marked prominently with leaf scars; leaves alternate, 3-foliate, deciduous, leaflets shortly stalked.- -
Crinum asiaticum Tholabo nagadamani- sudarsana visha moongil A large bulbous herb, about 90 cm tall with a bulb 5-10 cm diameter, narrowed into a neck, l5\u201430 cm long, clothed in old leaf sheaths; leaves simple. Caterpillar growth-
Crinum zeylanicum Goda Manel - - -
Crotalaria juncea Andana Hiriya- - kuttu -
Crotalaria laburinifolia,Crotalaria verrucosa Yak Beriya - - -A large, much branched herb
Crotalaria retusa, Croton laccifer Kappetiya - kilukiluppai -
Croton tiglium Japala - - nervalam, nagandi -
Croton caudatus Wel kappetiya - - -
Cryptocarya membranacea Thavvaenna - - -
Cryptolepis buchananii Kalukohola ?Vael Rukaththana ? Krishnasarva, karanta palkoti, Gopavalli, Maddankodi Kalukolladoova (Karungkodith-theevu)
Cucumis melo, Cucumis callosus Kaekiri Karkati vellarikkay Kakirimaduwa (Kachchilamadu)
Cucumis sativus Pipingna trapusha- vellarikkay, vellari -
Cucurbita maxima Wattakka, Vattakka gudayogaphala- dangari carkkaraipparanki, paranki -
Cullenia rosayroana Wal Durian, Katamoda - - -
Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) Sooduru - - shiragam, cirakam -
Curculigo orchioides Bin Thal - nilappanai, kuratti -
Curcuma aromatica Wal Kaha, VadaKaha - katturi mancal, kasturi-manjal -
Curcuma domestica Kaha - - -
Curcuma longa (tumeric, Indian saffron) Kaha - mancal Tumeric
Curcuma zedoaria Haran kaha - - -
Cuscuta reflexa Cascuta, Gaskuta - cuppiracaram- A leafless, twining, parasitic annual with long branched, closely twining, succulent and brittle, glabrous, pale greenish yellow stems, sometimes dotted with red; leaves absent; flowers regular, bisexual, small, white, scented, on short, glabrous, curved.
Cyathula ceylanica Bim karal heba - civappu nayuruvi, cirukatalati -
Cycas circinalis Madu - kamappu -
Cyclea barmanni Kehipiththan, Kaehipiththan - ponmucuttai ?- -
Cymbopogon citratus Sera bhutika- karenduka karppurappul, vasanapulla -
Cymbopogon confertiflorus Mana, Maana - - -
Cymbopogon nardus Heen Pangiri - - -
Cynometra iripa Opalu - - -
Cyperus rotundus Kalanduru, wammutu - muttakkacu, korai " If the ground slopes to the west and if kalanduru grass (Cyperus rotundus) grows there, then the site is suitable for the Sudra caste." Mayimataya)

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Datura fastuosa Attana, Thunbo Aththana dhattura adukkumattai -
Datura metel Attana, Sudu Attana sveta-dhaturah vellaiyumattai -
Dendrobium Parevi mal - - -
Desmodium gangeticum -Undupiyaliya - pulladi A slender undershrub, with cylindrical, nearly glabrous stems and hairy young parts; leaves alternate, stipulate.-
Desmodium gyrans Pranajeewa, Praanajeeva - - -
Desmodium heterocarpon Undupialli, Maha undupiyali - pullati -
Desmodium triflorum Undupialli, Heen undupialli - -- -A very small perennial herb, 15-45 cm long with numerous, long,, slender, prostrate branches rooting at nodes, clothed with white spreading hairs; leaves small, alternate, stipulate, trifoliate.-
Dialium ovoideum Gal Siyambala - - --
Dichrostachys cinerea Andara Bahuvaraka, Virtaru vitattalai, vedathalam Andaradoova (Vidataltivu) Andaravala (Vidatalpalai)
Dillenia indica Honda para Ruvya uva A moderate-sized, round-headed tree with a cinnamon-brown bark; leaves very large, closely placed.
Dillenia retusa Goda Para - - -
Dimarphocalyx glabellus Weli Wanna, Vaeli Vaenna - - -
Dimocarpus longan MORA - cempuvan, Murali, Nurai -
Dimocarpus longan Mora - Kaduppuvam, cempuvam -
Diospyros atrata Kalu Kenda - - -
Diospyros attenuata, c.f, D.melanoxylon D. ebenaster (?) Kadumberiya - - -
Diospyros chaetocarpa, c.f., Diospyros oppositifolia Kalu Madiriya - - -
Diospyros ebenum Kaluvara, Kaluwara - - -
Diospyros melanoxylon D. ebenaster (?) Kaduberiya - karai- -
Diospyros malabarica, D. glutinosa Timbiri - thumbai -
Diospyros oocarpa Kalukadumberiya - vekurakalimaram -
Diospyros oppositifoliya Kalumediriya, Kalumaediriya - - -
Diospyros Ovilfolia KunuMaella - - -
Diospyros quaesita D. hirsuta, (Calamander wood) Kulu maediriya, kalu-medhiriya - - -
Dipteracanthus ringens Nil Puruk - - -
Dipterocarpus glandulosus Dorana - - A large tree. about 55 m tall with a straight trunk, pale grey bark flaking off irregularly.
Dipteracarpus Zelanicus Hora - - Horagolla (Norachcholai)
Dodonaea viscosa Eta Wararalla, Aeta Vaeralla- - virali -
Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) Kollu - Kollu paruppu, Kulad An annual hairy herb with nearly erect stems and climbing branches; leaves compound. trifoliate, leaflets nearly equal, often lobed.-
Drypetes sepiaria Veera, Wira, Weera - - Veeragolla (Veerancholai)
Dregea volubilis Kiri Anguna - - A very large, twining shrub with long, glabrous branches leaves simple, opposite.
Drsmos elegans, Dresmos elegans Kudu Mirissa - - see Capsicum frutescenes
Drymaria quercifolia Benduru - - -
Drypetes sepiaria Weera, Veera - - -
Durio zibethinus Dooriyan - - -

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Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Echinochloa crus-galli Wel Maruk, Vael Maruk - - -
Eclipta alba, Eclipta prostrata Keekirndiya - karippan, kaikeshi An erect or prostrate annual herb, often rooting at nodes, with many diffuse reddish branches.
