දෙමල හැඩ ගත් පැරණි සිංහල ගම්-නම්  - මුල් පිට
Traditional Sinhala place names in Sri Lanka and their Tamilized forms.


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A quick read TABLE OF SINHALA PLACE NAMES
AND TAMIL FORMS. කෙටි ලැඉස්තුව
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To search this table of place-names, simply use the "search" function of your browser (e.g, use "Edit", then "Find" or Ctrl+F) and type in the place name (n.b., many spellings possible, e.g., Vaddukkodai, Vadukoddei, வட்டுக்கோட்டை, Batakotte, බටකෝට්ටෙ), or any word (e.g., Pattini) you are looking for in the dialogue box that opens up:

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***
Please use our etymological, historical, antiquarian, technical and botanical notes, but acknowledge this website.



email: place.names@dh-web.org     contact name: Prof.. Chandre Dharma-wardana.

What this is all about

Sri Lanka was called Lanka, ලංකා Tambapanni, Sinhalé etc., in ancient times. The Tamil name Cinkalam சிங்களம் is used in early Tamil literary works. The name Lanka, used in the Epic chronicles, was adopted in to Prakrit with the addition of a leading vowel which could be "a, e, (h)e, or i". Thus the form Lanka → Helanka හෙලංකා appears in Sinhala Prakrit (language of the common people) as the abbreviated form Hela, හෙල. Sinhala Prakrit itself became known as "Elu", or "Hela-basa" හෙලබස. Similarly, the name Lanka → Ilankai was adapted during the Cankam period into Dravidian languages, giving its Tamil form Ilankai, இலங்கை. This is further clarified by noting that eighteen countries are mentioned in early Tamil literature, clearly distinguishing "cinkalam" from "Tamlaak(h)am", viz., cimkaḷam, conaakam, cā vakam, cīṉam, tuḷuvam, kutakam, konkanam, kanna-tam, kollam, telin(g)kam, kalin(g)kam, vaṅkam, kaṅ- kam, makatam, kaṭāram, kavuṭam, koklam, tamilakam;   சிங்களம், சோனகம், சாவகம், சீனம், துளுவம், குடகம், கொங் ;கணம், கன்னடம், கொல்லம், தெலிங்கம், கலிங்கம், ;வ ங்கம், கங்கம், மகதம், கடாரம், கவுடம், கோசலம், தமிழகம்.   The early Pali writings of Sri Lanka also mention similar names for kingdoms located in the subcontinent. The origins of the Sinhala language are probably linked to thei Magadhi of the Asokan (northern) Brahmi (script), and Pali, while Tamil is linked to southern Brahmi. However, the two forms of Brahmi, and their Prakrit forms are themselves very close. Even the word "Dameda", or "Damila" (Dravidian) probably signified a geographic location (southern), i.e., south of the Vindyah mountains, as viewed by the northern Sanskrit writers. The Tamil or Sinhala ethnic identity probably did not evolve until the early sangam period (this view seems to be held by I. Mahadevan). The existence of place-names like Nagarjuna konda (i,e., kanda, කන්ද, hill) in South India, and Sinhala-prakrit artifacts imply that there was considerable cultural exchange across the Palk straits (Seth-Samudra yaaya මූදු යාව see discussion under Palk Strait). Jayakumar, and also Mahadevan have discussed consequent 2nd BCE Sinhala influences extending into South India itself.
It should be noted that race or ethnicity , as understood today was of little consequence in ancient times, when it was the caste that was most important. The Brahma was believed to have created "castes" and not ethnicities. Thus kings always married other "Kshatriyas", irrespective of ethnicity.
The pre-Buddhist people of Lanka may have been even Kirats-Yakkas, or other unknown groups. Asokan Brahmi (Sinhala Prakrit) script has been found in the 3rd century BCE stone inscriptions of Sri Lanka. The study of toponyms also shows the cultural closeness of these two language groups, immensely influenced by Sanskrit (in this document we use the name 'Sanskrit' to include all proto-forms related to the language of the Rig Veda, and not just the systematized form). The North and East of Sri Lanka were populated by people who were largely Sinhala-speaking Buddhists till about the 12th century. The place names in the whole country were mostly Sinhala names. South Indian invasions led to a gradual modification of the original place names which acquired a Tamil garb, as stated by many scholars like Paul E. Peries, Horsburg, J. P. Lewis, S. Paranavitana, Dr. K. Inthirapala, Ven. E. Medhananda and others. K. Velu Pillai in Yalpana Vaibhava Kaumudi devotes a whole chapter to Sinhala place names in Jaffna. Buddhism flourished in South India during the time of Buddhagosha (author of Visuddhi-magga); and Lanka too had Buddhist Tamils as a small but important minority, with many of them resident in Anuradhapura.   Read also Tamil Buddhists in Ancient Jaffna?

Here we focus on the old Sinhala names of the tamilized Place names in the North and East. The existence of multiple place-names for a given location testifies to the rich cultural tapestry of the nation. This centralized list and maps would make it convenient for Sinhala writers, artists, scientists, engineers, politicians - anyone- to use the Sinhala names when ever this is appropriate, in an entirely voluntary manner, thus helping to maintain and revive the cultural heritage of the country.
Read more details.


Brahmi and Sinhala scripts, click below
Early Brahmi: 3rd cen BCE to 1st cent CE/ Later Brahmi: 2nd cent BCE to 4th cent CE/ Transitional Brahmi: 5th cent to 7th cent/ Medieval Sinhala: 8th cent to 13th cent/ Modern Sinhala: 14th cent and after

The existence of place names in both languages attests to the easy co-existence and close cultural affinity of these two communities which lived in peace. This can be true of the whole country, even today, when ethnically biased programs and racist politics are defeated.


Tamil place-names in Sinhala-speaking parts of Sri Lanka, see
'Further to Kularatnam's article'


See TOPONYMICS
Visit English Place-Name Society
Visit Links to international Toponymic sites
Go to World Gazetteer and google-earth site for Sri Lanka
Current Maps, North & East
               Maps, SL cities in all provinces
Link to Old Dutch maps
see also Sri Lanka antiquarian maps and prints
Link to political map
Link to SL-Maps and postal codes
Link to
World Heritage sites in Sri Lanka Link to List of mosques in Sri Lanka






THESE HISTORICAL AND ETYMOLOGICAL ANALYSES NEED FURTHER SUPPORT BY MORE RESEARCH

You need Sinhala, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and other fonts (unicode UTF-8) to read some entries.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



A
Achchankulam (Mannarama [Mannar} district )
ATTANAVAEVA,  ⚓name
Meaning: There is no "achchan" listed in the usual Tamil dictionaries and Lexicons; however, close forms like 'accan' may be listed. 'Achchan' means "brother", (also father etc.) in Malayalam, and may be the source of the sinhala slang word "machang". However, there is no contextually useful meaning in it for a place-name. On the other hand, the sinhala word "Attana" refers to a plant species (Latin Dathura Alba, or Datura metal, Tamil "Umaththai"). Its occurrence in Sinhala place names is well established. The plant and seeds contain the alkaloids Hyoscine, hyoscyamine, norhyoscyanine and atropine. The plant as a whole is a narcotic, and the Tamil name "Ummaththai" is probably derived from the Sanskrit/Pali word which means (causing) "madness", or "ummmada" in Sinhala. It is poisonous. Its use in Ayurveda is well established.
Map
LTTE-ARMY flash point
අත්තනවැව
Achchelu, Achelu(Yapanaya [Jaffna]) ATHURUELIYA   ⚓name
This is a common sinhala place name. "Athuru" mean "nearby" in the present context (also, it may in other contexts mean "supplementary", or "inter-mediating"). "Eliya" implies an "open place", a "cleared place", or a region held as a "common". In other contexts it may mean "a source of light". hist: Ancient Buddhist shrine and Dagoba, referred to by de Queyroz
Map
map
අතුරුඑලිය
Achchuveli, Achuvely (Yapanaya)
ATHURUVAELLA   ⚓name
The etymology of this place-name is similar to that given in preceding discussions. "Vaella" means "shore", or a "sandy place". This name is often found in southern maritime areas in SL. This is a location of ancient Buddhist ruins; de Queyroz, discussing the fall of Jaffna says "It remained under the Portugezen sway for upwards of 40 years, wrested from the Emperor by Philippo d'Olivero when he defeated the Cingalezen forces near Achiavelli (Achuvely) by the great pagoda".
Map   map
typical news
අතුරුවැල්ල
Adaichakal (madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
HADUGALA   ⚓name
'Adai, Adicha, or related stubs do not occur in the Tamil Lexicons. There is a small Tank here; Map
හඩුගල
Adaikkalamoddai, Adaikkalmottai, Adukkalmoddai (Mannarama [Mannar])
HADUGALMOTTE   ⚓name
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The Latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. In Tamil, Ala, Alaru Alakkar, Ceru etc., are used for mud.
See MAP
හඩුගල්- මොටේ
Adampan, Adampanai, அடம்பன் (Mannarama [Mannar])
AADAMPANA, AETTAMPANA   ⚓name, RAAMAPAENNA,
Meaning. Tamil "Pan" by itself seems to have no immediate meaning, however, "pampan", and the sinhala "paalama" (පාලම) both means 'bridge'. On the Indian side, a very long bridge connects to a small island known as Pamban. This bridge has a part that can be raised for tall marine vessels to pass through. Pamban-India bridge

The place name Adampan may have been inspired by "Adam's bridge" (Irama cetu, or Rama cetu, Hindu name of the ridge of rocks crossing the Palk's Straits (Gajaba mooduyaava, මූදු යාව see discussion under Palk ...) and connecting Dhanuskodi (India) to Talaimannar (Lanka). However, the name Adampan is found in several places which are far away from "Adam's bridge", e.g., in the North Vanni, and in the Trincomalee district (near Gomarankadavala), and hence it cannot be positively connected with Adam's bridge. Note that the old names "Rama bridge" (irāma;-cētu; இராமசேது in Tamil consistent with the Tolkkappiam rules), or Ramasethu රාමසේතුව , was replaced by "Adam's bridge" in 1804 by the British surveyor James Rennel. He was the first Surveyor General of British India. 'Siripada', (or 'Adams peak'), known also as 'Vishnupada' in the Mahabharata was also renamed "Adam's peak" by Rennel. "Setu" means bridge in Sanskrit and other source languages.

It has sometimes been claimed in some Internet blogs, without much foundation, that the Tamil word "Adampu" has been used for "bin-thambura", a creeper which grows by the sea shore, and found almost every where in the costal regions of SL. The well-known Tamil name for "bin thambura" is "attukkal". The placename "adampana" is not found in any early records, but came in during the British era. All these suggest that the place-name is unlikely to have originated from the construed name "Adampu". We believe that the old name is "aettampana". "Aettanpana', or "Aththampana" where "attana" or "Aththana" (Bot: Datura alaba)is well known. The word "aththana" occurs in plant names like Rukattana (bot: Alstonia scholaris), "Kaulaththana etc., and are well recognized plant species. See also Kok-attana-kulam, Kokattanakulam or Kokkachchankulam

Rama Sethu
Another Discussion on Ramasetu
See reg. kobbekaduwa
Map1   map2
UTHR report  : Map of Army action in 2008 near Mannar
Rebuilding and demining after the war, 2010
ආදම්පන,   ඇටිටංපන
රාම පැන්න  රාමසේතු
Adampan (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
AETTAMPANA
See previous discussion under "adampana" in mannar. Regional map
ඇටිටංපන
Adampantalavu, (Mannarama)
AETTAMPANTALA   ⚓name, AADAMPANTHALAVA, RAAMANTALAVA
Read the discussion under "Adampan". Map
ඇටිටංපන්තල ආදම්පන්තලාව රාමන්තලාව
Adampanmodddai (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
ATHTHANAMADE;   ⚓name
Read the discussion under "Adampan", regarding the plant "aththana", and the etymology of the word "mada", "moddei" and the english "mud" under the entry "Athimottai".
අත්තනමඩ
Addalaichenai, Addalachenai, ApdalacChena (Ampare)
ADDARAHENA   ⚓name, ATTAALAHENA?
Meaning: In Tamil "Addalai" has no immediate contextual meaning; it may have originated from the sinhala "addara" = "near by" , or "attaala" = "scaffolding". The sinhala, word ``attaala'' is related to the Sanskrit and Pali words for "scaffolding". It may mean a raised hut usually made of wooden beams, bamboo etc. But the common tamil usage for the latter is `Paran', and "addalai" may be a form which is not current. However, the word order is incorrect as "attaala" or "addala" is not used as an adjective. Thus "Addarahena", a common place name, is the most judicious choice for the origin of this name, while "attaalahena" is not prevalent and etymologically unlikely.
The remaining part of the name contains 'Chennai'. It is from the Sinhala "hena", i.e., 'slash-burn' cultivation plots. In Tamil 'Chenai' may mean 'army' and does not fit into the context here. Map
UNICEF-tsunami
FYI-war
අද්දරහේන
Adappankulum (Mannaram [Mannar])
AETAAPAENNAVEVA   ⚓name
This literarily means, in Sinhala,"The Tank into which the elephant jumped". "Aetapan" is may also be a type of grass or reed (but not identified). map
ඇතා පැන්නවැව
Addaippallam,Addapalam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
HADIPAALAMA   ⚓name
This may mean "old bridge", or "strong bridge", "wide location" etc.   Map
හැඩිපාලම
Adiyakulam (mannaram [Mannar])
AADIYAVEVA   ⚓name, Aadiyakulama
"Aadiya" (vaeva) refers to "ancient", or "original" water reservoir.
Map
ආදියවැව
ආදියව
Aiyakerni, Aiyankerni (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
Aiyankernitalawai
AADIKAENNA   ⚓name, AADIYAKURANA
AADI-KANI-TALAVA
"Aiya" in Sinhala and Tamil means "elder brother". The "Ai" sound has descended from the Sanskrit "Aadi", which means "earlier" or "elder". The "ai" form is found in Tamil, with the advent of the chankam literature, and thus both Sinhala and Tamil have Sanskrit as the source language for this word. The word is also used for local village gods, as in "Aiyanayaka deviyo". "Aiyanaar" ஐயனார் in Tamil, a usage found only after the 8th century CE.
The remaining part of the place name contains "Kerni"; it is from "Kaenna", i.e, the sinhala "kaeneema" or "digging". A possible, but less favoured analysis is that "aadi" in "Aadi-Kaeni-talava could also refer to mendicant beggars known as "Anndi".
ආදිකැන්න, ආදිය කුරන
Aiyamperumal, Sinna Aiyamperumal (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
AADIYAMPIRUMA   ⚓name, AADIYEPIRUVALA
Hist.  : Although one has no definite evidence, there is a possibility that this was named after the Chola Perumal, from Chitambaram. He had a tiger inscribed on the flag which is called Puliyan; his place in Tamil Nadu was called Pulyannur. If the place name was after the Chola Perumal, normally inscriptional evidence would exist. Read also, the write up on "Aiyakerni". It could also mean the the "bog" (vala) filled in olden times". The existence of a "sinna" Aiyamperumal, i.e., the smaller bog ("kudaavala") suggests that this probably has little to do with the Chola from Chitambaram.
ආදියපිරුම
ආදියෙපිරුවල
Aiyanatidali,Aiyan-kuda (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
AADYANTHUDA   ⚓name
Read also, the write up on "Aiyakerni"
Map
ආදිය තුඩාව
Ayittiyamalai, Aithamalai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
ADIHITIKANDA   ⚓name
Read also, the write up on "Aiyakerni". There is an Army encampment here. Map
අදිතිය කන්ද
Akattikkulam (Mannaram [Mannar])
AGASTHIVAEVA   ⚓name
'Agasthi' is an agate-like stone. 'Agasthiya' is also an Indian mythical sage, mentioned in the Rig Veda. map
අගස්තිවැව
Akattimurippu(Mannaram [Mannar])
AGASTIKANDIYA, AGASTHIMURAYA   ⚓name
Etymology The word "Agasthi" was discussed in previous place names. The remaining part, "murippu" is common in place names and needs discussion. Thus "murus" in Latin, meaning "wall", "fortification", or 'defensive rampart', is found in many indo-European languages (cf., "mur" in Fr.). However, "murippu" or a related form is not found in Dravidian sources or in south Indian place names. Hence "murippu" may be from the sinhala "muraya", "muraparva", for "defensive wall". The sinhala and Tamil forms may also have come from a pre-Sanskrit (e.g., Etruscan) language of the Persian Gulf, via the ancient sea routes which touched in Mannarama (Mannar). The Etruscan word for 'wall', mor, mur, mvr was also used for the dam (sinhala 'Kandiya' or Vella', වේල්ල) used in irrigation works. These dam sites were also used as locations for guard houses or watch stations (murapala). See Mel Copeland on Proto-Indo-European languages. There is an ancient tank here at Agasthimuraya. Read Kamalika Pieris, on water management in Ancient lanka
The name "Musalipattuva", or "Muhalapattuva" has also " been suggested as an old placename, perhaps applicable to this area. Musala refers to "crocodiles" in Sanskrit, and may have given the name. See also, the entry under "Musali", or Muhala.
Map
අගස්තිමුරේ
Akkaraipattu (Ampare)
AKKARAPATTUWA   ⚓name , EGODAPATTUWA
Meaning: Tamil "Akkarai" may mean 'that side', Opp. ikkkara or 'this side'. The Sinhalese 'ekara'=egoda and 'mekara'=megoda, have similar meanings. 'Egodapattuwa' would be good sinhala usage. The 'Deegavapi' chaitya, usually attributed to Saddhatissa (137-119 BC) is claimed to be this dagaba. There are ancient ruins, a medicine trough and ruins of an ancient hospital. This area is part of the old 'Digamadulla' region. See the entry under DIGHAVAPI (Theekavapi).
The Dutch initiated irrigation projects here (and in Urubokke, Pollonnaruwa). map
UNHCR-tsunami
අක්කරපත්තුව,    එගොඩපත්තුව
Akkarativu(Ampare)
EDODADOOVA   ⚓name
This is close to Thoppigala and has been an LTTE camp.
එගොඩදූව
Akkarayankulam (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
IKIRIYAN VAEVA   ⚓name
This small tank is at the border of Mooladoova and Giranika districts.
ඉකිරියන්වැව
Akkuranai (madakalapuwa [batticaloa])
AKURANA   ⚓name
Similar place names found in the South. No equivalent forms in Tamil. Clashes between LTTE and Karuna group during the civil war.
Map
අකුරන
Aladikattaikatu,Aladikaddaikadu (Mannarama [Mannar])
AERATI-GAETA-KADUVA   ⚓name, AERATKATUKALÉ
Disc. 'Kaddai' has no meaning in T., 'Kaddu'and 'Kadu' taken as Kaatu, i.e., T., காட்ட€; , implies 'forest' as in Sinhala 'Kaele'
කැලේ or 'kaduva' or 'katuva'. 'Gaeta' in S. is the 'bitter' young stage of a fruit, may signify 'Kashta' in Sanskrit. Then T. 'kattaikatu' and S. 'gatakaduva' have similar meanings. Map
ඇරටිගැටකඩුව
Aladikulam(Mannarama [Mannar])
AERATIVAEVA   ⚓name
ඇරටිවැව
Aladiwembu, Aladivembu, Alayadi Vempu, Aliadi vempu (Ampare)
AERATIKOHOMBE;   ⚓name
Discussion: Kohomba in S., Vembu in T., and known in India as the Neem tree (Azadirachta Indica ) is a hardy tree with extensive medicinal
and phyto-chemical significance, currently an object of 'bio-piracy' by interested western pharmaceutical companies.
See neem revolution   Map
ඇරටිකොහොඹෙ

Allagalla(Vannimava[Vavuniya])
(vanni128   ⚓name) No Tamil form available; listed here as an ancient Buddhist site. Remnants of a 120 ft circular stupa on a large stone hill. There is a stone inscription, old bricks and other artifacts strewn all over. Labeled #128 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
අල්ලගල
Alaikallupoddakulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
ALAGALPOHODDAVAEVA   ⚓name
map
අලිගල්පොත් වැව
Alankeni, Alankerney, Alankemi (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
ERANKURANA   ⚓name
  Regional map
එරන්කැන්න,   එරන්කුරන
Alankulam (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
ERANVAEVA   ⚓name
Map
එරන්වැව

Alankulam (Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
ERANVAEVA
(vanni144   ⚓name)
There are two such 'Eranvaeva' sites in the same region. This an ancient Buddhist site included in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982. Labeled #142, 145 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
The site named as "near the 5th mile post" in the Archaeological dept list is labeled #144 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
එරන්වැව
Alamapia, Alampil (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VAELLAMPILA   ⚓name, VAELLAMPIHILLA
Meaning: Tamil "Alama" has no immediate contextual meaning, 'Pil' and 'Pila' are not in the tamil lexicon. The Sinhalese version has a clearer meaning. This location is said to be an important LTTE training encampment. map
Asiatribune
වැල්ලම්පිල
ALavakka(mannarama [Mannar])
ALAVAKA   ⚓name
The name is associated with an intermittent stream. The canal of the 'Giants tank' (Yodaveva) at 'Thekkama' is 'Alavaka'. Yodaveva construction is ascribed to king Dhatusena, and Parakramabahu I. Reg. pre-Buddhist links, See write up below for 'Alavakkaisirukkulam'
ආලවක
Alavakkaisirukkulam (mannarama [Mannar])
ALAVAK-AASEERAVAEVA   ⚓name
Meaning:     'Alavaka-Aaseerva' is 'salutation' to
Alavaka, a 'Yakka' king. 'Alavakka' and `Kasaputta' are place names of the Bulis and
Kalaamas ( of the Kalaama sutta).
Discussion.   Alavaka is a 'Yakkha' mentioned in the Sutta Nipata, Samyutta Nikaya (Alavaka sutta). It is possible that one branch of the "Pre-Aryan" 'Kirat' people of Nepal possibly migrated to Lanka and were known as the Yakkha. (see 'Kirat Vansavali. The Political History of India', H. C. Ray Chawdhary). The Buddhist Lichchavis were probably Kirat people. The Kirat king Jatidasti ruled in parts of Modern Nepal during Buddha's time. Map
ආලවක් ආසිරි වැව
Allai (SriGonakanda [Trincomalee])
SERUVILA-ALLA   ⚓name
Seruvila is the historical name; part of Kavantissa's domain
Meaning: Place where the yam 'Katuala' is found c.f. 'Alla Govi-Janapadaya' in Mooduthara (Muttur), Dehiwatte, Somapura etc. This irrigation area was set up by constructing an anicut across the Veharagala (Verugal) river, a tributary of the Mahavaeli Ganga.
Hist. See G. D. A. Perera's article linked under 'Sampur'.
"Allai veva" should be rendered "serupura". The place previously known as "Ali-oluva" (Ali Oluwa), and part of this area is now known as "Seru-Nuvara". An ,inscription of King Dappula IV found here refers to 'Kaudulu vehera'. Seruwila Mangala Raja Maha Vihara (-2 nd Cent.) is a UNESCO Protected site. World-H heritage Page   Calgary Buddhists to build houses for Seruwila IDPs
සේරුවිල- අලපේ
Allaipiddi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ALAPITIYA   ⚓name
Meaning: Tamil Lexicon does not list a "Piddi" Also, பிட்டி,  'pitti' does not provide a useful meaning. The Tamil pitti is usally associated with "bhittika" or "wall" in Sanskrit. Hence its use in Sri Lankan Tamil has been identified as originating from the Sinhala word "pitiya".