Entada pursaetha Maha pus vael - - Puswallava
Elaeocarpus montanus Kok Mota - - -
Elaeocarpus serratus Weralu, Veralu chiribilva- aravata karai, ulankarai -
Elaeocarpus garnitrus Maha-mad(h)atiya, Rath-veralu Rudraksha - Gurusiripura (Uruthirapuram)
Elaeocarpus subvillosus Gal Veralu - - -
Elephantopus scaber Eth Adi, Aeth Adi - anattuccivan, anashovadi -
Elettaria cardamomum Ensal, Enasal - elam, irrelam -
Elettaria cardamomum - - cirrelam -
Eleusine coracana Kurakkan rajika - Iraaki, ragi, kelvaragu Oora-kurahanan (Pantrichurichchan)
Eleusine indica BaluTana, Kurakkan - kevuru Dog grass
Embelia ribes -Walangasal, Valangasal - vayvilankam -
Embryopteris glutinifera - - Thimbiriya (Thumpalai) -
Emilia sonchifolia Kadu Pahara - - A perennial herb with prostrate or decumbent stems, becoming erect at the ends, much branched, glabrous and often rooting; leaves simple, alternate, sessile.
Entada phaseoloides Maha Puswel, Maha Pusvael - - An immense woody climber with a thick trunk and long twisted snake-like branches;leaves alternate, stipulate, bipinnate compound, large, main rachis 15-25 cm long, stiff and semi-woody ending in a bifid spiral tendril by which the plant climbs.-
Entada pusaetha Pus Weal, Pusvael - - -
Eriodendron anfractuosum, E. orientale Imbul, Pulun Imbul Salmali Illanku Imbulgoda would be a typical toponym.
Ervatamia divaricata Wathusudda - - A perennial shrub, ~1 m tall.
Eryngium foetidum Andu - - -
Erythrina indica, Eritrina indica Erabadu - - kaliyana murukkan -
Erythrina fusca Katu Kela, Katu Kaela - - -
Erythrina suberosa Katu Erabadu - - velaikkaliyanamurukkam -
Erythrina variegata Erabadu එරබදු paribhadra- mullumurukku large tree with a thin, smooth, grey bark.
Erythroxylum monogynum Devadaram, Devadaaram- - pittaru -
Erythroxylum moonii Bata Kirilla - - -
Eugenia caryophyllaea (cloves) Karabu Neti, Karaabu Naeti - kirampu,ilavankam -
Eugenia farancia Pini Jumbu - - -
Eugenia jambos Damba, Jambu - perunaval,sambunagai -
Euphorbia antiquorum Daluk - - kalli, caturakkalli -
Euphorbia hirta Bu dada keeriya Boodath Keeriya - amman paccarici,cututuratticceti -
Euphorbia indica Ela Dada Keeriya, Eladath Keeriya - - -
Euphorbia neriifolia Kola Patok - - A large, glabrous, fleshy, erect shrub or small tree..8\u20144.5 m tall, branches round, somewhat verticillate with pairs of sharp stipular spines arising from low, conical, truncate, distant, spirally arranged tubercles.
Euphorbia tirucalli Navahandi -vajradruma kalli, kombukkalli -
Evolvulus alsinoides Vishnukranthu vishnugandhi- vishnukarandi, visnukiranti -
Exacum trinervium Binara, Binnara - - -
Exallage auricularia Gata Kola, Gaeta Kola - - -
Excoecaria agallocha (Blinding Tree) Thela - tillai, Thilla Tillaiyadi in the Puttalam district. This is a mangrove with a poisonous milk
Excoecaria agallocha - - thillai -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Fagraea ceilanica, Fagraea Zeylanica (?) Eta Muru, Aeta Muru - - -
Feronia elephantum Ali Divul - vilatti, vilamaram -
- - -
Feronia limonia Divul dadhittha- kapittha vila -
Feronia limonia Dimbul - norivila, Villati, Villan KUDAA-DIMBULGALA (Kudumpimalai) DIVULMOTTE (Vilattimoddai) DIVULVAEVA (Vilattikulam) MAHADIULVAEVA (Periya-Vilankulam)
Ferula asafoetida, (Asafoetida, Asoefatida, Stinking gum, Devil's dung) Perunkaayam, පෙරුම්කායම් gandakaha,ගඟකහ - Tamil: பெருங்காயம் Perungayam, malayala: Kayam, Perungayam, Kannada: Ingu 'fetid' smell implies a bad smell. "Asa" is a latinized form of Persian 'aza' - resin
Indian cooking, medicine Botany and pictures
Ficus arnottiana Kaputu Bo plaksha, nandi Kalaal, Pulila -
Ficus benghalensis Nuga -nyagrodha alamaram, al -
Ficus benghalensis Nuga, Mahanuga Vata - -
Ficus fergusoni Kos Gonna - - -
Ficus hispida Kota Dimbul - peyatti, kattatti -
Ficus lucescens Kalaha - - -
Ficus racemosa Aththikka sadaphala atthi -
Ficus racemosa Attikka udumbarah atti -
Ficus religiosa Bo, Bodhi Bodhi vruksha, asvattha, Bodhirukka (pali) asvattam, arasu -
Ficus sperata Boo Daeliya - - -
Ficus tinctoria Val Aehaetu, Wal Ehetu - itti -
Ficus tinctoria, Ficus tsiela Ehetu - kallitti,irattiri -
Ficus virens Kadol ?, Kaputu Bo? - varaiyalmuram, Kalaal Bogandara (Ittikkandal)
Filicium decipiens Pihibiya - - -
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel, Anise) Maaduru,මාදුරු Madhurika, Shatpushpa Perunjiragam, Sohikirai, Sombu "Maaduru", may be a contraction of the sanskrit "Madhurika".