The S. word has a clearer contextual validity.
history1
Typical war report
Located in Urathota (Kaytes Island) see Jaffna map1
අලපිටිය
Alaveddi, Alavetti, அளெவட்டி (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
AELAVEDDA   ⚓name
Meaning: Tamil "Veddi" or Vetti have no immediate contextual meaning listed in the standard Tamil Lexicons. The Sinhala "Vadda" in this instance is "approach", path or passage, from "Vadeema", and would agree with the Tamil 'Viti'. 'Ala' in tamil could mean 'muddy', while the sinhala 'aelavaedda' could mean a path defined by (occasional) flow of water. more commonly, 'mud', muddy' in T. is சேறு.
Map
ඇලවැද්ද
Alavedduvan (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
ALAVAEDDUVA   ⚓name
Map
ඇලවැද්දුව
Alavi(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ALAVIYA   ⚓name
Birth place of G. G. Ponnambalam
1948 elections
ඇලවිය
Alayadimaduchchenai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
ARATUMADUHENA   ⚓name
Map
ඇරටුමඩු හේන
Aliavalai, Aliyavalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ALIAVALA   ⚓name
Meaning:   'Alia' in S. is Elephant, 'vala' is pit. Tamil for elephant is "Yanai". 'Ali' has no contextual meaning in T., but 'valai' is 'place'. Map
අලියවල
Alipalai, Aliyapalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ALIAPAELA   ⚓name
See remarks under 'Aliavalai'; in S., 'pala' is place.   Regional map
අලිපැල
Aliyansaintakulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
ALISATHUVAEVA   ⚓name, ALIANSANTHAVAEVA
Meaning:   In S., it means 'the tank dedicated to elephants'. No clear meaning may be attributed in Tamil. Map
අලිසතුවැව
Aliyadiwembu, Aliyadivembu, Alayadivempu (Ampare)
AERATIKOHOMBE;   ⚓name
Wembu, vem,bu is the 'Kohomba'(Sinhala), or Neem tree.
ඇරටිකොහොඹෙ
Aliyarvaddai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
ALIYAVAEDDA   ⚓name
The AE rhymes with the A in HAT Meaning:   In S., 'Vaedda' could mean 'forest' or 'entered (arrived)', c.f., Pali "Vattani". 'Alia' in S. is 'elephant, 'Aliyar' is dialect for 'big elephant'.
Map
අලියවැද්ද
Alkaddiveli, Alkaddiveli Kulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
ALAGEDIVE'LLA   ⚓name, here E' is long, as in BEijing
Map
අලගෙඩිවේල්ල
Alaikkalluppoddakulam (Vannimava [Vavuniya])
ALAGALPOTHVAEVA   ⚓name
Map
අලගල්පොත්වැව
Allaippiddi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ALAPITIYA   ⚓name
ven. E Medhananda cites this place as an ancient Buddhist site
map
අලපිටිය
Amarivayal (Puhulmotte [Pulmoddai])
Amariyal Kulam
AEVARIVATTA   ⚓name
Meaning:   'Aevari' is a Sinhala short-form derived from 'Nil Averi', or Indigo, a blue-dye producing plant. Latin (botanical) name is Indigofera suffruticosa, Indigofera tinctoria<, pea family. The place name 'aevarivatta' exists in the southern provinces.
In T., Neela Amari is the name for blue indigo.
Map
ඇවරිවත්ත
Ambantativu, Ambanttativu (Puththalama [Puttalam])

SAMBANDA-DOOVA   ⚓name
Meaning:   'Sambanda'(සම්බන්ධ) means attached or nearby in Sanskrit, Sinhala and and indeed absorbed into Tamil as well. This is the island closest to the Kalpitiya (Galpitiya) jut-out, being less than a kilometer away. Map Part of the post-war tourist development project: Sri Lankan government to lease out 10 more islands in the Kalpitiya area for tourism
සම්බන්ඩ දූව
Amirthakaly (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
RASAKINDALE   ⚓name
Meaning:   In S. and T 'Amurtha' is 'sweet, food of the gods'; Also Sinhala 'Rasakinda' is Tinospora Cordifolia , It is called 'Shindil-kodi' as well as Amirthavalli in Tamil, Heart-leaved moonseed in English, and 'sarakpunka in Sanskrit. Thus 'Rasakindale' stands for a 'forest of Rasakinda'. Map
රසකිඳෙල
Ammivaittan (Vavnimava [Vayniya])
AMBAVATHTHANA   ⚓name
Disc.:   'Amba' in S., 'Amiram' and 'mangai' in Tamil, is 'mango'. "Mangifera Zeylanica" is endemic to Sri Lanka and is a threatened species. See Ceylon Mango
Map
අඹවත්තන
Ampakamam (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
AMBAGAMA   ⚓name
'Amba' is Mango, and 'gama'(S), signify 'village'. In Tamil, 'kamam', கமம், implies 'tillage' or 'cultivation, in Tamil Nadu, but used for village in the N & E Sri Lanka, the usage probably originating in Sinhala.
Map
අඹගම
Ampalavanpokkanai (Mooladoova [MUlaitivu])
UPULVANPOKUNA   ⚓name
In Tamil 'Ampalavaanan' is sometimes a name for Siva. The 2009 LTTE last stand and the No Fire Zone in 2009 (NFZ) included this area.
see Manukfarm or Menik farm and Upulvan in the safe zone   Map
උපුල්වන් පොකුන
Ampan (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ANGPAANA   ⚓name
Map
අංපාන
Amparai, Ampari
AMPARE, AMPARA, AMBARA   ⚓name
Ampara is also the name of the administrative district.
Meaning. In Tamil "Amparai" may mean " rock", or mica.
Hist. Ambara-gama, part of Kavantissa's domaine. 'Ampara' is most probably derived by tamilization of 'Ambara', b → p. The "ambagaama" mentioned in the chronicles (Cv .lxx.321) is modern Ambagamuva, and not Ambaragama. "Ambalala" and Ambamaala Vihaara., in the Ruhuna, are mentioned in Cv.lxxiv.58, and Cv.xlv.55. 'Ambara' in Pali & Sanskr. means "horizon", and may aptly describe the open-sky of "Ambaranagari". "Ambara" also refers "garments, clothes" as in "Shethambara", "haridambara", etc. Whether "Ambaragama" produced clothes and garments in antiquity is not known. The name may also be from "Amba-ara", i.e., "amba-river", but we have found no records. It is the Gal Oya river which flows by Ampara, as seen in map2 given below.
In spite of the well established inscriptional and literary history of this town, tamil nationalists have claimed this to be a "traditional Tamil village" with the name "Ampal Eri". There is no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact most Tamil writers use the form "Amapari".The sinhala name-boards were correctly restored in 1964 when Mr. Olcott Gunasekera was the Government Agent of the area.
map1  map2
asiatribune  lankatruth
The town itself was populated (during the Eelam war-CFA perid) with a large number of NGOs and INGOs.
See city map with NGOs who agreed to be shown.
A movie named "Gamini" was located in the Amapara area and based on the Eelam war. The film was directed by Sarath Weerasekera, a Member of Parliament who was a Rear Admiral in the Navy during the Eelam wars. This was filmed in Gonagala, a village setting in this area. Gaminiඅම්පාර
Amplanthurai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
AMBANLANTHARA   ⚓name, AMBALANTOTA
Meaning: Tamil "Ampalan", is not in the Tamil Lexicon, 'Thurai' is related to Skrt. 'Theetha'. The Sinhalese version is a typical place name;
'thara' and 'thota' often interchange in such place names.
tamilnet
Map
අම්බලන්තර
Amutankulam (Mooladoova [Mullativu])
AMUDANVAEVA   ⚓name
Map
අමුදන්වැව
Anaicoddai, Anaicottai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
AENIKOTTE   ⚓name
Meaning: Tamil, அணை, 'Anai' and Sinhala 'A`niya' may mean 'dam'. 'coddi' may be a tamilization of Kotta=Kotuwa (fort) in sinhala, or 'Kottai' in Tamil.
Map
ඇනිකෝට්ටෙ
Anaipanthy (yapana [Jaffna])
HAANAPANDA   ⚓name
Disc. Unlike in 'Anaicoddai', or anikotte, here 'anai' is related to ploughing, or 'hanava' in Sinhala; see under 'Anaippapan'. terrorism
Map
හානපන්ද
Anaippapan (mannaram [Mannar])
HAANAPAMANA   ⚓name
Disc. The Sinhala meaning is clear. Even in Tamil, "anaippu", ்அணைப்பு , could mean the extent of land that can be ploughed in a day.
Map
හානපමන
Anaisuddapottanai(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
HAANAKUDAPATANA   ⚓name
See disc. under Anaipanthy and other 'Anai-'.
Map
හානකුඩාපටන
Analaitivu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ANNALADOOVA   ⚓name, INNLADOOVA
Meaning: Tamil 'analai' has no clear meaning; 'tivu' in T, 'diva' in S, and 'dweepa' in Skrt. The Sinhalese 'annala', 'innala', or 'ran-ala' are types of yam. Hist: The form Annelletivo, is given in Dutch records.
historical Notes
map
අන්නලදූව
Anaitivu (SiriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
ANIYADOOVA   ⚓name
Disc. This is located on a branch of the "galoya", near Verugala. 'Aniya' here means 'dam' or 'vella' (වේල්ල), unlike in 'Anaippapan'. Map
ඇනියදූව
Anaiviluntan(mannaram[Mannar])
HAANAVILTANNA, ALIVILTANNA   ⚓name
In Malayalam 'Aana' can mean 'Elephant', leading to a Tamil 'aani' in addition to the 'yaanai'. See disc. under previous 'Ani-' names. map
අලිවිල්තැන්න
Analkaddimady(Puhulmotte[Pulmoddai])
HAKKATUMATIYA   ⚓name
This is located between Puhulmotte (Pulmoddai) and Gokanna(Trinco). Disc. 'Anal,anar' in T. could mean neck, jaw etc.
'Kaddimadi' has no clear tamil meaning. 'Hakkatu' are (elephant)jaw bones in Sinhala. Map
හක්කටුමැටිය
Anandamkula, Anandankuli(Mooladuva [Mullaitivu])
JAANAKAPURA   ⚓name, Janakapura
This is near Welioya (Manal aru) which is at the intersection of Mullaitivu, Trincomalee, Vavniya and Anuradhapura districts. Map
ජානකපුර
AndiyapuliKukulam (Vavnimava[Vavniya])
AANDIKOTIVAEVA   ⚓name
Disc. 'Aaandi' or Andi, [Kannada. and Malayalam. āṇḍi, Tamil: ஆண்டி āṇṭi] are a non-Brahmin Hindu mendicant group, usu. dressed in yellow. The place-name could have also arisen from "andun-koti-vaeva" as well, where "andun" refers to a black colour.   Map
අඳුන් කොටිවැව

ˡඩි කොටිවැව
Andimunnai, Aandimunai (Halaawatha [Chilaw])
AANNDIMUNNA   ⚓name
Disc. 'Aaandi' or Andi, [Kannada. and Malayalam. āṇḍi, Tamil: ஆண்டி āṇṭi] are a Hindu mendicant group, usu. dressed in yellow. Many such mendicants may have come by sea and the area south-east of Galpitiya (Kalpitiya) has several place names involving "Aandi". The word "Munna" is a frontal projection ("muhuna") or abutment of land into the sea or lake.
People smuggling starting from the Halavatha (Chilaw) coastal area
ˡඩි මුන්න
Andankulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
ANDUNVAEVA   ⚓name
Disc. 'Andan' → 'Anthan' in Tamil, and "andha" (Sihala, Sanskrit etc.) can have several meanings, e.g., Yama, blind man, dark/black, etc. This village is located by the sea, south of Mooladoova
Map
අඳුන්වැව
Aninchiyankulam(Giranikke[Killinochchi])
PANNIKKIVAEVA   ⚓name
Disc. 'Aninchi-' has no Tamil meaning
'Pannikka' refer to a caste designation and 'Aninchiya"
may have arisen from it
In the 'Panniki' caste are mahots, see 'Panichankemi'
Map
පනික්කිවැව
Annammakulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHAMAATAVAEVA   ⚓name
map
මහමාතාවැව
Antonimelingikulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
ANDUMILINDUVAEVA   ⚓name, ANTONIMELINGIVA`VA
Disc. Antoni Melingi could be a Slavic/Turkish/Greek name
At present we have little information on this toponym, except for a
suggestion that this is a "Europeanization' of "Andumilindu' vaeva.
map
අඳුමිලිඳුවැව
ඇන්තෝනිමේලින්ගි වැව
Addalachchena, Addalahena(Ampare)
ADDARAHENA   ⚓name
n.b., See previous entry for Addalahena
අද්දරහේන
Appakkuttikinattadi (Manaaveva[Mankulam])
MAHARATHGINIVAADIYA   ⚓name
Disc.- 'Maharathgini' is a fish known as 'Pterois muricata',
and means 'great red fire'; It is brilliant red with black spots.
In Tamil, the name 'tappakkutti' is used for the fish.
The tamil adaptation of Sinhala 'ginivaadi' gives 'kinattadi'
මහරත්ගිනි වාඩිය
Appalamthurai(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
AMBALAMTHOTA   ⚓name
An LTTE base till recently (2007).
අම්බලන්තොට
Araly (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
AERAELLA   ⚓name
Meaning: No clear tamil meaning;
'Arali' in T., may be 'knot, crushed stone, seed, sea, tubercle or twist.
in S. may be from '(w)aralla', or ariyala, a typical place name, where 'ari', or 'aari', referesmeans 'earlier', older (ayya), or even Arya.
map
birdwatching
War Eelam wars, Kobbekaduwa's death etc.
ඇරැල්ල
Arichchal, Periya-Arichchal, Sinna Arichchal (Puttalama)
ARAKGALA   ⚓name, Maha-arakgala, Podi-Arakgala
These are two islands at the tip of the Kalpitiya (Galpatuna) Lagoon. The names Ahungala (close to Galle), Arangala (close to Balapitiya), and Arkgala (Kalpitiya) are related names given to islets or sites on the western shore of Sri lanka. See discussion regarding Kalpitiya
ඇරක්ගල
Arippu, Arippuva (Mannarama [Mannar])
HARAPURA ⚓name, URUWELA  
Meaning: Tamil 'arippu', அரிப்பு, may mean
'Sifting, separating', but has no useful contextual meaning.
Sinhala '...pura'--> 'puva' endings relates to a town.
The Prakrit/sanskrit usage of "haara", and "Haaragitika", for perals. or bead of pearls, suggests that this may have been Haarapura, consistent with the existence of a pearl fisher in this area mentioned even in the Pali chronicles (n.b. the common sinhala word 'muthu' for perals is also linked with the Sanskrit "muktha" for pearl).
The place-name 'Uruwela' has been mentioned in Mahavamsa reg. pearl fishing.
history
Arippu Bridge, shortest land route to Mannaram from Puttalam opened, 2011 October
හාරපුර
හරිප්පුව,   ඌරුවෙල
Arippu (srigonakanda, [Trincomalee]))
HARIPPUWA   ⚓name, HARISPATTUWA
Meaning see notes on 'Arippu' in mannar district.
Note that the AGA division of Seruvila in located in SERUNUVARA,
called Arippu in Tamil.
MAP
fyi
හරිප්පුව
Ariyalai ((Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ARIYALA   ⚓name, Ariyagala, adhiyala
Ancient archaeological site.
Meaning: T. "yalai" has no immediate meaning,
The S. "yala" is typical place name, 'Adhi'=old
'Sihalavaththupakaranya' and 'Rasavahinya' mention an "ariyagala"
which is probably in Nagadeepa. However, Ariyala or Adhiyala
may have been "ariyagala", a place name which is appended as a first name.
"Nagadeepa" probably was the whole of Jaffna and not just the Island Nainativu.
n.b., Ellawala Medhananda favours 'Ariyagala.
map
hindunet
අරියාල

Ariyamadu(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
ARIYAMADUVA   ⚓name
Labeled #53 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dept. Somasiri, 1982
Map
ආරියමඩුව
Arugam (Bay) (Ampare [Amparai])
ARUNAGAMA   ⚓name, ARRUNAMAGAMTHOTA ARAGAMA
Disc. The name "Arunagama" is found in literary records, circa 1766 AD,
with references to 'Tissanaga Mudiyanse', a Vedda chief. This town may be the eastern-most point in Sri Lanka, and "aruna", or "dawn" occurs first here! In fact, the easternprovince should be called the "aruna palaatha" insted of "naegenahira palaatha". (also ack., comments from Prof. Meegaskumbura).
A village donate to a temple is known as 'aaraamagama'
10th century piller inscriptions near Kondavatavana ruins have used
the shortened "aaragama" to refer to an "aaraamagama" there
Karanda oya falls into the sea at aaragama
Legend. Arugam-bay could be aragamthara → Araganthara
"Aragama", which means "that village",
as pointed out to King Kavantissa.
Also Saigama, where "Sai" -> six -> "Aru" in T.
> Both are unsubstantiated, "Jana Pravada".
The 'gama' in S. is never used as such in T. where it becomes 'kamam'.
Meaning. 'Ara' in S., and 'Aru' in T. refer to a water stream.

Today Arugam bay is an internationally known surfing destination. It was strongly affected by the 2004 Dec. 26th Tsunami.
Return to Arugam bay by Ratnatunga.   Tsuanmis in Sri Lanka
අරුණගම, අරුණගංතාට
Arugampuleliya (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
ARAGAMPULELIYA   ⚓name
The name is insignificantly tamilized
Map
අරුණගම-පුල්එලිය
Arukarkudah(SriGonakanada[Trincomalee])
AARAGALTHUDAWA   ⚓name
A branch of the Galoya flows into the ocean here
Map
ආරගල් තුඩාව
Arukuveli (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ADDARAVAELLA   ⚓name
Disc. In S., refers to the 'beach nearby'
This is also consistent with a similar meaning for 'Arukku' in T.
Map
see Jaffna map1
අද්දරවැල්ල
Arumugathanputhukulam, Arumukattanputukkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KANDAKUMARAVAEVA   ⚓name
Meaning: 'Arumugathan=six faces' is 'Lord Murugan' in Hindu lore
'Kanda" in S. is 'Skanda", and 'Puthukulam' is 'kumaravaeva'
instead of 'newtank'='puthukulam' in T.
fyi කඳකුමාරවැව
කන්ධ කුමාරවැව
Aruviaru, Araviaru (Mannaram)
MALVATHUOYA   ⚓name
Meaning T. 'aruvi'= 'falls', but today there are no
important falls in this waterway. This is the second longest river in SL.
The river is mentioned in the Pali chronicles and
connected the old capital, Anuradhapura to the annciet port, Mantota;
its earliest name is "Kadamba Nadiya".
Robert Knox calls it Malvatu oya (Mannar)
history
මල්වතුඔය
Asikulam (Vavnimava, [Vavniya])
AADHIVAEVA   ⚓name
No clear meaning in Tamil
map
SPUR
ආදිවැව

Atambagaskada(Vannimava[Vavniya])
ATAMBAGASKADA   ⚓name
Ancient Buddhist site.
There is a "Kiriviharaya", and a "Sudramaramaya" near here.
The ruins include a shrine room, remnants of a square building, many
stone pillars, and destroyed brickwork. There is part of a stone sculpture
and signs of a much larger Buddha statue. The eyes of the head of the statue
have been plundered by treasure hunters. The present-day temple itself
has several archaeological objects, including a Samadhi statue, and inscriptions
of the 7-8th CE. Labeled #97 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ඇටඹගස්කඩ
Atchuveli ((Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ATHURUVAELLA   ⚓name
'Atchu' or 'Achchu', no clear contextual meaning in Tamil
'AthuruVAELLA' is common sea-side name in Sinhala
see entry under Achchuveli. Buddhist ruins. Phillipus Baldaeus-(a Dutch who in Jaffna for 9 years) records a great pagoda in Atchuveli, where the Portuguese army beat the Last Sinhala army unit in the peninsula.
අතුරුවැල්ල
Athimottai, Attimottai, Attimoddai (Mannarama [Mannar])
HASTHIMOTTE;   ⚓name. AETHUMOTTÉ,
Meaning: Tamil for elephant is "Yanai", or "Gajam" from the Skrt. 'Gaja'.
'Athi' could be vaguely connected with a 'fig tree' in
Tamil or Sinhala ('aththikka' tree) but this is not a
species found here
'Motté' ← Moddé ← Madé signifies a muddy, swampy place.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime.
Ancient Buddhist ruins, see p.78 E Medhananda(2003)
Map
හස්තිමොටේ
Athiyamalai,Ayittiyamalai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
HASTHIYAKANDA   ⚓name, A`THKANDURA
Meaning: See discussion under Athimottai
Map
හස්තිකන්ද
Attanakkallai (Anuradhapura)
ATHTHANAGALLA, Hattha-Vanagalla, Hasthikchci Hasthikuchchi (see write up under Hasthikuchchi, near Galigamuwa). The Athtnagalla Vihara is famous for its association with the legendary `Bodhisatva king' Siri Sanghabo who reigned from 300-302 CE, is recounted in the 13th century Pali literary work known as the "Hattha Vanagalla Vihara Vamsa". Article on Siri Sangabo and Atthanagalu vamsa The pious king renounced throne when faced with an uprising engineered by his ambitious younger brother Gotahbaya, and became a forest hermit. However, Gothabaya placed a ransom on the out-going king's head. When a wondering peasant came across the hermit, the peasant told the hermit ex-king about the ransom on his head. The legend states that the ex-king offered his own head as a gesture of `daana' (selflessly giving to others), a concept that is an important part of the Buddhist ethic which aims to extinguish selfish greed. However, similar legends of pious kings who become hermits and donate their head are found in several classical traditions of Asia minor and India.
හස්සංගල්ල
Atumagaskodai, Athumagaskotai, Atumagaskoda (Vannimava [Vavniya])
ATUMAGASKADA   ⚓name, ATUMAGASKADA
Meaning: ATUMANG-ASAKADA → AETUMANG-ASKADA → ATUMAGASKODA ``Aetu manga'' in sinhalese is the `path' taken by elephants. The name probabaly means the village near the path of the elephants. Compare Alimankada (elephant pass);
This is a small village about 7 km towards the North of Vannimava (Vavniya). Development in the area after the war, a report in 2012
ඇතුමංගස්කඩ
Ayiniyankankani Alavakkai (Mannarama[Mannar])
ALAVAKA   ⚓name
This is very close to 'Alavakkaisirukkulam' and the whole
area was probably originally known as AALAVAKA
This is of interest in regard to possible pre-Vijayan North Indian
contacts with Sri lanka. See under 'Alavakkasisirikkulam'
Map
ආලවක
Azhiyanilai,Aliyanilai (Gantale [Kantalai])
AADININDAYA   ⚓name
Disc. 'Aziyamarutal' in T. means 'Property given in Perpetuity
In Sinhala., 'Aadinindya' implies an old 'nindagama'
This is close to the north of Somawathie Chaitya Sanctuary. Hotel construction near Somaathie, 2010
ආදිනින්දය
B
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Bakkiella, BAKKIAELLA (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
BAKKIAELLA   ⚓name
Disc. This place name has not changed.
බක්කිඇල්ල
Bandarikulam, Pandarikulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
BANDARAVAEVA   ⚓name
Dis.- 'Bandara', probably from the Sanskrit. 'Bhaandara'.
Located a few kilometers west of Vannimava, on the Mannar road.
Constant clashes between LTTE and SL army.
See
Youth gangs name after tamil films.
බන්ඩාරවැව
Baron's cap(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
TOPPIGALA   ⚓name
see
Kudumbimalai
තොප්පි ගල
Batticaloa,  மட்டக்களப்பு (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
MADAKALAPUVA,   ⚓name Madakalapuwa, Puliyandoova
Meaning. The english name "Batticaloa" has arisen from the Dutch usage 'Matecalou'. The tamil "Mattakkalappu" has no contextual sense, ("Chuttakuli"could make sense), and "Mattakalappu" is given as the classic example of tamilization from the sinhala.
Casiechetty, in The Ceylon Gazetter , 1834, explains the etymology. In Sinhalese, "Malakalapuva" means "muddy-lagoon".