spice very often confused with Anise and Dill. Alternative discussions and pictures
Flacourtia cataphracta, F. ramontchi Rata Ugurassa, Ugurassa - - -
Flacourtia indica, F. inermis Lovi - kurumulli, cottaikkala -
Fraxinus profunda Rata Puhul - - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Gaesalpiinia bonduc Kumburu Wel, Kumburu Vael - - -
Garcinia cambogia Goraka - Kodakka -
Garcinia mangostana Mangoos, Maengus - - -
Garcinia morella, Garcinia quaesita,Garcinia terpnophylla Kokatiya, Gokatiya kankustha- makki, makkimaram -
Garcinia xanthrochymus Kolon, jamala - - -
Gassipourea ceylanica Peti Thora - - -
Girardinia zeylanica Gas Kahambiliya - - -
Gisekia pharnacioides Atthiripala, Aeth-iri-palaa - - -
Glenica unijuga Kuma - - -
Gliricidia maulata Ginihiriya - - -
Gloriosa superba (glory Lilly) Niyangala agnisikha- langali kalappaik-kilangu, kantal, Karthigai Place name: Niyagala veva (Niyankallikulam).
Glorry Lilly is the "official" LTTE flower; it is also associated with Murugan, sacrificial love etc. (Thanninyagam, X. S. Landscape and Poetry 1966). The Pali text society dictionary , p179, refers to the Karavila (Momordica charantia) flower under the word "Kantha" (c.f., Tamil Kantal), and its use as a wreath on criminals ready for execution. The Karawila flower is similar to the Niyangala flower.
Glycosmis angustifolia Bolpana - - -
Glycosmis pentaphylla -Dodam pana - konchi, kattu-k-konci -
Glycosmis pentaphylla - - kattu-k-konci
Gmelina arborea Eth Demata Aeth Demata - kumil, kumalan -
Gmelina asiatica Demata biddari- kumil, nilakkumil -
Goniothalamus gardneri Kalu Kera - - -
Gossypum herbaceum - - Kapu Pulun
Grewia damine Daminna, Daminiya - - -
Grewia microcos Kohu Kirilla - - -
Grewia polygama Bora Daminiya, Bora Daminna - - -
Grewia tilifolia Damina, Daminaa, Daminiya - unnu- -
Guettarda speciosca Nil Pichcha - - -
Gymnema lactiferum Kuri-anguna - kurintai Kurinchagama (Kurinchakemy) Kurinchapitiya (Kurinjanpitai)
Gymnema sylvestre Masbedda, Kunngjan - kurintai, sirukurinjan -
Gynandropsis gynandra Vela, Vehela - velai,nal velai - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Haldina cordifolia Kolon - - -
Hedyotis nitida Ul Weraniya, Ul Vaeraniya - - -
Helianthus annuus Sooriya Kaantha, - curiyakantam - -
Helicteres isora Lihiniya - valampurikkay - -
Heliotropium indicum Et Hoda, Aeth Honda - tetkotukki, tenkitacceti - -
Hemidesmus indicus Iramusu sariva- nannari, kirusnavalli Iramuduweva (Ilamaruthankulam)
Heritiera littoralis Ethuna - - rlated to mangroves
Heteropogon contortus Tana - ucippul -
Hevea brasiliencis Rubber - Irappar -
Hibiscus esculentus Bandakka - - -
Hibiscus micranthus Bebila, Baebila - - -
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pokuru Wada, Pokuru Wadamal - semparuthi -
Hibiscus tiliaceus Beli Patta - nirpparutti -
Hippocratea macrantha Diya Kirindi Wel, Diya Kirindi Vael - - -
Hiptage benghalensis Puwakgedi Vael, Vael Puvak - kurukkatti, madavi -
Holarrhena mitis Kiriwalla, Kirivaella - - -
Holoptelea integrifolia Goda Kirilla - - aya, aval -
Hordeum Vulgare (Barley) Barley - - -
Hoya pauciflora Heen Aramana - - -
Hugonia mystax Boo Gatiya - kodivirai -
Humboldtia laurifolia Gal karanda - - Ants, wasps associated with this plant Krombein K et al, 1997. . Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 99(1): 42-49.
Hydnocarpus venenata Makulla - - -
Hydrocolyle javanica Maha Gotukola - - -
Hydrophylax maritima Moodu-gaeta-kola, Moodu-gotukola - - --


Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Ichnocarpus frutescens Kiri Wal, Kiri Vael - pal valli, paravalli -
Ilex zeylanica Andunwenna, Andunvaenna - - -
Imperata Cylindrica Iluk darbhah- - Ilukpitiya (Malayadi Kanda) Mahailukweva (Periyaulukulam) Illukweva (Ullukkulam)
Impetiens repens Galdemata - - -
Indigofera aspalathoides Rat Kohomba - - kantari,civanar vempu -
Indigofera enneaphylla Bin Avari, Bim Aeveri - ceppu-neruncil -
IIndigofera suffruticosa, ndigofera tinctoria Nil Averia,Nil Awariya, Nil Aevariya nili- Neela Amari, avuri, Nili AEVARIVATTA (Amarivayal)
Ipomoea aquatica Kankun kalambi- nalikam, vallikkoti -
Ipomoea asarifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae Bim Tamburu,Bin Tamburu - - -
Ipomoea nil Tel Kola, Thel Kola - sirikki,kakkattan -
Ipomoea obscura Tel Kola - cirutali, kuruvilatcumi -
Ipomoea pes-caprae Bin-thambura - vilattaru, attukkal,
("adampu" has not been used for this plant))
Attampana (Adampana)
Ipomoea pes-tigridis Divi adiya, Divi Pahauru vyaghranakhi- punaikkirai -
Ipomoea tribula Waha Thella, Vaha Thella - - -
Ipsea speciosa Nagameru Ala, NagaMaeru Ala - - -
Ixora coccinea Rat Mal - kullai,vetci -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Jasminum angustifolium Wal Pichcha, Val Samnpichcha, Saman pichcha vanamalli- asphota kattumullai, Nitykalyani ? This flower, and Jasminum grandiflorum play a central role in Buddhist and Hindu temple floral offerings, garlands etc.
A scandent semi-shrubby climber with glabrous stems but the twigs pubescent; leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, very variable on the same plant.