The city has five parts: Pulliantivu (Puliyandoova), Koddamunai (Kōttamunna), Arasady or Arasay (Bodhiseāya), Kallady (Galadiya) and Putthur(Buthpura or Aluthgama).
The name "Bodhisaeāya" is in keeping with "Arase" in tamil having a meaning which connotes the Bo tree, Ficus religiosa. The airport is in the "Aluthgama' area. The Lady Manning bridge, possibly th longest bridge in Sri Lanka, and connects Arasay and Kallady. Hist. Dutch VOC representative Spilbergen arrived here in 1602. The Dutch captured Batti. from the Portuguese in 1638. The Batticaloa fort was built by the Portuguese in 1628 and was the first to be captured by the Dutch (18 May 1638). It is one of the most picturesque of the small Dutch fort of Sri Lanka, it is situated in an island, still in good condition. Portuguese had a tiny fort at Tanavare near Batticaloa (there is a map of it but there are no remains of the fort). During King Senerath's time, the viceroy of Digamadulla, Medivaka Kumara Banda ruled from Madakalapuva. This was a part of Digamadulla, in the Ruhuna Kingdom of King Kavantissa. Dagoba chatra stone and asana (1st century?) found inside the Dutch fort.

Methodist Central College of Batticaloa, founded in 1814. The Wesleyan mission established schools here (1834) with the intent to convert the Vedda population to Christianity. See K-M. de Silva: "Social policy and Missionary Organization in Ceylon": 1840/1855. A Brief account is given in:
Bandu de Silva on Veddas.

Terrorism: First armed attack on the Army, during 1956 riots, in Batti.
Ethnic Clensingby the LTTE: year 1981 census 10,000 Sinhalese; year 2000 census 150 Sinhalese.
see Spur website on Ethnic cleansing in Sri Lanka.

The Muslims of Madakalapuva are descendents of Moor refugees settled there by King Senerath 1n 1626, when they were expelled by the Portuguese from the south-west maritimes (see de Queyroz, vol. 2 , p 745)
Muslim's role in facing the LTTE, Island newspaper, 6-sept-2009

Tamil caste system: Differs significantly from that in Jaffna or in the Tamil Nadu
See caste descriptions under Jaffna entry at 'J'
Those shown below in bold are only found in Batti.:
    Vellalar, Cirpatakkarar, Mukkuvar, Kariyar, Tanakkarar, Kaikkulavar
     Canar Pallar, Vannar, Ampattar,Vanniyar, Kollar, Tattar,
    Taccar, Kataiyar, Vetar etc.
The castes are again divided into seven fold "kutis", and sometimes into 17-fold subcastes-"ciraikkutis". Temples are linked to "kutis' and the pre-brahaminic Hindu practice, with many Murugan temples, common in the Batti region differs from Jaffna.
The Vanniyar caste is found in Tamil Nadu, but not in Jaffna.
The 'Kurukkals' of Vedda shrines are known as "Puccariyar or Teyvanthu kuniavar."
The gods worshiped in Vedda shrines are:
"Chenpaganachi, Chenpagavanniyan, Veda Teyvam, Kappan Teyva Chenai Vairavar", as well as: "Narasinga Vairavar, Sudalai Vairavar, Veerapathiran, Pathia Kali." 'Sudalai'→'Kudala' is an evil spirit haunting burning land (e.g, Chena).
The younger Veddas worship Hindu gods like Pilliyar, Murugan, and Mari Amman.

Karuna's Politics is a natural result of the long-standing differences between
Jaffna and Batticaloa Tamils
Wiki article
Map of the east coast
මඩකලපුව
Bedirekka (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
BAEDIRAEKKA   ⚓name
Disc. This is near Mahaoya and the place name has not changed.
See
Map
බැදිරැක්ක
Berawa Munmari(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
BAKKIELLA,   BERAVA MULVERIYA   ⚓name
Disc. A 'hena' area of the Drummer caste, cultivation by seeding before the rains
see also Mavadimunmari (MAHAVA`DI MULVA`RIYA) further north, near Mahaoya
Map
බෙරවමුල්වේරිය
Brynthuraichenai(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
BINTHARAHENA   ⚓name
Map
බින්තරහේන
Butthankalai, Buddhanakalai, Putthankalai (Ampara)
BUDDHANGALA, ⚓ Buddhanagala, KARAJIKA-GALA
Disc. see Putthankalai බුද්ධංගල
C
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Chadayantalawa, Chadayantalava (Ampara)
DADAYANTALAVA   ⚓name
"This means "Hunting plane" and the sinhala "The-ද" has become Tamilzed to "Cha". The name "Dadayanthalaava" was correctly used even in 1948
දඩයන්තලාව
Chaddi, Chaaddi, Catti, சாட்டி (Jaapanaya [Jaffna])
VAADIYA   ⚓name
This is a small coastal location on the Urathota (Kayts Island) shore. "Vaadiya" is used to designate a hut or encampment associated with fishing or agricultural activity. By extension, it can apply to a tract of land used in farming, pasturage etc. Thus we have "parana-vaadiya" (Old-encampment), and "Thanamal-vaadiya" (Tract of flowering-grass), "Kurakkan-vaadiya"(chena of Millet) etc, in various parts of the country including the eastern province.
--
The very small old-town area near the Bentota tourist complex, (southern province) was originally known as "Vaadiya" as it started as an oyster-fishery complex (but inhabited by social groups not associated with fishing "castes", as well as sinhala families with Dutch names, e.g., van de Bona). In the early part of the 20th century "Vaadiya" in Bentota had a small "Rest house" and the "main street" itself was known as "Vaadiya". A remarkable Dutch church which existited till 1960, and used as a school, was unfortunately demolished by a government which had no sense of historical monuments. A Buddhist temple on a hillock (Udakotuva Vihaara) is of historical significance, but has no known ancient artifacts. This temple, and the more celebrated "Yaathramulle temple" a few kilometers away, had monks who taught Wilhelm Geiger, Rhys Davis and other western Pali pioneers.
--
It should also be noted that the form "kumburu-kattiya" may be used for a "tract of paddy land", and "kattiya" is probably derived from the Pali (c.f., Kottaasa). It means a tract or division (of land in the present context). Thus "chaddi" could also be related to "kattiya". The root of the word in Dravidian etymology may well be in the Sanskrit from of "Kotthaasha". Interestingly, the usage of the word சாட்டி cāṭṭi; in Tamil is more commonly for "Land lying fallow after a crop" (see Madras Tamil Lexicon, p 1356). The place name "Chaddi" in Urathota shore is mostly likely derived from වාඩිය, i.e., the location of a fishing encampment.
වාඩිය
Chalai Challai (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu]
THALAAVA   ⚓name, TALAWA
This is south of Punnainiravi and north of Chundikulum
Note that the tamil "thillai" is used for a type of mangrove, Excoecaria agallocha but we believe that this is not the basis of this toponomy. The word may also have come from the Sanskrit "Saila", i.e., stone, or from the sinhala "Daella", squid shells. But 'Thalaava' is toponymically our preferred choice for this location. [On the other hand, the place named 'Galle', the capital of the southern province may have arisen from 'Saila→Gala→Galla', ගාල්ල.] See
map of Punnainiravi and Chalai
තලාව
Challi-munai (Gonakanna [Trincomalee])
Sailamunna, GALMUNNA   ⚓name
'Challi' is from the Sanskrit 'Saila', sinhala 'silaa' for stone. The word 'Gal' may have also originated from 'Chall(i)→Gal', while a Sumerian source has also been proposed! The stones may be limestone, coral stone etc. Similarly, there is a Challik-kalappu or "Galkalapuva" (stoney lagoon) in the same area.
ගල්මුන්න
Challik-kalappu (Gonakanna [Trincomalee])
GALKALAPUVA
ගල්කලපුව
Challitivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GALDOOVA, Sailadoova
This was originally a small group of reefs and rocks, now damaged and also enlarged into an islet during the 2004 Tsunami. It represents a very fragile eco-system, and is located in the Madakalapuva lagoon. It should not be opened up for tourism.
ගල් දූව
Chalampan, Chaalampan (Mannaram[Mannar])
SAALAPANA   ⚓name , SAALAVANA
Disc. The Sal tree, Bot., shorea robusta is a timber tree with fragrant flowers
and 'canon-ball' like fruits.
Botany Page
Sal is either the "cannon ball tree", or the related north Indian diperocarpaceae referred to as 'Salva', 'sakhu', 'shal' and also 'kandar' Sanskrit and pali names are also Saala. The names 'saala', and also 'Sal' are used in Elu-Sinhala, modern Sinhala and in north Indian languages. In Tamil Nadu, 'chaalamban' is a soft-wood tree, '. The 'Sal' tree itself is called 'Kungkiliyam' (p 954 of the Madras Tamil lexicon). See also Kunturukkam, p996 of MTL. Thus the use of 'Chala' in the place name clearly supports the derivation of the Lankan-Tamil form 'chaala' from the sinhala 'saala'. The tree has a special place in Buddhist belief and lore, as Prince Siddhartha Gautama, the future Buddha, ia claimed to have been born in Lumbini park, (in modern Napal), under a Sal tree. Similarly, the Parinibbana (passing way) is said to have taken place in a grove of Sal trees in Kusinara (Kushinagar) of the Malla kingdom. The Sal tree when tapped, yields white opaline resin which is burnt as incense in Hindu/Buddhist religious ceremonies. It is also used for caulking boats. The seeds are used for oil extraction. The hardy wood does not take a polish and is used in heavy construction. An oil obtained from the sal fruit is used in lamps. The Sal tree is an object of worship among Buddhists and Hindus. The tree "Vateria indica", Skrt. 'Sarja', is known in Tamil as Kundirikam or 'kungilium', dhup-maram, and may be confused with the "sal' tree. Map සාලපන  
සාලවන
Chalampan (Chinnach-), (Periya-) சாளம்பன் (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
SAALAVANA (kuda) (Maha)
SAALAVANA   ⚓name for this entry
See Disc. under 'Chalampan' in Mannar.
සාලවනය (කුඩා-),
(මහ-)
Chalampaikkulam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
SALGASVAEVA   ⚓name
See discussion under
Chalampan
Map
සල්ගස්වැව
Chalampakerni, Chaalampaikkeani (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
SAALAKAENNA   ⚓name
See discussion under
Chalampan
There is also a'Saalahena', i.e., 'Chalampaicheannai' in this area.
'SaalaKaenna' is a dug-out region, near a forest of Sal trees.
Sal is either the "cannon ball tree", or the related north Indian
diperocarpaceae referred to as 'Salva', 'sakhu', 'shal' and
also 'kandar'
'Kaenna' is from the sinhala 'kaeneema', to dig.
Map
සාලකැන්න
Chammalai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
GAMMALE   ⚓name, Gammmalé
The word " malé " has been used since ancient times in Sinhala to indicate hilly or mountainous regions. Thus "Kothmalé" is referred to in the story of Prince Gamunu (later Dutugamunu), 2nd century CE. The word is derived from the Sanskrit use of Mleccha, and Pali Milakkha to mean barbarian or hillman , (e.g., p. 533 of the Pali Text society dictionary). See also Geiger, Pali Grammar p622, Milaaca [by-- form to milakkha, via milaccha → milacca → milaaca".
The above usage in Pali and Sanskrit, for hill tribes ("non-Aryans=barbarians"), suggests that the word "malé", or " malaya " found in modern and old Sinhala for "hilly region" probably came from these source languages. The form "malai" found in Tamil dates to the Changam period, and may have also arisen from Sanskrit sources.
The contention by T. Burrow and M. B. Emeneau, (A Dravidian etymological dictionary, Oxford 1961, p. 314) that malai is an original Tamil word, because it occurs in Sangam poetry, is untenable as the Sanskrit sources are older. Karthigesu Indrapala's claim (p 375, The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity, Chennai 2006) that "some of the early geographic names in the Pali chronicles also seem to indicate the influence of Dravidian languages", is also based on the erroneous Burrow-Emmaneua etymology of "malaya", and possibly "pattana" (see entry under "Yapapatuna").
This village is part of the Weli-oya development area
ගම්මලේ
Chammanthurai, Samanthurai, Sammanthurai சம்மாந்துறை (Ampara)
SAMANTHARA   ⚓name
See discussion under: Samanthurai
සමන්තර
Champoor, Sampur சம்பூர் (Gokanna [Trincomalee])
SOMAPURA   ⚓name
See entry under Sampur
සෝ මපුර
Champuththurai, Camputurai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
JAMBUKOLA   ⚓name
This is on the mainland near the causeway to Karainagar.
Disc.-The name suggests that this may have been the
'Jambukola' of the Mahavamsa. Kankesanthurai is also a candidate
for the Mahavamsa port. See entry under
Kankesanthurai
ජම්ඹුකෝල
Chamalankulam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
SAMALAN-VAEVA, Halmillavaeva
හල්මිල්ලවැව
Camulaiyativattai, ChamulaiyadiVaddai, சமுளையடி வட்டை (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
HALMILLAVATTA
Disc.- 'Halmilla' is sinhala for 'Berrya cordifolia' and
is close to the Tamil name 'Chamandalai' for this valuable timber tree.
හල්මිල්ලවත්ත
Chandilipai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
See Sandilipai
සන්දිලිපේ
Chandrapuram (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
CHANDRAPURA
චන්ද්ර පුර
Chankanai, Sankanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
CHANDANA
'Chandana' means Sandalwood in literary S., from Pali.
See Gomarankadawala regarding "Sandun Kumara" cult
See Old Dutch map, Changana
Base Hospital
map
චන්දන
Chankattarvayval(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
SANGATARAVYA
Disc. -'cankattaar' in Tamil refers to 'Buddhist and Jian fraternity
of monks, c.f., Madras tamil Lexicon, p1222
'Sangataravaya' would be the side, or promenade allocated to the monks.
Compare also with the name "Hanguranketha ← Sanga-sathu-ketha"
See Jaffna area Map.
සංගතරවය
Chankaththanai, Chankattanai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
SANGASTHAANA
This is close to Chankattarvayval and was probably a
part of a larger Buddhist complex. See entry under 'Pachchilaippalli'
(Paththirapahala) which is nearby.
'Thaenna' is a common sinhala ending for 'place', location
In pure tamil the usage is '(s)thaanam', and the form 'thanai'
found only in Sri Lanka is probably a sign of adaptation from Sinhala.
සංගස්තානය
Chavakachcheri, Chaavakachcheari சாவகச்சேரி (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
JAAVAKACHERAYA, Chavakachcheriya, Javakachcheri
Sinhala Meaning. Area where Javanese people lived, "Java town"
According to the Mahavamsa, Chandrabhanu, a Javanese ruler from
Tambralinga invaded SL in the 13th Century CE. His armies landed in
Gokanna(Trinco), and used blow pipes and poisoned arrows, and ruled Jaffna
for three decades. Tambralinga is in the south isthmus of Thailand,
close to Malaysia. Jaffna or Japané was a main Javanese settlement left behind by Charndrabhanu. The largest Buddhist shrine to God Natha was in Chavakakachcheri (Javakachcheri). It was destroyed by the Portuguese. Natha, or "Naaka" was the God of the Naga people who lived in Nagadeepa, the ancient name of the Jaffna peninsula as found in the Pali chronicles.
See entry under Jaffna.
See Dutch Map, Chiavagacherij, Chavakgatzeri, Chawagacheri
see Jaffna map1
Politics.There was a noteworthy Muslim presence in Chavakachcheri. Some 500 Muslims were expelled on 25th October 1990 with just two hours notice by the LTTE. They were a part of the
85,000 muslims expelled from the North. By the year 2000 most of the city had been destroyed by the war.
See muslim expulsion
S. Kadirgamar on the "Final Report of the Citizens’ Commission on the Expulsion of Muslims from the Northern Province by the LTTE in 1990
This is the birth village of Thamilselvan, spokesperson of the LTTE since
the demise of Anton Balasingham. Tamilselvan was kill in Nov 2007
V. Kumaraswamy was the first MP of this seat in the first general election, 1947.
ජාවකච්චේරිය
Chavatkaddu, Chaavatkaddu, Cavarkattu" சாவற்கட்டு (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
JAAVAKADUVA
Disc.- This was another area in the peninsula where
the Javanese people inhabited, and developed a tradition of boat building.
Boat building has existed here even in recent times.
See also entry under place name 'Chavalkaddu'
ජාවකඩුව
Chavangkoddai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
JAAVANG-KOTTE, Ja-kotte
This is a fortification associated with the Javanese. Charndrabhanu II used this fortification to fight the Magha.
Seee entry under Chavakachcheri
ජාවකෝට්ටෙ
Chavalkaddu (Mannaram[Mannar])
HABALKADUVA
This is a ferry point, and 'habal' in Sinhala is "Oar'
In tamil 'cavalakkaarar' is a ferryman.
Caaval is a male cock and 'caavar-kattu' is a cockfight ( see p1339,
Madras T. lexicon), but there is no tradition of cock-fighting here.
See under Chavalakkadai for other details of the word "chaval" and Saevul.
හබල්කඩුව
Chavalakkadai, Chaavalkkadai(Madakalpuva[Batticaloa])
KUKULKADE, SAEVULKADE (anchor name)
'Chaaval' or Chaval is a rooster in Malayalam and Tamil, 'Kukula' in Sinhala (kukkuta in Pali). The Malayalam word has been admitted to sinhala in the form "saevul", as in the "Saevul sandesha" of Alagiyavanna Mukaveti (Alagiawanna Mohottala, 17th century). The earliest literary use of the word "saevul" in sinhala is probably found in Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula's 15th century work, composed during the time of Parakramabahu VI, named "The Nightingale's Message (or Epistle-Poem)" Salalihini Sandeshaya;   verse 25 line 2, "rane- yataga savulindu dada ga_lapa-ya".   Sri Rahula and others
See also entry under 'Chavalkaddu'
Map
කුකුල්කඩේ
සැවුල් කඩේ

Cheddikulam, Chettikulam, Vettikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
HETTIAEVA, GEDIWEWA
Labeled #110 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
For label no: 111 click here
For label nos: 112, 113 click here
For label nos: 114,115,116 click here
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dept. Somasiri
Galara (Kalaru) stream and several private lands are included in this
list. Some 500 acres used for tobacco farming contain ancient ruins,
remnants of a large stupa, old bricks, stone pillars etc.
Meaning Tamil, 'cheddi'=community
'Hetti' or 'Chetti' was a merchant community cited even in the Pali texts
Type of report filed with Canadian Govt reg. army checkpoint
හෙට්ටිවැව
Cheddipalayam, Chettipalayam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KADAPEELIYA, KADAPALA
Meaning S. 'town area' ; T. could mean'community place'
Tsunami
කඩපල
Cheddiyakurichchi, Chettiyakurichchi (Giranikke, [killinochchi])
HETTIYAKULISSA
Meaning:   Kuliya, Kulissa or 'pattuwa' in S., and 'Kudiyiruppu' T. are
words which may mean 'quarters', or 'ethnic area'

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province
Clear map of area near Yapana lagoon
හෙට්ටිකුලිස්ස
Cheddukulam, Chettukulam (Mannarama)
KEHETUVAEVA
See military Action-2008 map near Mannar
කෙහෙටුවැව

Chelleivillu (mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
SAALIYAVILA
Labeled #31 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
සාලියවිල
Chempankundu(yapanaya[jaffna])
KUMBURUKANNIYA
Now included in the Killinochchi administrative region. This is located between Punranna(Poorneryn) and Palaava(Palavi)
Disc.- 'Kanniya' is a small tract of land.
'Kundu' in T. could mean the same thing, but 'chempan'
cannot be ascribed a meaning. Perhaps 'Kumburu'→chumpuru' etc ?
see Jaffna area map   Regional map
කුඹුරුකන්නිය
Chempian aru, Chempiyan pattu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
SEMBIAN-oya, SEMBIANPATTUWA, Choranaaga oya, choranaga pattuva
Meaning The Cembians are a caste associated with the Vanniyars (Vanna-kula) of Chennai. The forms 'Chempian, chempiyan', may also be a name of a queen, 'Sembian Devi', wife of Gandaraditya Chola (10th Cen.)
This name would have been instated in the 15th century or afterwards.
The ancient name is believed to be 'choranaga oya'.
සෙම්බියන්ඔය, -පත්තුව
Chenaikudiyiruppu (Ampare)
SENAAKUTIYA
Meaning: In Tamil, it could mean army quarters,
agreeing with the Sinhala 'Senaakutiya'
සේනාකුලිස්ස
Chencholai, Sencholai, Naddalamottankulam (Mooladuva [Mullaitivu])
HENDOLA, Hengolla
See also entry under Vallipunam, the location of the Tiger torture prison and Victor-I base.
This area (in the aluth-kulissa or puthukudiruppe district) is also called Naddalamottankulam (Naaatu-maetta-vaeva) "Hena" is "chena", i.e., slash and burn cultivation area. This location came into the news after air strikes (August 2006) on an LTTE facility, claimed by the LTTE and certain international observers to be an orphanage, while the Govt. claimed it to be a black-tiger training facility. It has clearly been both, i.e., an orphanage where the orphans get trained for war. The songs of the orphanage, "Sencholai Padalkal" reveal much more:

The tomb shall wait for me
Flowers as offerings shall there blossom
A memorial for me who turn into a myriad atoms
The burning embers shall watch over me.
The poet then describes a variety of possible deaths awaiting her -such as shells and bullets. It then runs:
The poison (cyanide) I bore since I became a Tigress Shall also await me.
The hawk and the hound to taste my flesh Shall stalk the field where I do battle.
...All these will I endure for my land
To me a grateful nation shall arise./i
(name of poet) Uthayaletchumi. See section 6.5 of the UTHR(J) report no: 13, UTHR-#13
See also 'Choncholai'
Unicef: Bombed orphans were not Tamil Tigers ?
හේන්දොල
හේන්ගොල්ල
Chengalniravi (Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
HEN-GAL-NIYARA
Disc.- 'Hen', or 'chena' is where 'e' is as in 'Pain'
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept.(Somasiri), 1982
හේන්ගල්නියර
Chenkaladi Chenkalady(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
SINHALAVAADIYA
Meaning Sinhala meaning is evident; in Tamil it could mean
'red foot print'
Army camp
Note that there is another place known as 'Sinhalavadi' about 15 km
south of Chenkalady
Map of Chenkalai=sinhalawadiya
Map of Sinhalavadi
සිංහලවාඩිය
Chenmalai(Mooladuva[Mullaitive])
HENKANDA
'Chena' or 'Hena" is a burn and slash cultivation.
Today it is a sea-tiger LTTE base.
හේන්කන්ද
Cherukkandal(Mannarama[Mannar])
SERUGANDARA, SERUKADOLA
This name may probably be attributed to a type of
mangrove, botanical name Kandelia rheedii.
or Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora candel.
The word 'kandal' may also be a tamilization of 'gandara',
that is, the watery edge or swamp, where gan(ga) =river and 'dara' is
related to 'addara', i.e., neighborhood.
සේරුකන්දල
සේරුකඩොල
Chilarattai(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu]),br> THALAARADDA
Disc.- See also, Chilavathurai, Chilaw etc
The name may have come from 'Thalarattha', a red-coloured flat stoney
region or field.
තලාරද්ද
Chilavathurai, Silavaturai (Mannarama [Mannar])
SALAATHARA, HALAAWATHARA, THALAWATHOTA
Meaning: 'Halaawa' or 'thalaawa' may mean flat region; See Chilaw.
'Halawathara' or 'Talaawathora' (c.f, palaathota) is a flat region with
access to the sea or a lagoon or river.
In Tamil, 'Chilaw' may mean 'district.
According to historical recodes, Cholas landed in 'Salawattota' in 1190 A.D.
It may also refer to a grove of Saala trees.
Historical Notes
කිරවතර,   සලාවතර
Chilaw, Chilapam (Puttalam)
HALAWATHA, SALAVATHA
English. Chilaw ↔ Halawatha, probably from Halawthara or 'Salawthota'
According to historical recodes, Cholas landed in 'Salawattota' in 1190 A.D.
Thus the basic name existed in ancient times as well.
'Sala' may refer to "sal trees", or "jaala" Sanskrit, water.
The historic Munneswaram Temple is near Mee Oya (Mayavan aru)
Animal sacrifices are carried out in Hindu Bhadrakali festivals here. The sacrifices of some 400 goats and other animals in August 2010 led to near-universal condemnation, even by some Hindus.

The name "Munneswaram Sivan Kovil" reflects the name of the local deity Muniandi, which may be a corruption of "Mul-Kgnaathi", (මුල් ඤාති). This is also found in the Tamil as முன்னடியான் (munnatiyan) i.e., ancestors. Indeed, ancestor-worship is a standard part of cults of primitive societies in all cultures, and it has been assimilated to the Bhardakali and Saiva traditions which arrived later. A Buddhist temple, a Bo tree, as well as Buddhist practices also existed in the precincts. The Kokila sandesha, written during the time of King Parakrama Bahu VI of Kotte (1412-1467), mentions the temple. The temple was razed to the ground by the Portuguese in 1587 and was rebuilt in the eighteenth century by Kirthi-sri Rajasinghe. The Sinhala-Buddhist-Pattini rituals (e.g., shooting the mango or "Amba-videema") probably going back to the time of Gajaba, and other festivals which lasted well into the 19th century were increasingly replaced by Saivite Hindu festivals with the rise of Saivism (c.f., Arumugam Navalaar movement) in Tamil society. Unlike at Katharagama, this temple is controlled by Tamil kururals. Buddhist temple style Hevisi drums were also phased out and processions of 63 Saive Munis and Natesar were added only in 1947. See Munneswaram Kovil
and the Book by Rohan Bastin,The domain of constant excess: plural worship at the Munnesvaram temples (2002).
Recent Eelam-nationalist writers have claimed that "Munnai in Tamil means 'ancient' and Easwaram or Eachchram the Temple of Siva. It is claimed that is is one of the five ancient (pre-christian) Hindu temples. However, as far as we know, there is no archaeological, inscriptional or historical evidence supporting that claim. In fact. there is reason to believe that a Kaii-Pattni temple came into being here mainly to support the visiting sea-faring fishermen of various ethnicities. The arrival of the Cholas in the 12th century marks the true beginnings of the Hindu (Saiva) temple here. Wikimapia
හලාවත
Chinabay, China Bay (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
CHEENABOKKA
Largest Air Force base, EP
චීනෙබාක්ක

Chinapuvarasankulam, Chinnapoovarasankulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
PODI-SOORIYAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #74 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
පොඩිසූරියවැව
Chippittidal(Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
SIPPITHUDUVA
'Sippi' are a type of clams 'Anandara Granosca'. However, the word
'sippi' is used in Sinhala, and 'Chippi' in Tamil, rather indiscriminately
to indicate the shells found on the sea shore or lagoon banks.
Map
සිප්පිතුඩුව
Chiraddikulam Chiraddikkulam (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
HEERATI VAEVA
Heerati Oya/vaeva are mentioned in connection with King Mahasena (275-301 CE). Heerati Oya, Ambanganga and Kalundewa Oya are parts of the Mahaveli (C system) project. "Heeratiya" is also a known place name. Chiraddikulam (Heerativaeva) is in the Maanthé (Manthai) East GS division and closer to Mannarama than to Mooladoova. This area is a part of the ebb and flow of the civil war. Capture of Strategic Base   Map, please enlarge as needed by clicking.
හීරටිවැව
Chirutivu, Sirutivu (Japanaya [Jaffna])
'HIRIDOOVA'
Small island between Mandadoova (Mandaitivu) and Jaffna peninsula.
හිරි දූව
Chiviyateru(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
SEVYACHERIYA, CIVIYACHERIYA
Dis.- A settlement for the caste of servants('sevya', Skrt.) or Palanquin
carriers. However, Tamil lexicons (MTLp1449) identify 'civiyaar' as a fisher caste;
but this is probably not known in the Jaffna peninsula.
see Jaffna map1
සේව්යචේරිය
Chulipuram (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
CHULAPURA
Ancient Buddhist site.
Meaning Sinhala, 'chula' means small; Tamil 'chuli' may
mean 'to mark with a circle'
Mili. SL Naval base
චූලපුර
Chundikuli, Chundikkuli, Chundiguli, சுண்டிக்குழி (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KUMBAKULIYA, කුම්බකුලිය
sundakuliya
Meaning: 'Kuli' in T. and Kuliya (e.g., in Kuliyapitiya) in S. refer to a
dip, i.e., a place of lower elevation. It could mean a set of dwellings (kuti).
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province

"Chundu" சுண்டு in Tamil means "flick" jerk; 'chundi' itself has no meaning
in a toponymic context. The Sinhala "kumba", from "jalakumba", a plant
similar to "nidi-kumba", L Mimosa pudica but grows in marshes, in
aquatic environments. It is in Tamil: kotinetti , or 'Kunti', சுண்டி,
Latin.,Neptunia Oleracea has other names. If the original name was in
Tamil, the form 'Kuntikkuli' would have probably remained without distortion.
However, the Sinhala name "Kumbakuliya" was susceptible to easy change
to the form "Chundikuli" without change of the meaning.
A local variant in the pronunciation of the name "Sundekuli" may point
to a Kannada influence, as Neptunia Oleracea is "sunde" ಸು ನ್ ೆದ in K.
See Dutch Map, Sundecouli
hist., dutch Choendikoelle, Walligammo palatha.
Chundikuli Talks, 13th Const. Amendment
n.b. There is also a Chundikkulam, NE of Talawa(Chalai)
Map
කුම්බකුලිය
Chundikkulam, Chundikulam(Mooladuva[Mullaitivu])
KUMBAVA`VA
This is just noth east of Talawa(Chalai)
See disc. under Chundikuli
කුම්බවැව
Chungkankeani, Chunkankenni, சுங்கன்கேணி (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
HUNGAKAENNA
Disc.- 'Hunga' in sinhala is a type of catfish, (Silurus fossilis)
known for its sting. Chunkan ← Hunga, and 'Kaenna' is from the
Sinhala 'kaneema' to dig, and means a 'pond' or a dug-out quarry.
හුන්ගන්කැන්න

Chulanaga Lena, Culanaga Lena(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
CHULANAAGALENA
NO tamil form known. It is an ancient Buddhist site
Labeled #63 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
චූලනාග ලෙන
Chunnakam (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HUNUGAMA, HUNNAGAMA
Meaning: The ending "kam" is a typical sinhala to Tamil toponym. See the article by Tambimuttu regarding etymology.
Hist: Buddhist ruins, Nampotha, Portuguese and Dutch references.
map
හුනුගම
Chunnavil (Mannarama )
HUNUVILA
This is located on the Mannarama-Punranna (Poonaryn) road. See the article by Tambimuttu regarding etymology.   Regional map
හුනුවිල
Colombuthurai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
COLOM(B)THARA
see Jaffna map1
Boats going to Colombo (Kolomba, port of the Kelani which was another Naga capital of ancient Lanka), from the Nagpur, modern Nallur (ancient Naga capital of Nothern Lanka) probably took off from this location. According to the the 13th century Sidath sangarava, the name of the capital, `Kolomba' is itself said to mean `ford' or `harbour' while also claiming that the etymological origin (nishpanna) is not clear. However we believe that the name `Kolomba' arose from `Kelanithota → Kolon-the' → Kolomba'. i.e., `Kelani-thota' simply means the `exit-port' or `door of the river Kelani'. With time, the river-mouth silted and has moved somewhat further North, leaving `Colombo' behind. `Kelani' was an ancient Naga capital, prior to the alleged invasion of the Sinhlala clan of Vijaya.
කොලොන්තර
Cotiaar, Koddiar, Koddiar bay(Gonakanna [Trincomalee])
Koti-aara
Koti may refer to "tigers", or to Aponogeton natans, a type of aquatic plant Kekatiya
Koddiyar Bay (Koti-are bokka) is around 12 km south of Trincomalee town. The Mahaveli, which is the longest river in Sri Lanka, flows out into the Indian Ocean at Koddiyar bay, at 5 or 6 different points. The only bridge in the area (2010) is the Kinniya Bridge. Ferries have to be used to cross at other points. Link to Dev Wijewardane's take on Koddiyar Bay
කොටිආර
කොටි-ආරෙ බොක්ක

D
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Danakiriyai(Ampara)
DANAKRIYA
This is south of Punnainiravi and north of Chundikulum
The Kotavehera, Wevagam (Vaevgam) Pattu, Danakiriya, is located here,
and consists of a dagaba on a square platform and a structure with stone pillars.
දනකිරිය
Delft, Neduntheevu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NEDUNDUVA
Hist. Baldaeus,1658, Nindundiva, Dutch VOC records Nedointivo
The name 'Delft' was given by the dutch Governor (of the VOC 1678-1681), Rijckloff van Goens. The Sinhalese names 'Diveldoova', and 'maedundoova' have been applied to this island by fishermen. It is conjectured that the word `maedun', from the sinhala "maedha", මැද, which has the same Sanskrit/Pali roots as the English word "middle", indicated that the island (doova) is located more or less at a middle distance from the island of Rameshwaram and the Jaffna peninsula.
The Tamil name may have also come from the same roots, and in fact, the stem நடு Natu in tamil is used in Tamil words like naṭuttiṭṭam to indicate a "middle location".

There is a Baobab tree here, just like in the Maanthota (Mannar) area. The island, 12km by 8km, is accessed by boat from the Kurikattuvan Jetty. in Uruthota (Kayts), and has some 6000 civilians, mostly fishermen. During Portuguese times, the name "cow island" was used, and the ruins of a Portuguese fort exists. Herds of wild ponies, first introduced during Portuguese times, are still found in the island.
Mr. D. T. Devendra, during a visit to Nedundoova in the 1940s, discovered a mound which on closer examination turned out to be a Dagoba. Other ancient ruins have also been noted. Chola remains of Hindu sites ( a 12-meter long,3 meters wide temple) from the 11th century have also been found in 2010. No recent archaeological work has been done.
During the LTTE war, this was a naval base
history of the region U-tube visit to Delft
මැදුන්දූව
නැදුන්දූව

Dollar farm(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
PAERAKUMPURA
The "Dollar farm" was renamed "Paerakumpura ~1984 (but this is not confirmed.) These areas were subject to LTTE attacks on settlers in 1984 and rival colonization efforts by the government and by the LTTE. See Malinga Gunaratne's book For a sovereign State (Sarvodaya Vishvalekha Publication 1988)
These lands contain ancient Buddhist archaeological sites, as cited in the (Somasiri) archaeological Commissioner's report, 1982.
A 1000 acre farm, full of ancient Archaeo. artifacts. A tank, now known as "Navalaamkulam" is in it. Below its bund. There are parts of Buddha statues, Stone SriPada, flower tables etc. There are Buddhist artifacts along the bund, up to Mirisvadia. There are at least 20 other locations of archaeological interest inside the farm region. No excavations and investigations have been done.
This, the "Kent farm", and many villages in the area between Marithimepattu and Padaviya are part of the Welioya (manal Aru) Mahaweli development project. See under Manal Aru for maps, details etc. Map  
Label 65 in Vanni Buddhist sites map

This area also falls within the ares used for temporarily settling IDPs after the Eelam wars. See under Menik farm, or Manuk farm.
පැරකුමිපුර

E
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Eachchantivu(Madakalpuwa[Batticaloa])
ISSANDUVA
map
ඉස්සන්දූව
Echchankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
ISSANVAEVA, (EKIRIYANVAEVA)
ඉස්සන්වැව
Echchilampattai, Ichchilampattai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
AEKIRIYANPATTUWA
Meaning. 'Echchilam' has no clear meaning in T.,
'pattai' in T. may mean 'path', 'pattuawa' in S. is a 'place'
n.b. Aekiriyan-kumbura exists in Madakalapuwa district
'Aekiri' may be refer to a type of Melon or gourde. There is a cave inscription by Chora-saakya here.
The name "Dehiwatta" is also used today for this location. See Map
ඇකිරියන්පත්තුව දෙහිවත්ත
Eichchantive, Ichanative(Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
ISSANDOOVA
Disc.-Iccan, ichchan and similar forms have no tamil or malayalam meaning.
see Map
ඉස්සන්දූව
Elalai, Erlalai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
ERALLA
Disc. The word has no Tamil meaning, while '-Velala-' is the
most common occurrence of -elala- form in the Tamil Lexicon
It is common to add an 'i" to tamilize a sinhala name
War Assisinations
Map
එරැල්ල
Elephant Pass, Anaiyiravu (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
ALIMANKADA
This is the small land link between the ancient Nagadeepa (today's Jaffna Peninsula), and the Vanni. Elephants captured in the Vanni were transported north via this land link and exported to Dambadiva (India) even in pre-christian times. The name Alimankada simply means "elephant-corridor". It has always been important militarily. The Dutch built a small fort overlooking the land-link, but this was destroyed by the LTTE during the Eelam wars. Debacle at Elephant Pass
අලිමන්කඩ
Eluthumadduval, Illidematual (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
LANDE`MADUWA
Disc. name given as "Ilondi Matual" in Dutch VOC records.
According to Paul E. Pieris (p. 15 of The Kingdom of Jaffnapatam, the Portuguese 'floral" mentions this village “In the time of the native Kings the inhabitants of Pachchilapalai and Illidematual used to go to the Vanni to cultivate camas (from the sinhalese gama) there and would pay to the renters from ten to twenty lachas (from the sinhalese Laaha, a measure of grain, and also the corresponding area covered by sowing the grain) of foodstuffs for each cama, in accordance with its size.

In the book:
'Caste of the Tiger: Dalits among Sri Lankan Tamils' by Ravikumar
(Translated from Tamil by R Azhagarasan) in HIMAL South Asia, August 2002
and reviewed also in the Sri Lanka Island of 26 August 2002.
"In 1981, the UNP leaders, who shout themselves hoarse about democracy,
summoned their military thugs and burnt down the Jaffna library, the biggest
library in Southeast Asia. About the same time, caste fanatics in a small
village, Ezhudumattuval, near Jaffna, threatened Dalit children at a school,
seized their books and notebooks and set them afire."Why did Tamil society
choose to condemn one incident and remain silent on the other?"
- Dominic Jeeva, Dalit author from Jaffna
Regional map
ලන්දෙමඩුව
Eluvaitivu, Ezhuvaitheevu, எழுவைதீவு (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ELUVADOOVA or eluwaduwa Even today goats exist in Pulundoova(Paruththith-theevu)
which is uninhabited and very close to Eluvaitivu.
'Ealakam' in Tamil could mean 'Goat', while 'Elu' is a mast or tower.
එලුවදූව
Eluwankulam (Puttalama)
ELUWANVAEVA
එලුවන්වැව
Eluwankarai, Eluvankarai(Madakalpuva[Batticaloa])
Eluvanvaella
Disc.- There is a suggestion that this comes from "Eruvan vaella"
එලුවන්වැල්ල
Erataperiyakulam, Iratperiyakulam, Eraperiyakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
DEMAHAVAEVA, RATAMAHAVAEVA
see entry under Iratperiyakulam
Tamil:, 'erataperiyankulam' could mean 'two-big-tanks'.
දෙමහවැව
Eravur, Eraur (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
SERAPURA
n. b. '(v)ur', '(p)ur' or "poor" is tamilization of "pura", or (p)'oor" is Tamil 'ur'=village.
"Era(a)" is modified from sinhala "(S)era", a waterfowl (Jacana)
This area was also known for people who made a living by catching elephants. Just as in the Vanni, they are known as "Panikkara". The word "Panikkar" comes from "Vannikar", i.e., a person who lives in the "Vanni", or "vannikaaraya" in Sinhala. The word "Vanni" is from "Vanaya", or "forest".

Sri lanka's Rs. 1000 note has a picture of a Tusker Elephant, and of "Panikkar Lebbe" who caught it in 1925 in the Eravur forest and trained it. He gifted it to the Temple of the Tooth (Dalada Maaligava) and this tasker, named Raja, took part inn the August Procession of the Dalada Maligava (Esala Perahara) for many years. The presend-day Dlada Maligawa in kandy was built by the last King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe (1760-1832), who was captured by the British on 2nd march 1815 near Teldeniya and died in captivity near Vellore, India. Last King of Kandy
War. Murder of 127 muslims in August 1990 by the LTTE as part of "Ethnic cleansing".
Map
සේරපුර
Erlalai, Elalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
ERALLA
see Elalai
එරැල්ල
Erukkalampiddy (Mannarama [Mannar])
HIRIGALPITIYA
'Hirigal' is a type of stone formed by sedimentation, found in
this region. 'Hirigalpitiya'→ 'Erukalampiddy' would be a 'quarry'
for such stone commonly used as a building material.
'Erukkulam-' in Tamil could also refer to a dung-manured field.
Alternatively, the 'giant Varaa' (Sinhala) shrub, 'Suryapathra' in Skrt.,
'Giant Milkweed' in English, is also called 'Erukku' in Tamil.
හිරිගල්පිටිය
Erumaitivu (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
MAHISADOOVA
This is a small island, next to Kaakadoova (Kakkativu), in the Mannarama-Punranna (Poonaryn) coastal area, just west of Veravila (Veravil). "Erumai" could stand for "Buffalo" in Tamil, and the Pali name "Mahissa-deepa" is found in the Mahavamsa, and one of Vijaya's boats is said to have landed in Mahisadoova (Geiger has translated this as "Mahiladeepa", while Sri Sumangala gives it as "Mahindadeepa". (These last two forms cannot be identified geographically). But if the name is taken to be Mahisadeep, as suggested also by C. Rasanayagam ( Ancient Jaffna, p. 54) then this identification is possible. "Erumai"- could also refer to the Jasmine-like flowering plant Prenna seratifolia , known in Tamil as 'erumai-mullai'. Thus "Erummai-mullai-ttivu" is given as an ancient name for Jaffna in the Madras Tamil Lexicon, p 534. MAP
There is also another Erumaitivu in the Kalpitiya lagoon (Puttalam) See Erumaitivu in Kalpitiya
මහිසදූව

Erupotana(Vannimava[Vavniya])
IRUPATANA
'Eruppotu' in T., means manuring land with buffalo/cow dung etc.
'Irupathana' is S., would mean a sunny field or place.
Note the existence of place names like 'Hirupitiya(siruppiddy)'.
Labeled #85 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
හිරුපටන
Eruvil (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
ERAAKAVIlA
This is on the eastern coast, south of Galoya. It is mentioned in the Mahavamsa, together with a town known as Kalnada, named after the Brahamin Kalanda, which we have not been able to identify. This may have been a clear Tamil settlement in Sri lanka prior to the 7th century CE.
එෙරකාවිල
Etalai (Puttalama)
AETTALA, Aeththala
This is on the coastal strip of the Kalpitiya Lagoon.
අැත්තල
Ettam, Eththam (Potuvila [Pottuvi])
A`TTAMA, A`TTAMBA
Ettama in T. could mean 'hoisting' (a flag).
One km. North of Potuvila.
Hist. Pre-christian era Buddhist ruins
Stupa and Vihara, Large stone 'Pada Lanchana' sculpture
Stone inscriptions, Guard stones, sculptured stone slabs, etc.
Destruction. A new Hindu Kovil obliterating the temple built
The deputy Govt. Agent noted the situation in 1983
Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/E/27 folio 42,43,107,109.
ඇට්ටඹ

F

G

GALKIRIYAGAMA
Galkirikanda, Galkandegama(Vannimava[Vavniya])
No Tamil allonym. listed here since it is an ancient Buddhist site
There is a modern temple here, and some renovation of ancient objects.
There is a cave temple on the stone plateau, and stone steps carved
into the rock. There are ponds on the rock plateau, and several other caves.
Two caves have inscriptions, using Brahmi letters dating to 2nd Century BC.
One of the inscriptions suggest that this was called "Manikaaragalla Vihara"
during King Bathiya's time. This temple is situated on the ancient road
connecting Anuradhapura to Jambukola in the north.
Labeled #124 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ගල්කිරිකන්ද
Gangai, gengai( Mdakalapuwa)
GANGAAWA, Gangawa, Gengge
Ganga, and ganga are used in proto-Indo-European (PIE) languages but not common in Dravidian languages, unless borrowed from PIE. This name is clearly borrowed from Sinhala into a Tamil form.
Another possibility is that the name is Genge, ගෙංගේ
ගංගාව ගෙංගේ
Giant's Tank ( Mannarama)
YODAVAEVA, Yodhaweva, Manamaththa
Giant's tank is the obvious English rendering of the Yodhavaeva.
යෝදවැව
Gallodai, Galodai-Aru (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GALODAYA, GALODA-ARA the 'D' is soft
Recognized hiking trail, Galoda-ara begins in Senanayake samudra
and end in Roogam-VAEVA (Rukam tank) in Madakalapuwa
See Map
ගල්ඔඩය,   --ආර

Gomarasankadavai (SirGonakanda [Trincomalee])
GOMARANKADAWALA
Tamilized form is seen only very rarely. KumaranKadavai is another
Tamil allonym claimed for this place name.
See Map
War:   LTTE attacks on farmers etc., see Spur
Legend:   Shrine to Sandun kumaraya; Rattnavalli (Pattini?) and Katharagama cults
See also 'chandana' (Chankanai), or 'Sandun gama' in Jaffna, entry under "Vattapalli"
See 'Ruhunuyaka'
Rankiri Ulpotha Buddhist temple is in this area
This area is included as an ancient Buddhist site in the 1982 Somasiri List of the Archaeo. Dept.
Labeled #149 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ගෝමරන්කඩවල

H


Hambantota, Hambanthota (Hambanthota District)
HAMBANTHOTA
This is a town in the Southern province. It is not a name which has got modified by Tamil, as with many place-names of the North East. However we have included a discussion here because of various dubious toponymic explanations for the place name found in the popular literature.