Jasminum grandiflorum Saman Pichcha, Pichcha - picci Buddhist and Hindu temples use these flowers in abundance.
A climbing shrub with green stems; leaves opposite, odd-pinnate
Jasminum malabaricum Pichcha - mullai -
Jasminum sambac ata pichcha - kodimalli, malligai A suberect shrub with pubescent young branches; leaves simple, opposite, membranous.-
Jatropha curcas Weta Endaru, Vaeta Erandu - eliyamanakku,kattamanakk A large shrub or small tree containing a sticky opalescent juice; leaves simple, alternate. Medicinal (purge)
Jatropha gossypifolia Rath Endaru - adalai
Jatropha multisydu Mayurapada Endaru - - Medicinal. -
atropha podagrica Vishakumba, Wishakumba - - -
Jonesia Asoca, J. Asoka Diya Rathmal - - -
Justicia adhatoda Adhathoda attarusha- adathodai -
Justicia botanica Sudu Puruk - - A shrub, 0.5-1.5 m tall with erect, cylindrical, glabrous stems, swollen and purple above the nodes.
Justicia gendarussa Kalu Vaeraniya - karunocci -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Kaempferia galanga, c.f.,Knoxia zeylanica Inguru Piyali - kacholum -
Kalanchoe laciniata Akkapana hemasagara- parnabija kkattukkalli, ranakalli -
Kalanchoe pinnata Akkapana asthibhaksha- viranakkalli, irankall -
Kandelia rheedii Kadol - Kandal SERUKADOLA (Cherukkandal) Vaetagandara (Vaddakandal) Monarakadola (Mannakandal) Naedunkadola (NaddanKandal)

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Lagenaria siceraria Diyalabu katutumbi- tiktalabu suraikai, sorakkai -
Languas galanga Kaluwala - - -
Lannea coromandelica Hik ajasringgi- udi, anaikarai Hikkandiya (Sittandi),   Hikgoda (Thikkodai)
Lantana camara Gandapana - - puchedi, arippu -
Lantana indica Gandapaana - nativaricceti, kutampai -
Laportea interrupta Val Kahambiliya - perunkanchori -
Lasia spinosa Kohila Abhiru - A stout, spiny, marshy plant with a creeping, spiny rootstock.   Picture
The sharpness of the "kohila" spines is the basis of a sinhala proverb: Kimbulage dathen beerunath kohila katuven beerenna baehae.
Lawsonia inermis, L. spinosa
(Henna, campire)
Marathonda,
Mehaenda
madayantika, ragangi, sakachera maroodaniei, Marudhaani much branched shrub, the lateral branches 4-gonous often ending in a sharp point;leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, small
Henna Plant
Leea indica Burulla - ottanali,niyakku -
Lens culinaris Parippu - - -
Leonotis nepetaefolia Maha Yak Vanassa- - ranaperi -
Lepurandra saccidora Ritigaha - - -
Leucaena leucocephla Ipil Ipil - - -
Leucas biflora Vilandavaenna - - -
Leucas zeylanica Gaeta Thumba - - -
Limonia acidissima Divul, Diwul, Dimbul kapitthah narivila -
Lippia nodiflora Hiramana Daetta - poduthalai (?) -
Lobelia nicotianifolia Val Dunkola - kattupugaiyilai -
Lowsonia interims Maarahonda, Maarathonda - - -
Luffa acutangula Vaetakolu amara kirutavetanai, pekankai,pirkku, maruluvikam -
Luffa cylindrica Niyan Vaetakolu - melukupirkku, pontukapirkku -
Lumnitzera racemosa (Mangrove) Beriya - Tipparethai -
Lumnitzera littorea (Mangrove) Beriya - - -
Lycopersicon esculentum Thakkaali - pennacikam, pennakicacceti -
Lycopodium phlegmaria Maha Haediya - - A pendulous epiphyte 15cm long, dichotomously branched, always stramineous; leaves close, spreading or ascending, ovate or ovate-lanceolate.-
Lycopodium squarrosum Kuda Haediya - - -

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Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Macaranga peltata Keanda - - vattakkanni, vattattamarai A small tree with stout, green branchlets covered with a glaucous bloom and marked with large leaf and stipule scars when young; leaves simple, alternate, very large, 22.5 cm long,broadly ovate.-
Madhuca longifolia, Madhuca fulva Mee, madupa madhuka iluppai, iluppai ennai Meegamuwa (Neerkozimpu)   (Negambo)
Meepathota, Madhpathota   (Iluppaikadavai)
Madhuca indica Urulumee, Hurulu Mee - - -
Malaluca leucadendron Lothsumbul, RothImbul - - -
Mallotus eriocarpus Val Kappetiya, Wal Kappetiya - - -
Mallotus tetracoccus Boo kenda, Bu Kaenda - - -
Mangifera indica, Mangifera foetida Mee Amba, Amba amra, sahakara Ma, Mamaram, Amiram, Mangai AMBAVATHTHANA (Ammivaittan) AMBAGAMA (Ampakamam), Ambagaskolla (Kokumarankuli)
Mangifera zeylanica Atamba, Aetamba - - -
Manihot utilissima Manioc kalpakandah- darukandah maravaati, maravalli, al-vallik-kizhangu -
Manilkara hexandra Palu rajadana- cappotta Paludohona (Palayadithona) Paluraajaweva (Palaiyatisirukkulam) Palugama (Palukamam) Sirirpalugama (Thirupalugamam)
Manilkara zapota van Royen, Manilkara achras Fosb. Sapodilla - cappotta -
Manilkara zapotilla Gilly Sapadilla - cimaiyiluppai -
Marsdenia tenacissima Maruvadul, Muruwadul - - A lar shrubby. twining plant with stout. bluntly angular. densely velvety and hairy branches leaves simple serv large. opposite. l5-l 7.5 cm long and nearly as wide, deeply cordate with rounded lobes at base.-
Melastoma malabathricum Maha Bovitiya - kadallai -
Melia azadirachta Lunu Midella - tuttai, veppamaram, malaivembu -
Meliosma pinnata Ael Baedda - - -
Memecylon edule Korakaha anjani- kaca -
Memecylon grande Daedi Kaha - - -
Mentha sylvestris (Wild Mint) Minchi - - -
Merremia tridentata Heen Maaduvael - tirippanpul, auvaiyar kundal -