The most likely origin of the name for the coastal town is from the word "Sanka", Sanskrit for Conch shell. Even the English word "Chank" probably comes from the Sanskrit "Sanka". The sinhala words "Hak" (e.g., Hakgedi), and "Sak" are directly from the Sanskrit. Thus Hak-baan-thota හක්බාන්තොට would mean the place where "Hakgedi" etc., were downloaded (e.g., "Badu-baanava" in Sinhala stands for "unloading goods"). Thus the name Hak-baan thota → Hambanthota most probably indicates that this was an unloading location for Chank fishery. The phonetic transformation "Hak-baan → Hamban" is quite reasonable. We note that in many sinhala words like "Duk-path → Duppath", the "k" sound gets muted and replaced by the leading sound. In the same way, "Hak-baan → Habbaan → Hamban" are a set of valid transformations.

The area has indeed been known for Chank (Gastropoda: Turbinella pyrum) fishery since antiquity. Chank shells, or Konches ("Hakgedi" in Sinhalese) are considered sacred in Hindu lore, and associated with MahaLakshmi. The sinistral Turbinella pyrum (with the spiral turning left when the apex is held up), called Dakshinavarti in Skrt., (i.e., right-turning spiral, with the apex held down) are very rare and have been found in Hambantota. Kirinda is another area known for Conch-shell fishery. Cowries, cones, murex and other shells are also important. In 1998, 260,000kg of sea cucumber, 796,000kg of seashells and sacred chanks (conches), and 11,400kg of molluscs were exported from Sri Lanka. Hence, in our view, "Hambanthota" is a name resulting from the conch-shell fishery associated with this location since very ancient times.

For a recent scientific report, see:
Fairoz, M.F.M. and Cumaranatunga, P.R.T.; Preliminary investigation of the Chank (Gastropoda: Turbinella pyrum) fishery at Hambantota and Kirinda, Southern Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Session of the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, December 2002, Colombo
-------------
We also mention some of the other "explanations'' that have been offered for the origin of the name:
'Hamban' is sometimes said to be a reference to Muslim- or Chinese- sailors who used "sampan' boats and used this Harbour. "Sampan" are either Chinese or Moor(arab) boats, and Muslim people are allegedly called "Hambaya" based on their use of these boats. (See 'A Dictionary of the World's Watercraft from Aak to Zumbra' compiled and edited by the Mariners Museum 2001. ISBN 1 8617 1821. Here a sampan is defined as a loose term used in East and South East Asia to designate various small harbour crafts and local coastal craft. But early travelers applied the word and its variant forms more widely even to much larger vessels.)

Regarding harbours in ancient times, see Guruge, Mahavamsa, 2nd revised edition, p 220 for contacts with Sri Lanka as far back as 3rd century BCE. More recent archeological work by Helmuth Roth, W. H. Wijayapala et al., suggest that the "Godapavata Pattana" (Gota Pabbata Pattana, Godavaya), at the mouth of the Walawe river was indeed a harbour. But today's Hambanthota itself was probabaly not a habour. Kingdom of Ruhuna; (see also O. BOPEARACHCHI, CNRS, UMR 8546, Paris, Diffusion of Mahayanist Images and Implantation of Port at River Mouths in Ancient Sri Lanka). The early visitors to the GODAVAYA habour may have been Nabataens from Southern Italy, and Arab traders at a later time. A Brahmi script dating to the time of King Gajabahu-I has been found here, on a rock next to an ancient shrine. Godapavata Pattana was located on the peninsula between the Walawe River's inland anchoring area and the sea harbor in the bay of Godavaya. A landing quay made of stone pillars up to 3.50 meters high was part of the ancient harbor. The excavation team found one of the four ancient stone anchors (kamba bandina gal), discovered so far in Sri Lanka (the other three were discovered in Galle), possibly dating to the 5th century CE.
In lighter vein
The twenty-first century has given Hambanthota a modern harbour, positioned on the old marine silk route, equally important today, linking the West with China, Japan and Korea.
Nuwan Peries, Hambantota Harbour: Geo-political dimensions. 2007
U-tube: Hambanthota Harbour opens, 15-Aug-2010

Also, there is a "Hambanthota" in Bogavantalava casting doubt on simple "sampan-boat" explanations. The up-country "Hambanthota" it is a corruption of "ambanthota" (අඹන්තොට); it is near Ambagamuva (අඹගමුව). On the other hand, the coastal town Hambanthota is not in a specifically mango-growing area, and Hambanthota has no association with "amba".
Read also Island Newspaper 31-Jan-2011

See also, entries under Samanthurai. Sengupiddy (Hakpitiya).
හම්බන්තොට
Havativu, Henativu (Puttalama)
HAVADOOVA, Haavadoova
Haava is the local hare or rabbit.
This is a small island in the Puttalam-kalapuva (lagoon).
හාව දූව
Hattikuksi, Attikuksi (Anuradhapura)
HASTHIKUCHCHI,Hatthikuchchi, Haththa-vanagalla, Aththangalla
Not a tamilized form; 1st Century BCE Buddhist shrine Located 26km N of 'Galgamuwa', Kurunagala-Anuradhapura road. Hist. "Hasthikusha' or the early Sinhala 'Hatthikuchchi' refers cryptically to an 'elephant stomach' (Aethkusa). This is said to be the hermitage of King Siri Sangabo (251-253 CE., or 300-302 CE according to Geiger), venerated for his saintliness, rejection of capital punishment, abdicating and finally donating his own head to Godabhaya, his power-hungry brother who staged a coup.
See short write up on Hasthikuchchi 7nbsp; Haththikuchchi Viharaya or the Aethkus Vehera
see also under Aththanagalla (Hathha-vanagalla).
Map of Galigomuwa region
හස්තිකුච්චි
Hulanada (Tissamaharama)
HULANNARAKADA
Not a tamilized form
This is inside the Yala National Park
හුල්ලන්නරකඩ
Hulannuga, Ullannugeh (Pothuvila [Pottuvil])
HULAN NUGA, Hulannuga
Not a tamilized form. Nuga is Ficus benghalensis, i.e., Banyan tree, common in Sri Lanka, S. Asia, and often regarded as a sacred tree, esp. by Hindus; it is also a community tree where village people gather to transact business or socialize. "Hulan" may refer to "windy", or "spiked, c.f., the Sinhalese word Ul ", associated with the supporting aerial roots of the banyan.
This hamlet is on the Siyambalanduwa-Potuvila road, near the Lahugala National Park. The Tharulengala Cave temple has a very eroded reclining Buddha made of claystone. It is at the 299km post, 1.5 Km north of the A$.
හුල්ලන්නරකඩ

I
Go to the top of the List

Ichchilampattai (Srigonakanad [Trincomalee])
AEKIRIYANPATTUWA. Dehiwatta
See Echchilanpattai
ඇකිරියන්පත්තුව දෙහිවත්ත
Idaikkadu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
YAKKADUWA
Meaning: In T., may mean 'in between a forest'
යක්කඩුව
Ihala Kottaramullai, Kattaramulla (Puttalam)
IHALA KOTTARAMULLA,   IHALA GATTARAMULLA
Ihala Kottaramulla is the existing name
'Koshtagaara'→Koththara is a granary; Tamil 'kottaaram'.
'Gattara' may also be from 'Gothra', or clan.
'Ihala' refers to the location of the village, and not to the
'superiority' of the clan. 'Gaththara' is often used to denote
a racial or clan group held in low esteem.
Map
ඉහලකොත්තරමුල්ල
Ihala Puliyankulam (Puttalam)
IHALA SIYAMBALAVAEVA
Meaning: T., 'pulian' -> 'tiger' or 'tamarind'
ඉහලසියඹලාවැව
Ilamaruthankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
IRAMUDUVAEVA
Meaning: 'maruthan' in T. refers to a tree.
In S., 'Iramusu' or 'Eramudu' is in fact a type of tree,
Hemidesmus Indicus, also called 'nannaari' in tamil.
Note also, 'elumiccai' in Tamil is a type of wild lime.
එරමුදුවැව
Ilantaivan, Illantheevan (Mannaram)
LANDEVANAYA
Refers to a region used by the Dutch.
ලන්ෙදවනය
Ilavalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
RILAAWALA,   IMBULVALA
Meaning: The ending "valai" from the Sinhala `vala' is a typical sinhala toponym (e.g., Dehiwala, Beruwala), meaning thicket or forest. `Imbul' is Bombax malabaricum.
රිලාවල,   ඉඹුල්වල
Ilavankulam (Puththalam [Puttlam])
IMBUL-VAEVA;
'Mul-ilavu' is used in tamil for the Katu-Imbul Bombax malabaricum tree.
ඉඹුලවැව
Illakkanthai (Sirigonakanda[Trincomalee])
AELAKANDA or Elakanda (anglicized).
It is also possible that the Tamil form "Illa.." is related to
'Ilavu', or 'Katu-Imbul' in sinhala.
ඇලකන්ද
Illankaithura(SriGonakanna[Trincomalee])
LANKAPATUNA, LANKATHOTA,
Ancient historic Buddhist site.
See entry under Muhattuvaram
ලංකාපටුන
Ilippadeniya (Puttalam)
ILIPADENIYA
currently used name
මීදෙනිය
Iluppaikadavai, Illuppakadavai, Illupaikadavai (mannarama, [mannar]) இலுப்பைக்கடவை
MADUPATHOTA, MEEPATHOTA (anchor name)
(Other suggestions Eluvakaduva, Illukkaduva)
'Madupadathitha' is the old historical name, c.f., in the Mahavamsa.
Sinhala 'Madhupa' or 'Mee' is South Indian 'ma(d)hua', in Latin
'Madhuca Logifolia (Koenig)' or more specifically 'Bassia longifolia'.
In Tamil this tree is called 'Iruppai' or 'Iluppai'. Sanskrit: Madhuka.
The current name is thus linked to the ancient name.
This was the landing port of Magha invasion, 13th century
See
Map of Illupaikadavai or Madupathota. It was an important "sea-tiger" base captured by govt. forces during the Eelam war IV.
මීපාතොට
Illupadichenaii,Illupayadichenai,Illuppaiyadichenai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
See also Iripetichenai
MADHUPAHENA
War: LTTE training camps
See Disc. under 'Iluppaikadavai'
Map
මීපාහේන

Illuppaikulam, Illuppamkulam, Iluppamkulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
MEEPAVAEVA
Labeled #35 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Map near vavniya
මීපාවැව

Illuppaikulam, Iruppaikulam, Irruppaikulam(Mannnarama[Mannar])
MEEPAVAEVA
This illuppaikulam is near mannar. Map near Mannar

Inginimitiyai (Puttalam)
INGINIMITIYA
ඉංගිනිමිටිය
Inuvil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
INUVILA
Meaning. In Tamil 'inu' or 'vil'
have no immediate meaning here.
Sinhala 'inuvila' could mean a 'pond' which has a ground water source
See Jaffna map1
ඉනුවිල
Ippantivu (Puttalama)
IBBANDOOVA
Meaning. Sinhala 'ibba' is a tortoise
This is an island located in the Dutch bay at Kalpitiya (Galpitiya). See Jaffna map1
ඉබ්බන් දූව
Iraddaivaikkal, Rektavaikkal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
DEVAKKADE   ⚓name, pronounced Devakkadé
Vakkadadaya is a water sewer or "Agala, (va)ggala, vakkala". In Tamil vaikkal could also mean a water sewer or drain. Iraddai is a modified from of "irratte", i.e., two, ("Deux"). Note that according to the Tamil grammar "Tolkkappian", a vowel (here i) is added in front of prakrit consonants when used in Tamil, and sometimes in derived sinhala forms (rette, iratte etc., for even numbers ).
This is a spot close to the beach which acquired significance as part of the No Fire Zone in 2009.   See Claims of civilian casualties in the NFZ
දෙවක්කඩේ
Irakkamam (Ampare)
RATHGAM, RAIGAMA or EREGAMA, Dighavapi
Meaning. Tamil "kamam" is the adaptation of the S. 'gama'.
Sinhala name 'Raigama' is well known
The name "Ranveva" has also been mentioned by Ven. E. Medhananada
Dighavapi (= long tank), an important pre-christian Buddhist site,
is located 5km from here. See also entry under Kanjikuddichchiaru.
Dighavapi is mentioned in the Pali chronicles, and is linked to a
legendary visit to the Island by the Buddha.
See the entry under DIGHAVAPI(Theekavapi).
The main dagaba is said to be constructed by King Saddha Tissa In 137 BCE.
Today this is a threatened site, encroached by many settlers who do not
respect its historical significance. Its great tourist potential is ignored.
The department has located 35 archaeological sites in Dighavapi.
The archaeological area is at least 42 square kilometers in extent.
The area declared under the Archaeological department is only 400 yards
in radius of each site leaving the other areas unprotected under the
Antiquities Ordinance No. 9 of 1940.
There are several ancient inscriptions in the area. In 1986 a gold leaf
inscription 14 cms by 1.5 cms had been unearthed.
The inscription had been deposited inside a reliquary made of thick
gold sheets. The text of the inscription was as follows:
"Hail. The stupa (reliquary) of King Mahitisa (Kannittha Tissa) son
of King Naka". King Kannittha Tissa reigned from 164- 192 CE.
රත්ගම - (දීගවාපි)
Iralaikkulam, Iralaikulam, Eeralaakulam இரலைக்குளம் (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
KIRALAVAEVA
"Kirala" is a common water bird (c.f., kira → gira ), "red-wattled lapwing", and sinhala literary works ("Kirala sandesa, Kirala vannama") are devoted to this bird. The word "kirala" is also applied to a type of mangrove (sonneratia caseolaris). The name of the "vaeva" (reservoir) may have arisen from either of these common Sinhala words. No Tamil word in common usage can be connected with "Irala", although the root "Ira" may be linked with "battering". Irakkulam was an important LTTE camp till 2007.
කිරලවැව
Iramiyankulam, Ramiyankulam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
RAMNIYAVAEVA
'Ramya' in Sanskrit is the source word for the Sinhala "ramya → ramaneeya", and for the Tamil ;இரமியம் iramiyam. Map
රමනියවැව
Iranamadu (Giranikke [Kilinochchi])
RANAMADUWA
Names like Ranamaduva, Ranakeliya, Ranamuregama exist in Sinhala usage. See comment about rules of Tamil phonology and the Tolkappiyam under the place name, "Irani".
LTTE airstrip and Logistics were said to be located at this site.   Regional map
රණමඩුව

Iranai (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
HIRAANA, RANNA
Old sinhala words begining in a consonant letter like "R" are usually adapted to Tamil by the addition of an "i", as the Tolkappiyam stipulates that consonants should not be used at the begining of a word, unless preceeded by a suitable vowel. This is why, in old Tamil, words like raktam become irrattam. Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #72 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
රන්න,   හිරාන
Iranaillupaikulam, Iranai Iluppaikkulam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
RANMEEVAEVA
Disc.- 'Mee gaha' in sinhala has the botanical name
'Bassia longifolia'; In Tamil this is 'Iruppai' or 'Illupai'.
Map
රන්මීවැව
Iranapalai (Mooladoova [Mulaithivu])
RANAPOLA, RANAPALA
Sinhala words begining with the letter "r" acquires a vowel when they are adopted in to Tamil, as indicated by the ancient Tamil Grammar Tokappiyam . This area had been the theater of war since ancient times (cf., Mahathalithagama etc., mentioned in the Mahavamsa and other texts. See the entry under Mahathalithagama). In modern times, an LTTE plane was shot down by the the SL airforce here, in September 2008.   Map
රණපොල   රණපල
Iranaitivu (Giranikke [Kilinochchi])
ERANDOOVA
This is an island west of Punranna (Poornaryn) and North-west of Bellanvaeva (Vellankulam) off the Mannaram (Mannar) coast. "Our lady of Rosary Church is situated here. "Eran" means "golden" in Sinhala, and the islands appear so in the sunset. There are two islands here, with one smaller than the other. The Dutch called the larger island 'Enkhuizen', and the smaller Island 'Hoorn', perhaps from the sinhalese 'Uoona doova'(minor island), a name apparently not used now.
This has been a region of continued battles during the Eelam wars. See During the Cease-Fire agreement
එරන්දූව

Irasenthirakulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
IRASANDAVAEVA
Labeled #30 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
ඉරසඳවැව
Iripetichenai,Illuppaiyadichenai(Madakalapuwa[batticaloa])
MADHUPAHENA
See Illupayadichenai, Illupaikadavi
'Madhupa' is South Indian 'ma(d)hua', Latin, 'Bassia longifolia'
In Tamil this is 'Iruppai'.
Map
මීපාහේන
Irattaladi, Iraththaladi, Iraaththaladi, இறாத்தலடி (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
RAHATHANVAADIYA, RATAHALA
In pre-christian times, this was by the Jambukola-Naagapura (Nallur) route
taken by (Sangamitta Theri and other) Indian-Lankan pilgrims and venerable travelers. 'Rahathan-vaadiya' would indicate a resting spot for holy travelers.
Another possibility is from 'Ratahala ← 'Raashta-shaala (Skrt.)'. This could imply the
location of a town community center which later became a market.
රහතන් වාඩිය
රටහල

Iratperiyakulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
DEMAHAVAEVA, ALLAJJAVILA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #94 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Another Buddhist site with the same name, south of Vavniya.
Inscriptions (2nd century) recorded by Parker, but now lost,give the
name "Allajjavila. The present-day "Sailabimbaramaya' is an ancient site.
Near it there are remnants of a Stupa, pillars, stone offerings tables,
Ven. E.Medhananda has suggested this to be the ancient "Thihadaya monastery".
A "MahaPaerakumba Vidyalaya that existed in the 19th century (as reported by
J. P Lewis) has been renamed 'Iratperiykulam Viduhal' subsequently.
Labeled #123 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Important army camp, just south of Vannimava(Vavniya)
Second biggest tank in Vannimava, hence "deveni-maha → demaha"
Reg. Army Camp
Map
දෙමහවැව
අල්ලජ්ජවිල
Irupalai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MAIMPALA
Small village outside Jaffna, on the road to Puttur (Buthpura)
Disc. 'Maima' in S. means boundary or demarcation
'Iru' could have a similar meaning in Tamil
Map
හිරුපල,   මාඉමිපල
Iruvila(Mannarama[Mannar])
HIRUVILA, Depathvaeva
හිරුවිල
Irruppaikulam, Irupaikulam,Irruppukulam (Gokanna [Trincomalee])
MEEPAVAEVA
This is near Nilavaeli.
There are two other "Illuppaikulam"s, one near Vavniya,
and another near Mannar recorded on this website.
These are sometimes referred to as Iruppaikulam in news castes.
මීපාවැව
Ismailpuram (Puttalam)
ISMAILPURA
Recently established town.
ඉස්මඉල් පුර
Ittavil(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
ITHTHAVILA
see Jaffna map1
ඉත්තවිල
Ittikkandal, Iththikkandal, இத்திக்க ண்டல் (Mannarama [Mannar])
BO-GANDARA
'Pulila', or 'Kaputu-Bo' (?), is Ficus Virens The name 'Kalaal' is more commnely used in Tamil,
while 'Iththi' may be aa shortening of 'Kurukkaththi'. It is of great significance to Hindus, while
Buddhists regard 'Ficus religiosa' (Bo), in higher esteem. However, both
types of Ficus may be venerated and called 'Bohi'.
'Gangdara' means 'by the side of water', and implies 'a marshy place'.
The use of 'Kandal' in Sri Lankan Tamil to mean a marshy place may be
derived from Sinhala. Compare the place name: 'Bo-gambara'.
බෝගන්දර
Iyakachchi (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
Adiyakachchiya
Meaning: S. or T., Aiyai, Aadiya=elder person, kachchiya = group,
or party or place associated with a group.   Regional map
ආදිකච්චිය

J
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Jaffna; Tamil Yalpanam.   யாழ்ப்பாணம் (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
YAPANAYA, JAPANE, YAPAPATUNA
Several interpretations of the name exist. We support the Paranavithana interpretation given further below:
Yapa → An official, Patuna → entrepot, town , as suggested by Horsburgh. See:
Horsburgh. 1916. as .doc file.   Horsberg as html file, from Lankaweb
Note that the sinhala "Patuna" (e.g., as in Yapa Patuna) or the equivalent corresponding Sanskrit word "pattana" is used in the Mahabharata to denote a town or village, and "Dharmapattana" is a name given to the city of "Sravasti" mentioned in the Pali cannon.
( The Sanskrit dictionary may be accessed by clicking below:
please enter the word Pattana into the window in: Univ. of Cologne dictionary )
In later Tamil usage this is a town inhabited by lower-castes (c.f., Madras Tamil Lexicon)
This shows that K. Indrapala's discussion of "Pattana", as being an original Tamil word (since it is mentioned in Sangam Poetry), on p. 375 of his book ("Evolution of an Ethnic Identity" Chennai 2006) cannot be upheld, since the Mahabhrata and Pali cannon usages are generally considered to be earlier than the cited Tamil Cangam sources, ascribed to the first (-to-third) century CE by Tamil Scholars (see: S. Vaiyapuripillai, Kaviya Kalam, 2nd edn., Tamil Puttakalayam, Madras, 1962.).
Paranavitana's View
"Yapa" may relate to "Java", this is also explored by Paranavitana who suggests that the name arose from "Jaava Patuna"". This is consistent with the commonly used name "Jaa-pané" since "pané" in Sinhala also refers to a village or town (pattana in Pali), as in "thumpané". Further more, the "J" sound transliterates to "Y" in a universal way, in Dravidian as well as in Indo-European-Hebrew phonetics (e.g., Joseph, Yosef etc.). See extract from Paranavitana
Hist. De Queyroz, "Jafnapatao"   Baldaeus, "Jaffnapatam"
Romantic Tamil literature (e.g, Yaalpaana Vaiphavamalai, a historically and sociologically highly inaccurate text written during the Dutch occupation of Jaffna, in 1736 CE), claims that the name arose from a blind lutist who received "Yaazhpanam" as a gift from a king, circa 8th century. It has also been conjectured, e.g., in Gnanaprakasar's work, that the caste of lute players (Yaazhpaanar) lived in Jaffna, noting that 'Yaazh' is Lute in Tamil and so forth, but Gnanaprakasar (in Yaalppana Vaipava Vimarcanam , i.e., A critical history of Jaffna) discounts this in preference to Mudliyar Gunasekera's theory: Nall-ur→Yahap(ah)ne. For populist accounts, see 'Ancient Jaffna' by C. Rasanayagam (1026), Swami Gnanaprakasar "A critical History of Jaffna" 1928. See also: John H. Martyn, 1923. Notes on Jaffna - A Disputed point of Local History . For recent Tamil-Nationalist writings, see K. S. Nadarajah's presentation, Kuala Lampur 1996.,   or the Tamil article in Veerakesari, 9. Dec.1990. The romanticized versions of history, in terms of Lute players etc., were also dealt with in the University of Ceylon official History of Ceylon, Ed. H. C. Ray and S. Paranavithana (1959), and in J. Roy. A. Soc. (CB) vol. II, p.174-224 (1961)

The caste system in the Jaffna region is different to that of Tamil Nadu or Batticaloa - Hindu practice is also different from Batti., see Batticaloa. See Michael Banks, Caste in Jaffna Cambridge 1960. Briefly: the agricultural cast is dominant, unlike in any other Tamil society, and may be due to adoption from the Sinhala society which existed here prior to Chola invasions. In fact, the "koviar" and "Naalakar" castes relate to the "Govia " and "Naalakara" castes of Sinhalese who lived in the "Waeligama province" and later became Tamilized when Jaffna fell under Chola domination. Brief list:
   Vellalar -Farmers and land owners.
   Brahamin, Kurukal, Caiva-kurukkal - priestly castes
    (c.f., Kurukkal = Gururala in Sinhala)
   Vannar- washermen; Ampattar- barbers and funeral aids
   Taccar-carpenters; Kollar-blacksmiths; Tattar-goldsmiths.
   Nalavar-toddy tappers, Ilavar - toddy tappers, pallar- 'low-castes'
   Nattuvar- Dancers, tavil players, Nadadeswarams
   Karaiyar- sea-side dwellers-fishermen; c.f., 'kara' is 'shore' in S. and in T.
   In Vedda shrines, religious officiates are "Puccariyar" or "Teyvanthu kuniavar".
   Regarding other castes, Kutis, Pakutis etc. See B. Pffeffenberger, Caste in Tamil culture Syracuse-USA 1982.
Temple entry rights, rights to the use of wells, admissions to schools etc., we routinely denied to, or discriminated against, the "lower castes" well into the latter half of the 20th century, although this was not legal. Unlike in India, caste-discrimination became a political issue, only in the seventies, under agitation led by communist-party activists opposing the Tamil Arasu Kadchchi or TULF organizations which covertly supported casteism, as they were led mainly by Colombo based Vellalar Tamils. The communist-party agitation did not become important due to other ethnic militant politics that developed in the country during this time. Hindu society (including the Navalar movement) had endorsed the segregation of "low castes" from Hindu temples, schools and public transport etc., and in the 1930s, Ponnambalam Ramanathan attempted to enshrine the caste system legislatively, countering the universal suffrage and other recommendations of the Donoughmore commission. It is note worthy that Arumuka Navalar (1822-1879) left Jaffna Central School because of the admission of a low-caste (Nalavar) boy by the Principal, Peter Percival.