Merremia umbellata Kiri maduvael - - -
Messua nagassarium (Iron wood) Naa nagakesarah- Peri National Tree of Sri Lanka
Mesua ferrea Na, Naa nagakesarah- nagapuspa nangu, cirunakappu Naaoya (Peraru) -
Michelia champaca Sapu, Ginisapu campaka- campanki, canpakam -
Michania Scandens Maruvel, Maruvael - - -
Micrcos paniculata Keheliya, Keliya - - -
Micromelum ceylanicum, Micromelum minutum Val Karapincha, Karapincha - - -
Milia azidarachta Hik-kohomba - Malai-vempu -
Mimosa catechu Kihiri - Karuvel Kihiriwella (Kathiraveli) Kihirikanda (Kudiramalai)
Mimosa pudica Nidi Kumba lajjalu- samanga ilaccaki,tottalvati -
Mimusops elengi Moonamal Vakula, bakula, kesara magizha,magilam Mahiyapitiya (Mahiappitti) Vakulavaedda(Mahilaettuvaan)
Mimusops indica Palu - Paalai Paludohona (Palayadithona) Paluraajaweva (Palaiyatisirukkulam) Palugama (Palukamam) Sirirpalugama (Thirupalugamam)
Mirabilis jalapa Hendirikka - - pattiratci -
Mitragyna Tubulosa Haelamba, Halamba bhumikadamba ? nirkadambai Haelambaweva(Salampaikulam ) Sunakaelambaweva (Sonakasalampaikkulam)
Mollugo cerviana Pathpadagam - parpaatakam -
Mollugo spergula Theerapala, තීරපලා Dheera... Tirayaanti Hirikaenna (Thiraykkeani)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) Karawila, Karavila karavella (Karav īra ?) pakal, paval See also under Niyangala (Glory Lilly). c.f., Pali Text society Dictionary, p.179, reg. wreath of karavīra flowers on a criminal ready for execution: rattavaṇ𞑺-- virala-- mālāya bandhakaṇǦdha PvA 4 (cp. AvŚ i.102; ii.182; karavīra-- mā lābaddha [sakta ii.182]-- kaṇǦdheguṇa). -- kūpa the cavity of the throat Mhbv 137. -- ja produced in the throat.
Momordica dioica Thumba Karivila - palupalagakalungai,palupakarkoti -
Morinda citrifolia Ahu achchhuka manjanatti, nuna Ahuvila (Nunavil)
Morinda coreia Goda Ahu - nuna -
Moringa oleifera Murunga sigru- sobhanjana murunkai, murungai -
Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna prurita Wanduru Me, Vanduru Mee- - punaikkali -
Muehlenbergia viridissima Garudaraja - - -
Munronia pinnata Bin Khomba, Bim Kohomba - A very small hardy shrub with unbranched stems 5 cm long-. -
Murraya exotica, Murraya paniculata Aetteriya,Etteriya - cimaikkonci, konci -
Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) Karapincha - karuveppilai, karivempu -
Musa paradisiaca Kesel, ramba kadali,- rambha tatam -
Musa sapeintum Modan Kesel - - -
Mussaenda frondosa Mussanda nagvalli- velli ilai -
Mutingia calabura Jam, Jaaem Gaha - - -
Myristica dactyloides Malaboda jatiphala- pattapanku
Myristica horsfieldia Puvangu, Puwangu - - see entry under Aglaia roxburghiana-
Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg, Mace) Sadikka, Saadikka, Vasaavaasi Jatipatra - jathikai, Atipalam, Jatippu "Nutmeg" is the kernal of a fruit, while mace is the thin leather-like membrane between the stone and the pulp.-

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Nelumbo nucifera Nelun kamala, arvinda tamarai, ambal Nelunweva (Nelukulam)
Neolitsea cassia Kudu Duvala, KuduDuwala - - -
Nepenthes distillatoria Bandura, Benduru - - -
Nephelium lappaceum Rambutan - - -
Nasturtium officinale (water cress) Diyaalu - - Not native to Sri Lanka, name perhaps from Telingu, "Adiyalu"
pungent to mild, due to the presence of isothiocyantes, they should be used fresh, and not be cooked.
Nephelium longanum, c.f., Euphoria longan Mora - Nurai ? Moragolla (Nuraichchoalai )
Neptunia oleracea, Desmanthus natans Jalakumba alambusa- sundaikkirai, kuntikkirai Kumbakuliya (Chundikuli)
Nyctanthes arborstristis Sepalika sephalika- paricatam -
Nymphaea esculenta Konda - - species of Jasmin
Nymphaea lotus Ma-Nelum - allitamarai -
Nymphaea Stelleta Nil Maanel, Nil Mahanel Indheevara, Niluppala - National Flower of Sri Lanka, since Feb 26, 1986
Nymphoides indica Kumudu - - -
Nypa fruticans Gin Pol - - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Ochrosia parviflora Moodu kaduru - - -
Ocimum basilicum Suvandatala Ajaganothika, Surabhi, Tulasidevesha, Tungi, Manjarika tirunirruppaccai, tirunitru Sweet Basil
Ocimum canum Heentala Ajaka, Arjaka, Gambhitr pakli, Korai, Naitulasi,palinkiam -
Ocimum sanctum Maduruthala surasa- karuntulaci, tulaci, Alungai,Kullai -
Odina woodier Hik - -- -
Ornitrophe serrata Moodu Kobbe - - -
Oroxylum indicum Thotila syonaka- achi, pana -
Oryza fufipogon, - derennis moench Uoorutana - - "You can recognize the musical (gandarva) site, because a paddy field weed called pig grass (urutana) grows there. It is suitable for those of low caste. (Mayamataya)"
Oryza sativa Wee, Vee, haal tandula, sali nel, Nellu Siriveevaella (Thirunelveli)
Osbeckia octranda Heen Bovitiya - - -
Osbeckia wakeri - - Bovitya, Bowitiya -

H --> -->
Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Pandanus amaryllifolius Rampa, Rampe - thazhai, talai -
Palaquium grande Kiripedda, Kiripaedda - - -
Paphanus sativus (Radish) Raabu, gini-raabu, rathu raabu, cheena raabu Hasti-danta (root resembling an elephant tusk) attitantam, ? cf. sanskrit There are many varieties of radish, varying in pepperiness (sting) and colour, including white, red and yellow varieties.
The english and French (Radis) may have arisen from "eradicate".
Palaquium rubiginosum Tawenna, Tavaenna - - -
Palaquium petriolare Kirihembiliya, Kirihaembiliya - - -
Papaver somniferum L.(Poppy) Kasakasa, Abin Ahiphena - Kasakasa, Postakkai - The Sanskrit "Ahipena" may mean "snake-froth" as in sinhala words "ahi" and "pena".. and may be related to the mal-effects of the narcotic from the poppy seed. Sanskrit "Ahipena" → Abin (sinhala) and "abhini" (malayalam) clarifies the origin of the Sihala usage "abin" for Opium. The English "opium", or Greek "opos" are also related to the Sanskrit "Ahipena" → "ohipen" &arr; "oppos".
Opium is the dried latex pepared from the unripe capsules. "Kasaasa" seeds, as well as poppy heads were used in Asian and Middle-eastern drinks and also in MOghal india.   pictures and discussions
Paritimn tilliaceum Belli-patta - - -
Paspalum scrobiculatum Amu Sal, amu haal - vapitam a grain
Passiflora edulis Vael Dodang mukkopeera ? ciru punai-k-kali- -
Pavetta indica Pavatta papata- pavattai, karanai Pavattaweva (Pavatkulam, Pavattaikulam)
Pavonia odorata Pichcha, Vaala Mahabala, Mahavaala peramutti, avibattam Pothuvila (Pottuvil)
Pavonia zeylanica Kurundthati ? Bala cirramuttii,chitta mutti -
Penicillaria involucratum Pothuhaera - pottukkampu Pothuvila (Pottuvil)
Pennisetum olystachyon Pogon grass - -
Pericopsis mooniana Nedun, Naedun - - Nadunkurana (Nedunkerney) Nadun weva (Nedunkulam) Nadunkadola (Nedunkandal)
Persea americana Alipera - - -
Phaseolus aureus Robx Mung (green gram) - Moong -
Phaseolus mungo (black gram) ulunda - uluntu, payaru -
Phlomis Ceylanica kuramba ? - Dron2a-pushpi, kula-pAlaka ? type of orange
Phoberos macrophyllus Katu Kurundu - - -
Phoenix sylvestris Wal Indi, val Indi - - -
Phyllanthus debilis Pitawakka, Pitavakka d- - -
Phyllanthus emblica, Nelli Dhatri Nelli, toppi Nelliyadda (Nelliyaddi)
Phyllanthus urinaria Pitawakka bahupatra- cirukilanelli -
Picrorrhiza Kurroa Katukarosana - - -
Piper betel Bulath nagavalli, tambula verrilai, vettilai, Vettila (Mal), Tamalapaku (Tel), veeleya/vilya (K),Vidyache pan (Marathi) What is the etymology of "Bulath"? It does not seem to be related to other languages including Sanskrit "Nagavalli". However, tamBULA may have been abbreviated and extended to "Bulath" from the usage for a sheaf of betels, as discussed below. The "Bula-atha" perhaps became, "bulath atha", i.e., the sheaf of leaves given to the host on traditional visitations in olden times. The etymology of the Sanskirt word nagavalli is also obscure. "Valli" may have the meaning "vine", or creeper, while the name "Naga" here is thought to be associated with the "cobra head" shape of the veins on the leaf. Some consumers of betel, mainly used as a masticatory mixed with sliced arica-nut ("puvak" in Sinhala), distinguish between the green leaved betel more common in the south, with a somewhat more golden ("damba") variety found in the north. Also people who are aware of the older belief systems and consuming betel usually nip the tapering apex of the leaf in a gesture equivalent to "decapitating the cobra". For a picture of the betel leaf, with the "cobra-hood" or "naga-hood imprinted" leaf, see Betel leaf   . Dr.Herman Vinze has also suggested to us that "The herb Betel is a climber that twines in a serpentine fashion round a prop or a tree in the vicinity, hence the epithet, NAGAVALLI". Many pepper vines are creepers. Other types of peper, e.g., Piper longum (Thipplili in Sinhala) are also climbers but they do not have leaves with "naga-hood" shaped veins. It should also be noted that a tribe of people known as the "Nagas" are mentioned in the Mahabharata, Mahavamsa and other ancient texts, and lived in ancient south-east Asia. They may have been consumers of this leaf.

The western form "Betel" may have arisen from the Malayalam "Verilla", where the sound "v" transforms to "b" and "r" to "t", "betila" and "betel" via Portuguese, circa 16th century. The Malayalam word "Verilla" may be a compounding of "veru ila".
Piper longum (long pepper) Thippili pippali, Magandhi, Chanchala, Kana, Ushana - Pippili, tippili, Pipallu (Tel), Tippali (Mal), Hipli (K) The name "pippali' is not related to the "pippala" name of the Bo tree (Ficus religiosa). The leaves of the "tipplai" plansts usually have thrre prominent veins and this distinguishing character is indicated in the "tippali" name. See also "piper betel". The word "miris" is derived from the word "maricha" found in sanskrit, probably coming there from earlier proto- Rig Veda (10th centruy BCE) languages. Sinhala and Tamil (3rd century BCE) have picked up their "marcicha" stems from the sanskrit-prakrit forms.An ancient Buddhist temple of the Anuradhapura civilization (5 century BCE to 8 century CE) is known as "Mirisavaetiya" (Mirisavatiya), or "peper-wall" Pagoda (161-137 BCE). It is said that the king named this dagaba 'Mirisavatiya' because the king Dutugamuni who built this Dagaba forgot to present a food made ,ade with chilli (miris) to the Buddhist monks before he consumed it. It was the practise of the king to present a portion of all the food which is cooked in his palace to the priests before he consume it.