Sankiliyan padai was a pressure group formed in 2000 under the aegies of the Tigers, using the name of "Sankili".
Sankili was the son of the Pandian (named Pararasa Sekaran) who was a Governor sent to Java-patuna by the King of Kotte (The name Java-patuna applied since ~1270 CE when Chandrabhanu captured the Vaeligam (Valikamam) peninsula and establsihed a Javanese colony). The direct (legitimate) son of Pararrasasekaran (from a Madura princess) exiled himself to Portugal. Sankili killed his father in 1959, assumed power, drove out the Christians and Sinhalese into the vanni and established the first Lanka Library on the Jaffna kingdom
Demogr. 1981 Census: Tamils 800,000; Moors 14,800; Sinhala 5,100.
1971 census: 20,514 Sinhala speakers in 1971 and none by 1988.
see Spur webs ite on Ethnic cleansing in Sri Lanka.
See Dr. Indrapala, Tamils of Jaffna, 1965
See Iriyagolla's analysis
See Jaffna in 1998
Jaffna University

The Thileepan memorial, commemorating the LTTE-suicide/ cum human-life offering against the IKPF to the Kandasamy Kovil, Nallur (Nagapura) could have been stopped by the Tigers, but they supported it. The memorial's design (broken chains catching a flame) was repeated by the Tigers in other locations including on the beach-road Martyr's monolith. Even M.G. Ramachandran who gave 2 crores of rupees to the Tigers and supported them politically was commemorated by the tigers. The SL army has removed many of the Tiger memorabilia.
යාපනය   ජාපනය
යාපපටුන
Jeevan Base (Mooladoova [Mullaithivu])
JEEVAN MOOLAKAYA
This has been an important LTTE base, with 100 underground bunkers, four prison-interrogation chambers, etc. It was part of the "14-base complex" near Janakapura and Mulgama (mullakam) LTTE base, Sugandan base and Michael Base in the Vaelioya (Welioya) area. This fell into Army hands in August 2008. Army report 16-Aug-2008 See Military front August 2008   For other maps of the region etc, please see entries under Manal aru (Weli Oya), Mulgama (Munnakam) etc. Map   See Military activity in the area  : This is also an area full of ancient Buddhist archaeological ruins.   See Buddhist archaeological sites in the Welioya-Mooladoova area
ජීවන් මූලකය

K
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Kudimpikallai (Pothuvila [Pottuvil])
KUDIMBIGALA, Kudimbigala
About 10 km from Panama, towards Okanda. Some 200 shrines and ancient Buddhist-hermit meditation lodges are found in a ~5000 hectare Forest hermitage area in the rocky jungle. The lip of the cave with the first white-washed shrine an an ancient Sinhala-Prakrit (Brahmi) inscription ~2 or 3rd century BCE. There is a dagaba (Dagoba) on the top of the highest rock which affords a beautiful panoramic view of the neighboring area with a view lagoon, sand bar towards the shore, and the Weli-ara (Vaeli-ara) ridge.
Kachchai (yapanaya [Jaffna])
KAHAVA
Comment:   Kachchagoda, Kachchakaduwa, Kachchakodiya
and Kahava are found in the south as as well;
'Kachchakaduva' refers to the "golden sword" tradition
among the Karava cast group. Kachcha refers to "gold" or "yellow"
etymologically, kachchavanna → Kahavanu is the "gold" currency of
olden times. In Pali, "Kaasa" is a stub meaning 'yellow', and in
Sanskrit: kanaka; Greek. knh_kos yellow, and also
Sanskrit: kaaeana, probably from 'khacati' (shine=the shining meta)
'kaccha' in Sanskrit can also mean a bank or any ground bordering on water,
shore, or 'wide shore' (see Cologne Skrt dictionary).
The nearest Tamil form "Kadchi" means "Forest, place of rest", etc. and is
not a suitable choice.
See Map
කහව
Kachchanthoppu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KAHADOPE
See disc. under "Kachchai".
The 'Thoppu' may have no clear meaning, and is possibly a
modification of the sinhala 'Dope', where the 'o' is as in 'long'.
'Doape' probably means 'twin-village', or village on the islet.
කහදෝපේ
Kachchatheevu, Kachchativu, கச்சதீவு (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KACHCHADOOVA, KAESBADOOVA
Indian english uses "Kacchatheevu, while Sri Lankan and British usage (e.g., that of Horsburgh, the Government Agent of the Northern province and the leader of the Ceylon delegation to the 1921 conference on the Indian-Ceylon maritime boundary) seems to be Kachchativu.
Disc.- This island was accorded to Sri Lanka in July 1974 under
a treaty between India and Sri Lanka during Sirima B's time.
It is closer to Sri Lanka (16.9 km) than to India (20.2km).
Atal B. Vajpayee, then in opposition, and speaking in the
Loksabha, claimed that the name 'Kachchativu' came from 'Valideep',
the island where Rama and Vali (a vaanara king) fought.
However, neither the account given in the
Mahabharatha, Bki III, Vana Parva, Sec. 278, nor that of
Ramayana, Bk IV, Canto 16 is consistent with such a claim.
---
In the Loksabha discussion it is stated
"that although Srilanka's claims of sovereignty
over Kachchativu has been recognized, the traditional rights
of Indian fishermen and pilgrims to visit that island will
remain unaffected. Similarly the traditional navigation rights
exercised by India and Sri lanka in each others waters will remain
unaffected".
The "Dravida Paravai" group has been campaigning to
revoke the agreement between India and Sri Lanka on Kachchadoova. More recently, pro-LTTE politicians and others have also joined this campaign. A recent report (2008) is found in an article in the Asia Tribune   The view of a madras University Professor
---
The word "kachcha' is the early sinhala (Pali) word 'kassa',or 'kachcha', i.e.,
yellow, e.g., kassavanna=yellow or gold colour.
'Kachcha-kaduwa' is a golden-sword honour claimed by the Karawa caste.
The place name "Kacchatittha" occurs in the Mahavamsa(Ch. 25).
See discussion under place name: "Kachchai".
The possibility that "Kachcha" is derived from the Tamil "kadchi",
i.e, "Forest, place of rest", nest, bed, etc, is unlikely since the island
has no forest, no water and is hardly useful as a place of rest.
Its geology is such that any rain seeps through the limestone.
A modest St Anthony's shrine built in the 20th CE, gets
its fresh water supply from the mainland.
However, the island has been used by fisherman to dry their nets.
The possibility that the name arose from ''kaesba'→'sea turtles' is related
to the presence of sea turtles in all these islands, including
'Chagos Island'(Diego Gracia) whose flag has a coat of arms with
two turtles holding up a crest with the British flag.
In Skrt. 'kachchapa' means 'inhabiting a marsh , a turtle, tortoise.
A species of yellowish lizard, Calotes liocephalus, is also
common to this south-Indian-SriLankan area.
(W. Erdelen: Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 11, pp. 515-525 (1984)
Review, fishing, church
කච්චදූව

Kaadakulam, Kadakulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KIRALVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Disc.- 'Kaada' in Malayalam is 'Tunix Taiggor', a type of quail
See also, p 856 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
Labeled #71 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කිරලවැව
Kachchilamadu (mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KAEKIRIMADUVA
'Kaekiri' is a type of melon, L. Cucumis melo-utilissimus
The Tamil work 'Kakkari' derived from Skrt. 'Karkati' exits.
However, here a transliteration to Tamil has been effected.
කැකිරිමඩුව
Kadapirai, Kattapirai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KADAPILA, GAETAPIHIRA
Small village between Nallur (Naakpur) and Iurpali
Meaning: ' Pirai' may be 'crescent' in T.
'Kadapila' is 'Town area' in S.
කඩපිල
Kadarkaraichenai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
KADAKARAHENA Meaning: 'Kadakara' in S., 'Kadarkarai' in T.,
means 'seashore'.
'Chenai' is the Tamil form of the Sinhala word 'Hena'.
Map
කඩකරහේන
Kadakulam (mooladoova {Mullaitivu])
VATUVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
වටුවවැව
Kaddaikadu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
GA`TAKADUWA
War: Army/navy camp near Elephant Pass.
ගැටකඩුව
Kaddawan, Kaddavan (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KATUVANA
කටුවන

Kaddumalai(Mooladdova[Mulaitivu])
KATUKANDA
Labeled #33 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
කටුකන්ද
Kaddamuruvakulam (Madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
GATABURUTHAVEVA
Disc. 'Muruva' in T. could mean Bow string hemp
But we have found no clear analysis in T.
ගැටබුරුතවැව
Kaddaiparichchan (Sirigonakanda[Tricomalle])
GAETABARAHENA
meaning: in S. is clear; in T.,'Kaddai' has no clear meaning
'Kattai' in T. could mean "Kashta", as in Skrt., i.e, bitter or deficient.
'parichchan' has no clear meaning in the context of a place name.
'Kattaiparikkan' is consistent with an adaptation from the Sinhala.
This area was regarded as part of "Koddiyar bay" in dutch-VOC maps
Map
ගැටබරහේන
Kaddukulampattu(Sri Gonakanna[Trincomalee])
KUTTAMKOLONPATTUVA, vadunnabima
Disc.- In Cleghorn's minute after the 1766 treaty of Amiens, it
is stated that, "At that period the Candians ceded to the (Dutch VOC )
Company the countries (i.e. districts) of Coetiar, Tamblegamme, and
Koutamcolonpattoe.....
N.B., this is not a town, but a "pattuva", i.e, effectively, a district.
A 10 CE stone inscription at Kallampattuva favours the name 'vadunnabima.
Many villages were buried in the deep jungles of
Kaddukulam Pattu when the British colonial Civil servants
like Hugh Neville serving at Trincomalee as Government Agents
(later Asst.Govt.Agents) discovered villages
like Morawewa, Ethawetunawewa, Pettawa, Kivulekada, Relapanawa,
Medawacchichiya, and others, populated by Sinhala
speaking residents. Thus, see for example, scholarly articles by Gerald Peries, and Hennayake's Newspaper article Gomarankadavla Massacre
See also "kurakkan Kaddukulam"
කුට්ටම්
කොලොම්ප ත්තුව
Kaddumalai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KATUKANDA
කටුකන්ද
Kaddupulan, Kattupulam(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
GOTHAMALUVATTA
This is about 1/2km from Punnnala(Ponnalai), on tke Peduru Thuduva road.
Ancient Buddhist site. Excavations unearthed remains of a temple complex
which may have been connected with the arrival of the Bo sapling.
ගොතමලුවත්ත
Kadduvan (yapanaya [Jaffna])
KATUVANA, KARAVANA
Currently in the 'high-security zone' in Jaffna
See also 'Punnalai Kadduvan'
'Kadduvan' ↔ 'Karavanna' can also be a "bund" or raised path at the edge
of a paddy field, as in 'Kara-vanna', where 'kara' is edge, and 'vanna' is
'path' or approach in old sinhala.
Katuvana on the other hand implies a passage or place which is a thicket.
see Jaffna map1
කටුවන
Kadiraweli, Kadiraveli, Katiraveli (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KADIRAVAELLA, anglicized to Kadirawella.
See Katiraveli or Katiraiveli below for more details.
war Sea tiger activity.
කදිරවැල්ල
කිහිරිවැල්ල
Kadirgamam, Kadirkamam, kathirkamam, Kattirkamam, Kadhirgamam (Monaragala District)
KATHARAGAMA
This is most likely a shrine to to Alexander the great who invaded India in the 4th century BCE. The Sanskrit name 'Skanda', and the sinhala 'kanda'- kumaru (prince kanda) are probably derived from the Persian form Iskander → Skanda. It is also possible that the evolution Skander (Skanda)" → 'kadar' → "Kadir" took place. The Buddhist shrine Kiri vehera has been here since ~3rd century BCE, and by the time Alexander's reputation arrived in Lanka, he had already been apotheosized as a God, and also inter-twined with many other regional Gods like Murugan or Kartekeya. The Manimekalai story of Kovilan and KannakiPattini (or Valli amma) may also have links with this shrine. In fact, here we have a Kovil to Valli amma, Kovil to Devayani Amman, and also a Kovil to Ganesha. The earliest Tamil literary references to Kataragama (in the context of Skanda-Murukan in the form Kathirkamam ) is in the 15th-century devotional poems of Arunagirinathar. Today Buddhists, Hindus, and even Muslims come to this shrine where impressive exercises in self-mortification and fire-walking may be seen, especially in the month of Esala (~July-August). However, with the advent of tourism, many tourist resorts have begun to present fire-walking and self-mortification shows having little to do with the deities of Katharagama.
M. D. Raghavan, 1962 Kataragama - The Ceylon Shrine of God Kadira
Kataragama.org the Kataragama-Skanda website
කතරගම

Kadubalagama(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
NO tamil form
Ancient Buddhist site.
Labeled #68 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කඩුබලගම

Kahalankadavala(Gokanna[Trincomalee])
Sinhala name; Ancient Buddhist site.
Labeled #132 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කහලන්කඩවල
Kaitadi, Kaithady (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KATTADIYA
Meaning:   Sinhala 'Kashtadiaya' → Kattadiya → 'Kaitadi' in T.
Historic bridge built in 1836, blown up by LTTE in 2000,
and rebuilt by the SL-army in 2001. The Nuffield School for the Deaf and Blind is in Kaithady. It was opened by Lord Nuffield in 1956.
see Map
කට්ටදිය
Kaivelikulam, Keewelikulam, Kaivallikulam (Mooladoova [Mulaitivu])
KAETIVAELIVAEVA,   katiweliVAEVA
See Map and news reports, 2008
කැටිවැලිවැව
Kakkapalliyai (Puttalam)
KAKKAPALLIYA
The forms 'palli','halli, alli' mean village or place ('pala' in S.). Such a
usage is current in telugu and kannada (c.f., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli.)
It also means a place of worship as villages usually involved
a temple. In modern usage in SL, it refers to a christian church or mosque.
See also the disc. under 'Pachchilaipalli'.
කාකපල්ලිය
Kakkachchippittidal (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KALUSIPPITUDUVA
'Kalasippi' is a type of dark-brown mussel, found in many lagoons and also
rivers (with brackish water) in the east as well as the south.
The word 'Kalu" here signifies dark brown or blackish colour of the mussel.
In tamil 'Kakka' is used rather indiscriminately for many varieties
of mussel and oyster, but more specifically for the brown mussel
The mouth of the "Benthara ganga" at Bentota" in the south-west is famous
for the Crassostrea M. Oyster, as well as for the brown mussel.
However, the east coast, and the Jaffna area also have a great
abundance of these and other oysters, clams and mussels.
See the entry under SIPPITHUDAVA.
Map
කලුසිප්පිතුඩුව
Kakkachchi Vaddai, காக்காச்சி வட்லட (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KALUSIPPI VALA
කලුසිප්පිවල
Kakkaraitivu, (Japanaya [Jaffna])
Sakkara doova
'Sakkara' here is related to 'kaekaerum', kaekkara' or hot, and even the Dutch name 'Calienye' for this island means 'hot' and is related to the Spanish-Portuguese 'Calient', derived from the Latin ' Calor' for heat, Proto-Indo-European Kele.. and keke..
The island is close to Maedundoova (Naduntivu).
සක්කර දූව
Kalimadu(Madakalapuwa{Batticaloa])
GAALMADUVA
Disc. In. T,(and Malayalam),kāli.; காலி , could mean a heard of cows,
p898, Madras Tamil Lexicon, agreeing with the 'gaala' in Sinhala.
Map
ගාල්මඩුව
Kalkudah (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GALTHUDAAVA
Beach resort is now a theater of war
See UK guardian report on Child soldiers etc.
Map
ගල්තුඩාව
Kallady,Kalladi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GALADIYA
Map
ගල්අඩිය
Kalladichchenai(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
GALADIHENA
Ruined dagaba and pre-christian inscriptions found here,
linking the site to the "PaashanaPabbatha Vihara" of King Mahanaga.
This area is close to the Elachchaan Pattu archaeological zone
where Brahmi-Sinhala inscriptions from 3-1 century BCE was found in 1956.
The Lankapatuna Vihara (Muhudu Vihara) is ~6 km south of this site.
Other inscriptions dating to the 5th Century CE are also found.
A 16th century Tamil inscription is also known from here.
See, Ephi. Zey. Vol VI, Part 1, and the Sinhala article
(Silumina 05-aug-07) under "Vishesaanga".
Map
ගල්අඩිහේන
Kalliaditivu,Kalladitivu (Mannarama)
GALADI DOOVA
Small island south of Velanai (Bellana) and Uruthota (Kayts).
ගල්අඩි දූව

Kallanpattu (sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
KALLANPATTUVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
10th century inscriptions.
'Kallan' probably refers to an outcast 'kafeer' social group
Hence this name is probably not the ancient place name.
Labeled #139 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කල්ලන්පත්තුව
Kallar(Sri Gonakanada[Trincomalee]) Galvaraya
This is at the mouth of the Yan Oya (Yan aru), and is believed
to be the historic harbour where Thapssu and Bhalluka
embarked (Poojaavaliya). This may also be the harbour
referred to as "Deegamandala Thitta". See article by E. Medhananda, 2001
in the "Felicitation volume for "Budungala Loku Hamuduruvo".
See entry under Tiriyaya.
ගල්වරාය
Kallar, Kallaru, Kalaru (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GALAARA, GALOYA
This is close to the mouth of the Galoya river
It was used by Rajasinghe II to launch the attack on the Portuguese
in Puliyanduva (Is.); today Galaara is used by the SL armed forces.
map
In Tamil Nadu, kallar is the name of a caste.
This caste is not seen in the SL-tamil hierarchy
Kallar here is the same as the Sinhala 'Galara', a rocky stream.
See also 'Periyakallar'
ගල් ආර

Kallaru, Kalaru(Vannimava[Vavniya])
GALARA, GALAARA
There is also an adjacent 'Galaara Amuna' here.
This is an ancient Buddhist site; it is listed in the Archaeo. Dep. report, 1982.
Labeled #112 in Vanni Buddhist sites map. Note that there is also a 'Kal Aru', i.e, "Gal Aara", a water stream which falls to the eastern board near Mooladoova (Mullaitivu)
Label #113 is a site known as Galaare' amuna.
ගල් ආර
Kallichcha(Madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
GALISSA
Map
ගලිස්ස
Kalliyadi (Mannarama [Mannar])
GALADIYA, GALLIYADDA
This is on the coast, between Palaamaduva and Bellanvaeva (Vellankulam), north of Mannar. The sinhala name "Gal-liyadda" may have also been used.
ගල්අඩිය
ගල්ලියැද්ද
Kallikai (yapanaya[Jaffna])
IBBBAAVA
' Kalli' in T. and 'Ibba' in S. both refer to 'tortoise'
Map
ඉබ්බාව
Kallikaddaikkadu(Mannarama[Mannar])
IBBAKATUKALÉ
Disc. 'Kaddai' has no meaning in T., 'Kaddu' and 'Kadu' taken as Katu,
i.e, in Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telegu , kāḍu means 'forest', as in Sinhala 'Kaelé
Map
ඉබ්බකටුකැලේ
Kallikulam, Kallikkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
IBBAVA`WA
Another Ibbavava('Kallikkulam') in mannar district.
Disc. In T., கல்லி could (p 772 MTL), mean tortoise, or 'Ibba' in S.
Map
ඉබ්බවැව
Kalimadu(madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
GAALMADUVA
Map
ගල්මඩුව
Kallikaddaikadu (Mannarama[Mannar])
IBIKATUKALE', the E' as in Less
Disc.- See kallikulam.
13 km south east of mannar.
ඉබිකටුකැලේ
Kalmadu (Mannaram[Mannar])
GALMADUWA
Note that there is also a ' kalmadu' in Vavniya, but not located in maps.
Map
ගල්මඩුව
Kalmadu(madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
Galmaduwa
Fishing village, 15 km N of Batti, heavily damaged by the Tsunami.
This is near Bintharahena(Brynthuraichenai)
ගල්මඩුව