Piper nigrum Gammiris, ගම්මිරිස් maricam, Vella, Krishnan, Krishnadi milaku மிளகு , milagu, Yavanappiriyam -
Pisionia grandis Vaathabhanga, Wathabanga - - -
Pleurostylia Panakka - - -
Plumeria acuminata Araliya - arali -
Polyalthia longifolia Owila, Ovila, asoka asoka ulkatah nettilinkam, assothi -
Pometia Tomentosa Mora - Murali, Chem-poovam Morakotahena (Morakkottanchenai )
Pongamia glabra Karanda - kolliyam -
Premna serratifolia pichha-midi (?) - Erumai-mullai, perumunnai, munnai Mahisadoova (Erumaitivu)
Page 54 of C. Rasanayagam, Ancient Jaffna
Alternative identification and pictures
Premna tomentosa Bu Seru - podaganari -
Premna tomentosa - - masathekku
Prosopis cineraria - - vanni
Prosopis cineraria - - parambai
Prosopis juliflora - - cimaikkaruvel
Prosopis juliflora - - velikattan
Prosopis spicigera - - takanam
Prosopis spicigera - - vanni
Prunus ceylanica - - katilai
Pseudarthria viscida - - pitani 3
Pseudarthria viscida - - pitani#
Psidium guajava Pera - sengoyya, koyya -
Pterocarpus marsupium Gammaalu, Gammalu asanah- vengai -
Pterocarpus santalinus Rathandun raktacandana- cencantam -
Pterospermum canescens Velang, Welan - - -
Pterospermum suberifolium Welan - -
Punica granatum Delum dadima- lohitapuspaka matulai,matulam -
Putranjiva zelanica Pelen - karupali -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Randia dumetorum Kukuruman madana- matukkarai -
Rauvolfia serpentina Ekaveriya, Ekaweriya sarpagandha, chandrika cuvanamilpoti, covannamilpori -
Rhizophora mucronata, R. Apiculata (Mangrove) Maha Kadol - kandal SERUGANDARA, SERUKADOLA (Cherukkandal)
Monarakadola (Mannakandal)
Naedunkadola (NaddanKandal)
Rhododendron arboretum Maha ratmal - - -
Ricinus communis Erandu eranda, erandagaccha (pali) amanakku, erantam -
Ruta graveolens Aruda - arvata, arvada -
Ruta graveolens - - arvada -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Sacciopelsis interrupta Beru tall reedy grass - -
Salacia prinoides Kothala-himbutu - - Claimed to lower blood sugar levels and used as a herbal tea Herbal teas
Salvadora persica Maliththana gudaphala- opa, uka -
Santalum album Sudu Handun chandana- cantanam -
Sapindus emarginatus Penela phenila- puvamkottai -
Sarcocephalus cordatus Piya - - -
Scaevolas Koenigii, S. Takkada (rice-paper plant) Thakkada - - -
Schleichera oleosa Koon, ෙකා්න ් - modakama -
Scleria oryzoides Pothu-pan, Pothukola, Pothuhara - Poththu ? -
Sesbania grandiflora Katuru Murunga - - -
Shorea robusta Sal Saala Kungkiliyam, Chaalamban SAALAPANA (Chalampan) Salgasweva ( Chalampaikkulam) Saalakaenna (Chalampakerni) Salaavatha (Chilaw)
Shorea stipularis Nawada, Navada - - -
Solanum indica Thibbatu, batu, vaelbatu, kara-batu brahati- karimulli, mulli some place names involving "batu" are:
Thibbotuvaeva (Mullikulam, Mulliyan), BatuvaevKanda (Mullikulam Malai), Karabatu-vakkade (karaimullivaikkal), Mulvakkade (Mullivaikkal), Thibbotuwala (Mulliyawalai), Vaelbatu-vakkade, වැල්බටුවක්කඩේ (Vellamullivaikkal), Batumunna, බටුමුන්න (Kumulamunai)
Solanum melongena Elabatu -bhantaki valutalai -
Solanum melongena, Sol. macrocarpon Wambotu, Vambatu Vatimgana kattari -
Solanum mauritianum Wal varaa - - Dumpalaava (Thumpalai)
Solanum trilobatum Vael Tibbotu alarka- tutuvalai, thuthulai -
Solanum xanthocarpum Batu nidigdhika- kantakari kantankattiri -
Solemostemon rohindifolius Innala - - -
Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonaratia caseolaris (mangrove apple) Kirala - ucittakarai Irlaikkulam, KuriKadduvan, Kilali
Sophora tomentosa Moodu Murunga - - -
Spinifex squarrosus Maha Raavana Raevula - - -
Spondias magnifera Sarana - - see under Adampan
Stemonurus apicalis Uruhonda - - -
Sterculia balanghas Nava, Nawa - - -
Streblus asper NItul - pira, piraay Urumpirai is a Village in the Jaffna peninsula
Strychnos nux-vomica Kaduru, Goda kaduru kalshti, kupilu yetti, ettiu Kaduruthuduva (Kanchirankuda), Kadurumotte (Kanchuramoddai) Kadurugoda (Kandarodai)
Strychnos potatorum Inginiya kataka- Theatta, terran kottai Inginidoova (Thettativu) Gaetakuliya (Tettakkuli) Inginiyagala
Syzygium cumini Madan, Maadan - naval -
Syzygium jambos Jambu - perunaval, campai Dambakolathota (Kankesanthurai) Dambakolapatune (Sambilithuai)
Syzygium makul Alubo - - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Tabernaemontana divaricata Watusudda, Vathusudda nandivrksah- adukkunandiyavattai -
Tamarindus indica Siyambala amlika, tintili puli, puliyamaram Mahasiyambala vaevkanda (Paddiapuliyankulammalai) Mahasiyambala weva (Periyapuliyankulam)
Tectona grandis (Teak, Indian Oak) The~kka (~ signify long sound) Saaka, Sabarasaara, Kolaphala, bardaru, bhumisah, dwardaru, kharchchada thekku The sanskrit "Shaaka" → "Thaaka" → "The~kka" in Sinhala
Terminalia arjuna Kumbuk kakubha- maruthu, marutu Rankumbukka (Sainthamaruthu)
Terminalia bellirica Bulu Bibhitaki, Bhaira tanri, tanikkay, Pulu Mahabulukanda (Periyapullumalai) Buluweva (Tandikkulam)
The nuts of which in older times were used as dice, when the Sanskrit name is "kali".