Kalmadu(Gokanna[Trincomalee])
GALMADUVA
Ancient Buddhist site.
The name may have originated from the many stone pillars found here.
Remnants of old buildings, and other artifacts abound. A clay animal
figurine found here is displayed at the Gokanna(Trinco) museum.
Labeled #140 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ගල්මඩුව

Kalmattankulam, Kalnattankulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
GALMAETTAN VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site.
Labeled #129 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ගල්මැට්ටන්වැව
Kalmunai (Ampare)
GALMUNNA, GAL-AMUNA
Also Kalmunaikudi,GALMUOONTHUDA
'galmunna', Galmoona, means stone embankment or facing-point in the shore, and a harbour may have
existed here ("Deegamandala Thitta") See article by Ellawala Medhananda, 2001
in the "Felicitation volume for "Budungala Loku Hamuduruvo".
Strong Tsunami damages, Science 28 January 2005: 502-504
DOI: 10.1126/science.307.5709.502
Small Dutch fort
Regional map
ගල්මුන්න
Kalmunai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
GALMUNNA, GAL-AMUNA
Amuna m ay refer to a bund, wall or cliff.   Regional map
ගල්මුන්න
Kalnattankulam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
GALMAETTAN VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982
See Kalmattankulam.
ගල්මැට්ටන්වැව
Kal Oya, Kaloya, Kaloyai (Gal Oya valley)
GALOYA
There is also, Kaloya sandi, which is GAL OYA HANDIYA, and similar derived names in the Gal-Oya valley area. Gal Oya scheme is the river valley irrigation and settlement scheme developed during the D. S. Senanayake era to reclaim the ancient Digamadulla area which went back to pre-Christian times.
B. H. Farmer, a Cambridge Geographer has written a balanced analysis about this development effort. D. S. Senanayake, and Dudley Senanayake took great care to avoid the charge of communal discrimination by appointing a preponderence of prominent Tamils (like Mr. Kanagasundaram, Sri Kantha etc.) to run the Gal Oya Board, and many Tamil engineers were the executives of the program. Ponnamblam had already made this accussation in front of the Soulbury commission which rejected it, using extensive briefing from its research wing made up of the colonial civil service. However, Ponnambalam and Chelvanayagam were always ready to make such ethically inflammatory accussations. Finally, the Eelam movement labeled Senanayake as a Sinhalese chuvinist who "colonized the exclusive homelands of the Tamils". Some Sinhalese labeled the Senanayakes as a black colonials in cabal with the "Colombo Tamils". But D. S. Senanayake, and his son Dudley were great visionaries who attempted to follow the model of the ancient hydrulic civilization of Lanka, and did their best to be fair-handed, within a pro-western liberal-capitalist tradition.
ගල් ඔය
Kalpitti, Kalpittiyam, Kalpitiya (Puththalama [Puttlam])
GALPITIYA, KALPITIYA
The Dutch called it Calpentyn, or Calpetty. The name "PITIYA" is probably a corruption of the older name "GAL-PATUNA", where "patuna" refers to a coastal harbour, used as such even during Rajasingha's time. The dutch form "pentyn" is clearly a modification of "patuna". Christianized Tamils from Mannar were brought here by the Dutch. The name "Kalpitti" was adapted into Tamil from "Calpentyn". The modern sinhalized form "Kalpitiya" is hence probably not directly drawn from the original "Galpatuna".
Illustrations and views of Dutch Ceylon 1602-1796, by de Silva and Beumer (1988).
Kala Oya flows into the sea north of kalpitiya.
Emerson Tennent remarks in his book on Ceylon (1859) "One of the most remarkable animals on the coast is the plant eating dugong, numbers of which are attracted to the inlets, from the bay of Calpentyn (Kalpitiya) to Adam's Bridge, by the still water and the abundance of marine algae in these parts of the gulf. One, which was killed in Mannar and sent to me in Colombo in 1847, measured upwards of seven feet in length, but specimens considerably larger have been taken at Calpentyn". The Dutch built a fort here and attempted to control King Rajasinghas trade with India. The area is popular with divers, snorkelers and nature lovers. The Vilpaththu (Wilpattu) reserve is close by, and the war with the LTTE has touched this region. The old Dutch fort is currently used by the Navy. The Festival of St. Anne is held on July 26.
ගල්පිටිය
කල්පිටිය

Kalukundanmaduva,Kalukundanmaduwa(Vannimava[Vavniya])
Not a significantly tamilized name
Ancient Buddhist site, listed in Archeo. dept. Somasiri compilation.
Labeled #127 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කලුකුඳන්මඩුව
Kalundiai,Kaullundaai,Kalundiaay (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
GALINDIYA
'Gal' in Sinhala, 'Kal' in Tamil refer to 'stones' or rock.
'Diya' is water, and this designates a rocky flow of water, possibly
also indicating a scarcity of water in the flow.
ගලි න්දිය
Kalutavalai, Kaluthavalai, Kazhuthaavalai கழுதாவளை (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KATUKILIYAVALA
'Katu-Kili", or "Katu-Ikili" is the throny shrub Acanthus illcifolius, known in Tamil as "Kalutai-mulli", and "Kalumul" in Malayalam. "Val" means, in the present context, a small thicket.
කටුකිලිවල
Kaluwanchikudi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KALUPANCHITHUDA
කලු ප න්චි තුඩාව
Kaluwankemy, Kaluwenkemy, Kaluvankerni (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KALUVANGAMA
Recent history linked with three Vedda tribes(Varige)
Vedda-vellar, Motukaduveddda, Kurangudinni-vedda
These veddas fish, in addition to hunting.
කලුවන්ගම
Kalvettai (Vannimava [Vanviya])
GALVAETA
ගල් වැට
Kalvian, Kalvilan (Mannarama [Mannar])
GALVILA, Galdiaya
Disc.- "Galvila" means stoney pond. There is some evidence that area may have been called "galdiya". 'Galdiya', literally Stone water, probably is an illicit "toddy". Also, in T., "kalliyam→galdiyam" could mean a fermented liquor"
This small town is 3km south west of Dunkukaya (Tuhunukkai) and has been an important garrison town of the LTTE till August 2008. Defence report   see Map
ගල්විල
Kalviankadu, Kalviankaadu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
GALVILKADA, GALDIYAKADA
Disc.- GALVILKADA is the older name. 'Galdiyakada' is a thicket where "Galdiya=hooch", i.e, toddy, was brewed. For an account of the village, and a trip along A9
See We arrived in Kalviankaadu, my mothers village.
ගල්විල්කඩ
Kalviankadu, Kalliankaddu(Madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
GALAVILKADA
This is within 5 Km of Batticaloa
ගල්විල්කඩ
Kambermalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
JAMBUKANDA
This is a village close to Vali-vaeti-thara.
The first LTTE soldier casualty, Sathiyanathan
alias Shankar or Suresh died on 27-nov-1982
Shankar's sister was married to 'Soosai' (Thilaiamblam Sivanesan,
Sea Tiger Commander.)
ජමිඹුකන්ද

Kanagarayankulam, Kanakarayankulam, Kangarayam kulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
GANARAJAWAEVA
Labeled #36, #121 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Two other sites by the same name,in Mannarama and Mooladoova; see below.
Vavniya:-important LTTE battles, Sept.-Nov. 1999
LTTE air-strip.
10 miles south of Maanavaeva(Mankulam), on the A9
War, 199
ගනරාජවැව

Kanagarayankulam, Kanakarayankulam, Kangarayam kulam(mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
GANARAJAWAEVA
Labeled #36, in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri.
ගනරාජවැව
Kanakarayankulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
GANARAJAWAEVA
See Map
ගනරාජවැව

Kanchuramoddai, Kanduramoddei(Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
KADURUMOTTE,   (KAHAMBILIMOTTE),
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The Latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. Tamil word for mud could be "akaru", 'cetumpu", "ceru", "kesaru", "man-". This location is labeled #41 in Buddhist sites map. Ancient Buddhist site, listed in the Archaeo. Dept. report; Somasiri,1982
Kanchura, kanchiram, or Kandura is used in T, K etc. for Strychnos nux vomica, 'Godakaduru' in Sinhala. It may also be a name for a type of climbing nettle, "Kahambiliya". We use the transformation of of the name of the 3rd century BCE "Kadurugoda" shrine to "Kantharodai", in guiding our analysis.
Map
(කහඹිලිමොටේ)
කදුරුමොටේ
Kanchirankuda, Kaangchirangkuda, காஞ்சிரங் குடா (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
KADURUTHUDUVA
'Kaduru' is Sinhala for Strychnos nux vomica, kanchiram in T.
See entry under 'Kanchuramoddai'.
කදුරුතුඩුව
Kandavalai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
KANDAVALA
Regional map
කන්ද වල
Kandaladi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KANDAWADIYA
කන්ද වාඩිය
Kandarodai((Yapanaya [Jaffna])
See Kantharodai
කදුරුගොඩ
Kandasamymalei, Kandasamimalei (SriGonakanda [Trincomalee])
NEETHUPATHPANA
This ancient village is close to Tiriyaya
Hist. There is a hill with three meditation caves and Brahmi inscriptions,
Thuparama-style `vatadage' with stone pillars and Stupa.
Stupa is now a mound of earth. Many stone pillars removed to the village
and used to build a new Saiva Kovil.
This site is vandalized by politicized groups
නීතුපත්පන
Kanjikudichchi Aru, Kanjikudichchi kulam, kanchikudichchi- (Ampare)
KanjikudiAru, Kagnchikudichchaaru, etc.
KANDI-KA`DICHCHA Ara, KANDI-KA`DICHCHA WEWA, KAENDA-KAAPU VAEVA
Disc. Name has been recorded in maps, and in the Gazzetter
as `Kangi-kadichi-' ara.
The name may mean `the tank with broken bunds'
However, the tank would have had a name before the `bunds' fell.
Gieger in his Mahavamsa refers to Dhigavapi as being "Kandiya-katta" tank.
See also the entry under Irakkamam (Dighavapi)
Another meaning: In both S. and T.,
`tank (where) broth was drunk'.
However, 'Kudi' There is no clear evidence for the latter.
The name is clearly a confusing literal tamilization.
After an evaluation of the data, we suggest:
KANDAGODA ARA, KANDAGODA VAEVA
and is close to Kanadakudi aru etc.
Hist. There are Buddhist ruins on the two hills on either side
of the tank bund. One hill has a 20 ft. dagaba which has been pillaged
A Hindu Kovil is being built on another ruined site, using ancient
stone slabs and pillars
The other hill has 11 caves which may have been used for meditation
One cave has a stone inscription with Brahmi (early Sinhala) inscriptions
circa 2nd century B. C. or older
Other stone slabs are dated to be
circa 8th century. An un-permitted Ganseh Kovil is being built here.
When the archaeological dept. attempted to declare this a protected zone,
the file was mysteriously lost from the Ampare kachcheri. Subsequent to
that, this area has been under LTTE control.
See Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/E/43 folio 42-44.
කන්ඩිකැඩිච්ච
--ආර,
--වැව
Kangankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SANGAMVAEVA
සංගම්වැව

Kankesanthurai, KKS (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
DAMBAKOLATHOTA, JAMBUKOLANTHARA,Dambakolapatuna
Jambukolapattana, Dambakolapatuna, Sambilithura, Sambilithurai
The ancient names are given in the Bodhivamsa and other Pali chronicles.
Etymology  The Sinhala "Patuna" (e.g., as in Yapa Patune, c.f., Jaffna) and the corresponding Sanskrit/Pali words "pattana", "pakkana" are used in the Mahabharata to denote a town or village, and "Dharmapattana" is a name given to the city of "Sravasti" in Pali. Enter Pattana into Univ. of Cologne dictionary
'Jambukola' in Mahawamsa , hence
'Jambukolanthota' would be the port or 'theetha' at Jambukola
'thota ='thara'; Jambu → Kampu → Kan; Kolanthara → kesanthuraei

An ancient road connecting K. to Anuradhapura existed.
Sangamitta, said to be Emperor Asoka's daughter, is said to have brought the 'Bodhi sapling' via this port ~3rd century BCE. An entourage of many artisans and technologists accompanied her, providing support to the construction projects of the city of Anuradhapura. The Language of Sri Lanka (earliest form of Elu) at that time seems to have been a form of Southern Prakrit probably very close to Asokan Prakrit (Maagadhi)

See also, entry under 'Champththurai', and Sambilithurai

The Yaaldevi train ran between Colombo and Jaffna and Kankesanthurai until 1990 (i.e., prior to the destruction of the tracks by the separatist LTTE. But since the end of the war (2009), the tracks have been repaired in stages. It is extended to Dambakolathota (Kankasanthurai) in 2013, completing 160 km of track from Vannimava (Vavniya). Yal Devi operates to KKS from 21013

This town housed the earliest Cement factory in Sri Lanka, established during the time G. G. Ponnambalam was the minster of Industries in the early UNP governments. This was an important theater of war and provided a maritime connection between Trincomalee and the Peninsula during the Eelam-iV war.
දඹකොලතොට
Kankuvel(Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
HAKGEDIVAELLA
c.f., Sankuveli in Jaffna.
හක්ගෙඩිවැල්ල
Kannaddy (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
GAMNADIYA
ගංනදිය
Kannakipuram Kannagipuram (Ampare)
PATTINIPURA, Paththinipura
Meaning: The Sinhala 'Pattini (Paththini)' is usually identified with the Hindu Kannaki Amman, whose temples are common in Batti., Ampara and other parts of Sri lanka. Popular Sri Lankan Buddhism also accommodates homage to Goddess Kannaki. The Mariyamman (Mari amman) goddess cult is closely related but seems to date from about the 15th century. The Saivites prefer Mariyamman to Pattini. The name "Paththnipura" probably dates back to pre-christian times. The relationship of 'Pattini' with the Kataragama Shrine to Alexander (Iskander or Skanda), and the story of the 'Kiri-vehera' also need more research. Fire walking, long associated with the Pattini-kannaki cult is celebrated at the Katharagama shrine to Skanda.
see regarding The Pattini cult in Sri lanka by Padmanathan.
Kannaki Amma was invoked against plague and small pox, hence the usage 'amma-warunge leda'. Pattini was considered a 'guardian deity' of Lanka at one time. Other 'deities like "Devol' of Seenigama should be considered in the context of Pattini worship, as well as the Vijaya legend. For a folk-lore account, see Seenigama Devale and animistic rituals, Chulie de Silva.
The shrine on the beach “Welle Dewale,” Unawatuna, Chulie de Silva
The Indian tradition regarding 'Pattini' is verified in 'Silappathigaram' (Cilappatikaram), while the Sri lankan versions 'Kannaki valakurai kavyam', and "Manimekalai' are 2nd Century Tamil poems about the Daughter of Kannaki who became a Buddhist nun.
The story involves Pandyan Kings in Madurai. The early Pandiyans (and many southern Kings) preferred fair-skinned North Indian women as queens, and hence the Pandyans were closely linked with the Gupta dynasty. Even the mother of the Chola king Karikalan was a Gupta princess, and he was hence known as 'Sundara Gupta'. It should be noted that in the Vijaya legend, after getting rid of Princess Kuveni (Ku-veni) (i.e., literally, dark-coloured princess), Vijaya seeks a bride from the family of the queen in Madurai, i.e., a North Indian princess of the Gupta lineage!

In the Cilappatikaram (Silappatikaram) account Kannaki is a chaste, stern, dutiful female character married to Kovilan, a male figure who falls for a courtesan named Madhavi (of Jain faith) and wastes the family fortune. Kannaki forgives him and gives him one of a pair of golden anklets, to be used in the city of Madurai to raise money for his business. But he is falsely arrested on the charge of having stolen the anklet from the queen of the Pandyan king, and beheaded. Kannaki appears before the king in righteous rage, displays the duplicate of the anklet as proof and curses the king and his kingdom. She rips off her left breast, throwing out flames which immolate her, the king's court and the entire city. Kannanki herself rises to heaven and is today revered as the goddess 'Paththini' (Pattini). In today's context, the use of female suicide bombers by the LTTE, with their explosives hidden around their brassieres or belts, clearly has some cultural resonance with the idea of the 'Pattini' goddess and many other sacrifice symbols of Hinduism. A vigorous continuing discussion of these ideas and the more matter-of-fact treatment (e.g. see Dying to Win by Robert A. Pape) may be found in various articles, e.g., M. Roberts, "Self-Annihilation - Tamil Tigers & Beyond: Cultural Premises inspiring sacrificial suicidal acts." Dec. 2007. See also William Harman, Women, Theosis, and Sacrificial Violence in Sri Lanka, Oct. 2008
See entries under Kannankuda, Gomarankadawala, Chankanai, Madhu etc.
පත්තිනිපුර
Kannankiramam(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
HAANAGAMA, KAENNAKIRAMA
khananastambha. Disc.- 'Kirama' (kiramama in T.) is from the Skrt.
'Graama → gama' in S., while Skrt. 'khanana' may
be the source word for the Sinhala 'Kaeneema', to excavate, dig',
and 'haana', i.e., to 'plough' in Sinhala.
Also, is not clear if 'Gannan' or 'Kannan' refers to a
priestly caste or a toddy-tapping caste ('shanan → kannan').
Kannan cult is close to the Paththini cult of Sri lanka.
Kannagi or Kannaki is the heroine of the Silapathikaram.
'Kannan' in Tamil may also mean Krishna or Vishnu.
See entries under Gomarankadawala, Chankanai, etc.
This is a village near Valashena (Valaichenai); no map.
හානගම
කැන්න කිරම
Kannankuda (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KAENNATHUDAVA,
Disc.- Skrt. 'khanana' may be the source word for the Sinhala 'Kaeneema',
to excavate, dig, and 'Haana', i.e., to 'plough' in Sinhala.
Also, is not clear if 'Gannan' or 'Kannan' refers to a
priestly caste or a toddy-tapping caste ('shanan → kannan').
Also, Kannagi is the heroine of the Silapathikaram.
See entries under Gomarankadawala, Chankanai, etc.
There is a 'Kannagi Amman' temple in Kannankuda
killings at Kannagi temple
Map
කැන්න තුඩාව
Kannantanai(Galthudawa[Kalkuda])
KANNANTAENNA, GANNANTHEANA
See entries under Kannankuda, Gomarankadawala, Chankanai, etc.
'Thaenna' is a common sinhala ending for 'place', location
In pure Tamil the usage is '(s)thaanam', and the form 'thanai'
found only in Sri Lanka is probably a sign of adaptation from Sinhala.
map
කැන්න තැන්න
Kannantivu (Japanaya [Jaffna])
KAENNA DOOVA
See entry under Kannankuda, for etymology
This is a small island near Uruthota (Kayts) and Pugngadiva (Pungutivu).
කැන්න දූව

Kannimaduva, Kannimaduwa(Vannimava[Vavniya])
Ancient Buddhist site
Labeled #119 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කැන්න මඩුව
Kanniya (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
KANNIYAWA, UNUDIYAAVA
Meaning: Perhaps similar to the shortening of Kanya-kumari
in Tamil Nadu to Kannia
Unudiya→Ana-diya→anan-niya→Kanniya is a possible sequence. Kannaki-Amma (Mari Amman) temple and hot springs near by.
see pictures etc.
උනුදියාව
කැන්නියාව
Kantalai, Kanthalai, Kandhalaai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
GANTALE (GANTALAVA)
Hist.De Queyroz: "Gantale", Tenent's map: "Gantalava"
Stone seat inscription in Sinhala by King Nissankamalla (12 CE).
There is also a GANTALAWA near by, but separate from Gantale (Kantalai)
The Gantale tank was built by Agrabodhi II in the 7th C. AD.
MAP
ගංතලේ
Kantarodai, Kantharodai, Kandarodai, Kandharodai((Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KADURUGODA,KADIVUNGODA, KANDAGODA
Kadivungoda is the earliest form, while the later 'Nampotha' uses 'Kadurugoda'. Indraratne (Thesis, 1965) writes: "Kantarodai has yielded very important Buddhist finds, which prove the existence of an important Buddhist establishment in the region in early times. Such artifacts as the glazed tiles and the circular discs discovered here have helped to connect the finds with those of Anuradhapura. Sinhala Nampotha, dated in its present form to the fourteenth or fifteenth century, preserves the names of some of the places of Buddhist worship in the Jaffna peninsula. Kantarodai is mentioned among these places. The others are Nagakovila (Nakarkovil), Telipola (Tellippalai), Mallagama (Mallakam), Minuvangomu Viharaya (Vimankamam), Tannidivayina (Tana-tivu or Kayts), Nagadivayina (Nakativu or Nayinativu), Puvangudivayina (Punkutu-tivu) and Karadivayina (Karaitivu).
The name "Kandaroda" is probably from the Pali "Kandara" (ara) which is today tamilized to "valuka aru". The name 'Kadhiramalai' is also found in Tamil works, and sometimes identified with the "city of Singai". However, see Rasanyakam History of Jaffna.
kanchiram' is used in T., for Strychnos nux vomica, 'Godakaduru' in Sinhala.
Opposition to Buddhist archaeologists
hist. Ancient Buddhist center, 200BC
Inscription in Sinhala by King Dappula IV (10 CE).
historical
Map
කදුරුගොඩ
Kanthaudaiyarpuvarasankulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
KANDA-UDA-SOORIYAVAEVA, &nbsdp, PODI-SOORIYAVAEVA
map
කන්දඋඩසූරියවැව
පොඩිසූරියවැව
Kanthapuram (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KANDHAPURA
Disc. Related to Skanda (?)
කන්ධපුර
Kanthasamynagar (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KANDAHIMIPURA
meaning: kandaswami is 'Skanda'.
කඳහිමිපුර
Kappaladi (Puttalama)
TALAVILA, KABALADISSA
This means 'accident' (adissa) to the boat(Kabala), or 'shipwreck'
The Talvila catholic shrine to St. Anne is located here.
තලවිල
Kappalthurei, Kappalthurai(SriGonakanda[trinco])
HABALTHOTA
'habla' in Sinhala is a 'paddle' and 'habalthota' implies a marina.
In Tamil, 'Kappal' can mean a 'boat' or a guard or watchman
Indian Tamil, Muslim and Sinhala settlers in cultivation schemes since 1977
War Frequent LTTE/SLF clashes, Claymore bombs etc. e.g., April 2006
Ethnic cleansing by the LTTE
map
හබල්තොට
Kapputhoo (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KAPUDOOVA
see Jaffna map1
කපුදූව
Karachchi, (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
KARACHCHIYA
"Kara" refers to a location close to the shore. ``Rachchiya'' is derived from "(a)rajjya", which refers to an administrative center, occupied by an "Aarachchi". Thus Karachchi, or "Kara-rajji" was an old administrative center in the region, maintained mainly to collect taxes associated with the trade in the area, going across the Uttara Desha and the Vanni.   Regional map
කරච්චිය
Karadumunai, Kaaradumunai (Puttalama)
KARADIMUNNA
"Karadiya" refers to salt water-i.e., a location close to the shore. See Kalpitiya area
කරදිමුන්න
Karadipokku (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KARADIYABOKKA
see also "Karadippooval." See Map and news, 2008
කරදියබොක්ක
Karadippooval, Karadippuval, கரடிப்பூவல் (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KARADIYAVALA
Disc.- Karadya-vala refers to salty water holes, mostly found in
arid coastal areas. 'Kara' means sea shore in Sinhala and in Tamil also.
This place name is found in Madakalapuva, Gokanna(trincomalee),
Mooladoova(Mullaitivu) Puththalama and Hambantota.
Poval can also mean a large well in Tamil, cognate with the sinhala "vala". In Tamil,'Karadi' may mean 'bear'.
Hence Karadippooval and suggest watering hole used by bears.
However, that is unlikely since no such name is found in the middle of the
Vanni (i.e, away from brackish water) where there are many bears
and watering holes as well.
කරදියවල
Karadiyanaru (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KARADIYAARA, KARADIYAOYA
Disc.- 'Karadi' in Tamil may mean bear, and 'Karadiyanaru' may be
stretched to mean 'river frequented by bears.
'karadu, karaddi' may also mean rugged terrain in Tamil.
Also 'Kara' means seashore both in Sinhala and Tamil.
Meaning In S. and in T., 'sea-water, i.e, brackish water stream'
කරදියආර
Karaitivu(Puttalama)
Karadiva
Island between Puttalama lagoon and Munthalama (Mundal) lagoon
කරදූව
Karaitivu(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
Karadiva
Ancient Buddhist ruins. Near Pungudoova (Pungutivu)
කරදූව
Karainagar, Kaarainakar, காலரநகர் (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KARANAGARA
Meaning. In S. and T., town by the sea, or the town of kaara leaves.
Ancient Buddhist site, mentioned in the Nampotha as 'Karadivayina'. It was known even in Tamil as 'Kaaraitheevu'. The name change occurred with the construction of the Punnali causeway in the late 19th Century, and officially in 1922. Dutch records give the name 'Nieuw Amsterdam'. However, its oldest name was 'Kaaradeepa', also previously known as 'Ahideepa', as stated in the Buddhist Akitti Jaathaka, which relates the story of the Buddhist recluse Akitti who came to Kaaradeepa. Akitti lived on a diet of Kaara leaves. Hence the name may have arisen from 'Kaara', a thorny shrub. The Paali name 'Kaara' is used even in south Indian inscriptions. Thus Tamil inscriptions (Udayendiram copper plates) refer to Kaara trees, said to be Webera tetrandra. The 'bodhsathva' Akitti is also known as Agastiya in the Jaataka maala,
but Malalasekera warns against confusion with the Vedic Sage Agastiya. Even today there is an ancient Buddhist site known as Vearppiddi (Veherapitiya). Megalithic burial sites are found at Chaththiranthai (Chatrangana - i.e., arena for hoisting flags.)
Karainagar had a Nordic boat-building aid program since the 1980s.
The Dutch also built a small fort called Hammanhiel, used today as a
SL Naval Base The government naval base located in this island is named Elara.
කරානගර