Terminalia catappa (tropical Almond) Kottan, Kottamba tailaphala- nattuvadumai, nattu-vadam< Kottandoova (Kottantivu) Kottangolla (Kottanchole )
The tree may grow to 30 meters, with large ovoid glossy dark green leaves which change into orange and red when about to fall. The "false" nuts are inside a hard shell. Tropical Almond
Terminalia chebula Aralu - kadukkai yello myrobalan
Terminalia chebula Hari-taka haritaki- katukkay -
Thespesia populnea SOORIYA, Suriya Plaksa, kapitana, parisa puvarasu, Poovarasu Sooriyaweva (Poovarasankulam) Sooriyadoova (Poovarasantivu) Kuda-sooriyaweva (Sinnapuwarasankulam) Kanda-uda-sooriyaweva (Kanthaudaiyarpuvarasankulam)
Tinospora cordifolia, Cocculus cordifolius Rasakinda amrta- seenthil, cintil, Shindil-kodi, Amirthavalli Rasakindala (Amirthakaly)
Toddalia aculeata Kudu Miris - milagaranai -
Trianthema monogyna Sarana - - -
Trichosanthes cucumerina, Tr. anguina Pathola - Pudulankaai -
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) Uluhal, Uluhaal, උලුහාල් Methika Meti, Vendayam, Vetani, ;மேதி, வெந்தயம், ;வேதனி "Fenugreek" is derived from latin "hay of the greeks", due to its strong "hay" smell. Leaves may be cooked and eaten like spinach.

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Urandra apicalis Uruhonda, Urukan - - - - - See: Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. and Gunatilleke, C.V.S. 1991. Threatened woody endemics of the wet lowlands of Sri Lanka and their conservation. Biological Conservation 55(1): 17-36.
Urena lobata Eapala - ottuttutti, ottatti --
Utricularia stellaris Banduru ? - kutapaci, Kattuppaci -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Vateria copallifera Hal - - -
Ventilago madraspatana Yakkada Vael - curulpattai,pappili -
Ventilago madraspatana - - pappili -
Vernonia anthelmintica SanniNayan - kattuccirakam, canni nayakam A stout, much branched annual ith cylindrical, striate, finely pubescent stems. 60 --90cm tall; leaves implc, alternate without stipules, 6. 5~cm long, 2. 5~ cm broad, lanceolate or elliptic lanceolate, much tapering to base, acute, coarsely and shiny. Medicinal Plant
Vernonia cinerea Monara Kudumbiya vishvadeva, sahadev neyccitti, sahadevi Thoppigala, Kuda-Dimbulgala (Kudumpimalai)
Vernonia Zeylanica Pupula - - Medicinal, Fractures,Eczema
Vetiveria zizanioides Savandara - vettiver, kuruver Medicinal: Oedema,Anorexia,Urinary diseases
Vigna marina Raral Lema - -- -
Vigna unguculata Mae karal - - -
Vitex altissima Milla - mayilatinocci, mayilainochi -
Vitex negundo Nika Nirgundi Ven nocci, Nochi Giranikke (killinochchi) Nikamotte (Nochchimoddai) Nikagasmunna (Punochchimunai) Nikawaratiya
Vitex pinnata Milla - - -
Vitex trifolia Nika - nir-nochi See Giranikka, Kilinochchi
Vitis Vinifera Midi Mudrika - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Walsura piscida Kiri Koon - valsura A small or moderate-sized tree with a light brown, vertically cracked bark and glabrous young parts; leaves compound, alternate, exstipulate, 3-foliate, rachis stiff, glabrous, brown, leaflets 3.7~7.5 cm long, stalked, oblong-oval, acute at base, obtuse,
Walsura trifolia Kiri Koon - cattuvakku -
Wattakaka volubilis Anguna - kodippalai -
Wedelia chinensis Ranwan Keekirindi- - manjalkarilamkanni -
Withania somnifera -Amumkara - amukkira -
Woodfordia fruticosa Malitha - velakkai, kattaddi A straggling shrub, about 3.6m high with long, arching branches, a cinnamon brown bark shredding off in fibres- leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, sessile, 7.5\u201410 cm long, narrowly ovate-lanceol
Wrightia antidysenterica Pethi Idda, Val Idda kutaja Vet palai ? used in Bonsai
Wrightia religiosa Idda Mal kutaja - -
Wrightia Zelanica Idda Mal, Kelinda ? - - -

Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Xanthium indicum Urukossa ? - peymati,pirakatti - -
Xanthium strumarium Uru Kossa - marhe-matta, marul-umathan -
Xylocarpus granatum Mal Kadol, Mutti kadol - - rare mangrove
Xylopia championii Dat Kaetiya - - -
Xylopia nigricans Heen Kenda, Heen Kaenda - - -
Xyris indica Ran Manissa, Rata Mota - - Medicinal: Ring worm,Laprosy,Itch

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Botanical Names, (English) Sinhala Sanskrit (Pali) Tamil Toponyms, Notes
Zanonia indica Val Rasakinda - - -
Zeuxine regia Iruraja - - -
Zeuxine regia Iruraja - - -
Zingiber officinale Inguru ardraka- injzi, chukku -
Ziziphus jujuba Massan, Kaekuru badara- ilandai, Nari-ilantai KAEKURUVILA (Koandaavil) Kekuruwatte (Vatharawathai)
Ziziphus mauritiana Debara - - munnatimatu, pallavaparunicceti -
Ziziphus napeca Yak Eraminiya - - -
Ziziphus rugosa Maha Eraminiya - chusai -
Ziziphus xylopyrus Kukuru - katalcirai-
Ziziphus xylopyrus - - mullutuppai-
Zornia diphylla - - cirupalatai-

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