Karadikulam, Karatikulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
VALASVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Disc.- 'Karati' in Tamil, 'Karadi' in M, K, Te could refer to the black bear.
'Valasa' in S. also refers to the black bear typical of its forests.
Needless to say, there are several 'Valasvaeva' locations.
Labeled #96, also #98 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වලස්වැව
Karadikkuli(Mannarama[Mannar])
KARADIKULIYA
Disc.- Here 'Karadi' refers to salty water.
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province
කරදිකුලිය
Karampon, Karampan, கரம்பன் (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KARAMBAPONA, Karampana
Meaning: 'Pon' in T. may be 'gold' and not contextually meaningful, and 'Karam' cannot be attributed. However, Tamil Karampai may mean barren/rugged land. In S., 'pana', 'pona' indicate a village or habitation; the name may mean a presence of a type of trees, e.g., as in Kirulapona. Sinhala 'Karamba' tree is "Carissa spinarium" or "Carissa carandas" (Heen Karamba)
'Kaaram' may mean alkaline or lime-like, and might indicate a region of harsh, poor soil.
See trees in Sri Lanka forests
කරඹ
Karanavai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KARNAEBA
This means "near the shore" in Sinhala.
see Jaffna map1
කරනැබ
Koravakukulam(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KORAVAKVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982
කොරවක්වැව.
Karativ-pomparippu (Puttalam)
KARDOOVA-Ranparithaya
meaning Karadoova in S. or Karative in T. means a small
landmass by the sea. 'Pomparippu' is a name which exists by itself
T. gold, 'Pom' ↔ 'Ran' is gold in Sinhala; 'Parithaya'
is a place or distribution.
කරදූව-රන්පරිත්ත
Karativu (Ampare)
KARADOOVA
meaning Karadoova in S. or Karative in T. land by the sea
  Regional map Hist. Baldaeus,1658, Caradiva
කරදූව
Karaveddi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KARAVA`DDA
Meaning: Veddi is tamilization of 'Va'dda', or approach road, cf. va`deema
'Kara' is (sea)shore or '(moodu)kara', in S. and also T.
President Premadasa’s assassin, Kulaweerasingham Weerakumar alias 'Illango' alias 'Babu' was originally from Karaveddi. President Premadasa's security, May Day 1993 see Jaffna map1 /td>
කරවැද්ද
Karaikattumulai(Vannimava[Vavniya])
KARAKATUMULLA, KURUNDA
Disc. - 'Kara' in S., and karai in T'. refere to the sea-shore.
King Agbo (6CE) had built a temple here in 'Kurunda'. Invading forces of Kalinga-Magha, and also Chandrabhanu, had military camps here. We do not have an unambiguous location for this place.
If you have more info., please write to place.names@dh-web.org
කුරුන්ද
කරකටුමුල්ල
Kariyalaimoddai (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
KURUVALMADE, KURAVALMADÉ
"karaval" here mean a dried, dark, stunted forest, while 'Madé' refers to a "muddy place". The Tamil "Kariyal", கருகல்-kurukal, could also mean "that which is black or charred" (MTL, page s195).
කුරුවල්මඩ
Kariyalaivayal (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
KURUVAL-VATHTHA
"karaval" here mean a dried, dark, stunted forest, while 'vathha; in Sinhala and 'Vayal' in Tamil are interchanged in usage and mean essentially the same thing. The Tamil "Kariyal", கருகல்-kurukal, could also mean "that which is black or charred" (MTL, page s195).
කුරුවල් වත්ත
Karaimullivaikkal, Karaiyamullivaikkal, Kariyalamullivaikkal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
Karabatuagala, karabatu-vakkkadé KARABATUVAKKDE   ⚓name
Meaning:  In S., Agala is a channal or sewer. Vakkadadaya is a water sewer or "Agala, (va)ggala, vakkala". In Tamil vaikkal could also mean a water sewer or drain. "Mulli" could also refer to "batu", and "karabatu, vaelbatu" are types of "batu" which are adapted to the shore ecology. This village was largely reconstructed after the 2004 Tsunami, and had good housing used by the LTTE high command during thier "last stand" in May 2009. Capture of the coast near Karaimullivaikkal
This is in the No Fire Zone in 2009   designated in 2009 during the LTTE last stand
  Claims of civilian casulties in the NFZ
See discussion under "Mulliyavalai"
කරබටුවක්කඩේ
කරබටු අගල
Karandhai (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
KARANDA
"Kara" signifies near the shore.   Regional map
කරංද
Karugampanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KALUGAMPANA
කලුගම් පන
Karukkakulam (Mannnarama)
KALUPINNA-VAEVA
Kulu-pinna, also called Gas-pinna is "Clerodendrum infortunatum". This is a location close to "Yodha vaeva", Giants Tank.
කලුපින්නවැව
Karungkodith-theevu, Karunkodditivu, Karunkottitivu கருங்கொடி த்தீவு (Ampare)
KALUKOLLADOOVA
This is a dark leaved creeper (bot. Cryptolepis buchananii) which gives a milky sap, used in local medicine.
කලු කොල්ල දූව
Karuppaddamurippu, Karippaddamurippu (Mooladoova [Mulaitivu])
AETHUVAETIKANDIYA, KALUPATHMURAYA
'Athuvaeti' here means, 'elephant fell'.
see etymology of murippu
ඇතුවැටි ක න්ඩි ය
කලුපත්මුරය
Karuvaachchoalai(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KURUNDUGOLLA
Disc.- 'kurundu' is Sinhala for cinnamon (bot. Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
The earliest occurance of the sinhala word 'Kurunda-' is 100 CE, where King BhallaataNaga had built the "Kurundapasaka' temple. There are references to "kurunndavaapi'' (tank), Kurundaka velu (temple), and place names like "Kurundurata, Kurundaka, Kurundugamrata, etc. Ivory (British ccs) has suggested that Kurundurata is 'Kadavath Korale'. Given that the Pali texts also refer to "Kuru rata" in India, 'Kurundu' which may mean 'from Kuru', or originating from Kuru', suggests that cinnamon may have been brought from the land of 'Kuru' and planted in 'Kurundu rata', probably during Devanampiyatissa's time. Tamil for 'cinnamon' is Ilavangkam (or Ilavangkap-paddai). However, in SL, the sinhala 'Kura' has become converted to the form 'Karu' by a commonly found linguistic inversion, and the form kurap-pacholai → karuvaa-choli, where 'karuvaa' is a name for cinnomon found only in Sri-Lankan tamil, being a derivate from early sinhala. Another possibility is a derivation from "kayu manis" (sweet wood) found in Indonesian and malaysian usages (kayuma(nis)→karuva(nis)). 'Cinnamon gardens' or Kurunduvatta (Colombo-7) is called 'Karuvakkaadu' in Tamil. The english 'cinnamon' may be from ''chinese wood'' (cinna ← chinni, cheena is 'chinese' in many Indic languages. Some writers have attempted to connect the SL-tamil word 'Karuva' with the Tamil "Kaaral, Kaarppu or Kaalppu", meaning "pungent". However, these etymologies are not accepted in Tamil lexicons. 'Kurunthu' in tamil applies to 'Wild lime'(val dehi in S.). In effect, the etymology needs further research. Read about Different types of cinnamon
කුරුඳුගොල්ල
Karuvaakkeani (Valashena[Valaichennai)
KURUNDUKAENNA
Disc.- As discussed under Kurundugolla(Karuvaachchoalai), the
word 'karuvaa' is a tamil word for cinnamon, used exclusively in
Sri Lanka, and derived from a sinhala root word.
'Kaenna' is a dug-out area in the ground (pond); usually 'ayam',
'kuttam', 'kulam' in T.; however keani is used in SL-tamil and may be
a derivate of the sinhala 'kaenna'.
කුරුඳුකැන්න
Kathiraveli, Kathiraiveli, கதிரவெள (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KADIRAVAELLA, KIHIRIVAELLA
The word 'Kadira', from Sanskrit, probably refers to Mimosa Catechu' of the 'accacia' family, and is the 'Kihiri' tree in Sinhala; and 'Karuveal' in Tamil. Other etymologies have been discussed., for example, early Tamil settlements here may have promoted the name 'Gatthara-vaella' where 'Gaththara ← Gothra' implied 'tribe'. The word Gaththara may have become 'Kaththira' and 'Kadir' etc. The name progression "Alexander" → "Iskander" (Persian),→ "Skander (Skanda)" → 'kadar' → "Kadir" shows the link with the 'Katharagama' Murugan Shrine. 'Veli' in Tamil, வெள (p 3806, Madras U Lexicon) does not mean 'sandy shore' as in Sinhala, but it has acquired such a meaning in Sri Lankan Tamil, due to the influence of Sinhala. Repeated military activity Map, and SLF in Jan. 2007
කදිරවැල්ල
කිහිරිවැල්ල
Kaththarsinnakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
ADDARAPODIVAEVA.
අද්දරපොඩිවැව
Katakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KAETAVAEVA, anglicized to KetaVAEVA.
කැ ටවැව
Katsunai, Katsunei (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
KAETAHUNNA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
කැ ටහුන්න

Kattakulam (Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
KASHTAVAEVA
Also, kattakulam Pattu is a regional name. This is an ancient Buddhist site; given in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982. Labeled #147 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කෂ්ටවැව
Kattankudi, Kattankudy, Kathankudy, Kaathaankudi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KATTANTHUDA, KATTANTHUDUVA, Kattanthudava
Meaning: 'Katta', in S. and also, 'கட்டக்குடி' in T. refers to a type of sea perch, often used for making dried fish, viz., 'katta-karavala' The word Kudi is often used as short for "Kudival", "Kula-variga" in Sinhala which means "clan lineage". Hence "kattankudi" may also be a caste name. (See the discussion of the Batticaloa caste system under Madakalapuva). However, the main caste in the area is Ellavakudi (as also in Akkarapattuva, Saindamarudu and Potuvila). Hence we distinguish "Kattanakudi" from caste-name related place names. It is a fishing village which started off from the name of a type of fish (Kattaawa). See also, the entry under Nindapura (Nintavur).
140 Muslims were murdered during prayer, August 1990 by the LTTE. More recently, conflict inside the Muslim community has arisen due to the growth of Wahhabism, allegedly funded by Gulf donors. Militant Wahhabism ? Asia Tribune article.   There are 42 mosques in Kattankudi !>   Map, October 2005
කට්ටන්තුඩුව
Kavutarimunai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
VATUVAMUNNA, TITHTHIRIAMUNNA
Meaning: Kavutara -is the Indian Partridge, 'tittiri' in Skrt., and also in Pali. In addition, 'Kakkara' is used in Pali. A common name for the bird is "vatuva", or 'Us-vattuva'. Kakkkara → Koththara.   Regional map
කොත්තරමුන්න
වටුවමුන්න
Kayts (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
URATHOTA, URATARA, TANJADOOVA
Also 'Uraturai' and 'Urkavalthurai' were the tamilized forms. Ancient pre-CE Buddhist site. Mentioned in the Nampotha as Tannidivayina. It was a major Naval base under Parakramabahu I (12th century CE). Military History of Sri Lanka
See also
Ports of Ancient Sri Lanka, by J. Amarasekera.
Urathota is mentioned in the 'Nainathivu' inscription (written partly in Tamil), of Parakramabahu.
It is mentioned in the 'Thovila' ritual 'Kohombakankariya'. During the Portuguese period, it was known as Cais [meaning quay], giving rise to the current English name. Baldaeus, 1658, used the name 'Ourature'.
Ealam wars, Kobbekaduwa's death etc.
ඌරුතොට
Kayankerni, kaayankerni (Madakalapuwa)
KAAYAM-KAENNA, Kaymkaenna, Kayamkenna
Kaayam refers to any type of pungent earth in sinhalese. The same meaning is found in the Tamil 'Kaayam', but not in the form 'kaayan'. The word 'kaenna' in Sinhalese means a dig, or excavation of the earth (c.f., kaeneema). The Tamil 'kerni' is not listed in Tamil lexicons and it is not used in the tamil language. It is most likely to be just the work 'kaenna' modified into Tamil usage.
කායම් කැන්න
Keerimalai, கீரிமலை Keeramalai(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KIRIKANDA, VAKULAKANDA   Vaakulakanda, anchor name: Vakulakanda.
Disc.- This is a famous Hindu shrine; Nakulesvaran temple.
Malai in T., Male in Sinhala. is hill, Keera → Ksheera in
Sanskrit; the name could arise from the 'milky' coloured limestone
rock where the temple stands.
But a deeper history lies underneath
The Nakulisa deity, worshiped by the Pasupata cult (5-6th century)
was a fusion of early south Indian Buddhism and Hinduism
into an anti-Vedic saivism.
Details about the Pasupata cult.
Nakulisa→ Nukulesvaram is the Hindu God celebrated at the Keerimalai temple
The words Nagula in sanskrit, and Nakula in Pali,
mean 'Mongoose'. It was literally translated to Tamil as 'Keeri' by Chola settlers
Subsequently, legends relating Nakulesvaran as having a mongoose face,
were absorbed in the transition to a Saiva temple
Prior to the rise of the Pasupatha cult in India, both south India
and Jaffna were majoritarian Buddhist, Jain regions.
The names Nakula, Pakula, or Vakula are well known in early Buddhist
texts. In Tibetan art and texts, the 9th Arhant is given as Bakula and holds
a mongoose. Buddhist texts mention a 'Nakulpitra' as the father of the
Arhant associated with the mongoose. These, together with the depiction
of Nakulisa in a Buddhist style in Pasupatha art (Bhuvanesvar, Orissa)
suggest the strong influence of Mahayana on the early Pauspatha cult.
A pre-Pasupatha Mahayana shrine associated with Vakula may have
existed at this site in pre-Chola times during the rise of Mahayana
influence in Sri Lanka, from ~200 CE., while the Pasupata came later.
This may have been preceded by a purely Buddhist shrine prior to the
rise of the Mahayana influence in Sri lanka.
The Pali texts 'Rasavahini' and ''Sahassavatthupakarana' give some
information on ancient Jaffna(Nakadivu). Given that Kirikanda (Keeriamalai)
is probably the highest point in the Yapanaya area, it would have been
a natural choice for a temple in pre-christian era Buddhist Jaffna.
A re-reading of the Pali texts, with this hypothesis in mind is now
needed. Also, archaeological excavations are a crying need. Thus, confirmation of the identity of the names Tambapanni Sara in Pali and Tamben Vila in Sinhala would be valuable.
1998 Report on Mahasiva Rathri after a decade lapse, Nakuleswaran temple
Keerimalai~A Land of Sacred Springs & Spirituality by D Kanagasabapathpillai
කිරිකන්ද
වකුලකන්ද
Kepapilavu, Keppapilavu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KEPPALUVA
This was originally a low-caste subdivision (panguva, or paluva in Sinhala, and piluva in Tamil) inhabited by a Telegu-speaking `depressed' caste (Keppu caste) who worked in ships that came to the Mooladoova inlet during medieval times. Mooladoova was probably an important eastern port and storage location of goods during the Anuradhapura period. The Telegu speakers probably migrated here much later, but perhaps as early as the Magha invasions.

During the Eelam wars this area was used by the Tigers for military purposes. Today it is a part of the naval security establishment and contains a high-security zone (HSZ). Although this area had not been occupied for decades except by the Tigers, some IDPs have been `set up' (since 2011) by political advocacy groups to claim settlement exactly in these areas, as a means of targeting the HSZ. However, the government has offered alternative settlement in Seeniyamottai, near Nadakadola (Nadikadal).
කෙප්පලුව
Keridamadu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KELINDAMADUVA
This is located on the OThThAN-THUDAVA(Oddusuddan)-(Aluthkulissa) Puthukudiruppu road. 'Kelinda' is probably Wrightia Zelanica (dogbane family) Map etc
කෙලිඳමඩුව
Kevil (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KEULA, Keulvila
Keulvila, or Kivulvila refers to `hard' or 'salty' (Kivul) water. This is a main LTTE base at Alimankada (Eleph. Pass).
කෙවුල
Keviliamadu(madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KEULMADUVA
කෙවුල්මඩුව
Kilali, Kilaly (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KIRALA, GIRAALA
'Kila' in Tamil could mean 'search, probe, bough' etc., but provides no useful contextual meaning. Kirala in Sinhala is a type of mangrove (sonneratia caseolaris) with edible fruit, as well as a common water bird, the "red-wattled lapwing". See write ups under 'Iralaikulam, 'Kadduvan'.
War: Army camps
see Kilaly massacre, 2002
කිරාල,   ගිරාල

Kilinochchi, கிளிநொச்சி (Giranikka, [kilinochchi])
GIRAANIKKA, GIRANIKKE, GIRANIKA, GIRANIKKA (anchor name)
Labeled #21 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Discussion.
In Kannada, 'nochchi' denotes the tree 'Vitex Negundo', This is the 'Nirgundi tree' in Sanskrit, and 'Nika tree' in Sinhala. Also Sinhala 'Giraa"='Kili', the corresponding word in Tamil for parrots. The name 'ven-nocci' is used in Tamil for 'Vitex negundo'.   'Nochchi' itself does not occur in the Tamil lexicon, but the place name 'Giraanikke' could have given rise to "kilinochchi". Note the many place-names with "Nika":
Nika-dalupotha, Nika-haetikanda, Nika-potha and Nika-waeratiya etc., exist.
History.
First century CE stone pillars and other Buddhist ruins are found here. Lumbini Vihara that existed here was a bird sanctuary and Buddhist Aaaranya, said to have been respected even by the Maagha invader.
War
This was the operational headquarters of the LTTE since its abandoning of Japanaya (Jaffna) in the mid 1990s, when it forced the people to re-locate into the Vanni and remain under LTTE control. It was recaptured on 2nd January 2009 by government troops, and the LTTE corralled the civilian residents and retreated with them, to be used later as human shields.   Giranikke captured

V. Anandasangaree represented the Giranikka (Killinochchi) seat in Parliament for 14 years, as a TULF member.
See   Regional map
ගිරානික්ක
Kiliveddy, Kiliveddi (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
GIRIVA`DDA
'Velayudha Swami Kovil' for murugan worship
Pre-Christian Girivadda Sri Wardana temple and BO-tree wilfully destroyed
by a racist MP, see Sri Lanka Hansard, Oct 7 1983 debate.
History: GDA Perera's article
n.b. Note that the ending "veddi", "vetti", "veddy" etc.,
are reasonably common. See Allaveddi, Karaveddi,
Vel-vetti-thuai, etc., even in this list.
ගිරිවැද්ද
Kinniya (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
HEENNIYARA ?
military base, south and south east of Manirasakulam (see entry under Kurankupanchan).   See News reports on the Kinniya LTTE base, 2003
හින්නියර
Kiran (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GIRANA
military base, c.f., battle of Somapura (see Sampur) . This was the village of Muralitharan alias Karuna Amman, the leader of the Tamil Makkal Vuduthalai Puligal Party (TMVP)
ගිරාන
Kiranchi, kiranchchi (Giranikka [Killinochchi])
GIRANNA
This is a small village near Nagathudava (Nachchikkuda) on the west cost.   Map with A32-B69-A9 roads   Regional map
ගිරන්න
Kirankula (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GIRANKULA
ගිරන්කුල
Kiristhavakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
GIRITHAVAEVA
More research is needed here.
ගිරිතවැව
Kirimichchai(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KIRIMITIYAAYA
Map
කිරිමිටියාව

Kiriviharaya(Vannimava[Vavniya])
NO tamil allonym.
Ancient Buddhist site.
See 'Kiriviharaya' under Atambagaskada
Labeled #88 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කිරිවිහාරය
Koandaavil(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KAEKURUVILA
'Kaekuru' is known as, 'Chinese date', the 'Masan tree',
'llantai' or 'Nari-Illantai' in Tamil.
and 'Ziziphus jujuba' in botany.
See Masan Tree.
කැකුරුවිල
Kodalikkallu, Kodalikallu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KAEBELLAGALLA, KOTHALAGALiA,, GODALIGALLA
Located in the Welioya (Manal aru) area. "Kothala" is Salacia reticulate . Another possibility for the origin of the name is "kAEBELLA". This is the tree Aporosa lindleyana, see our botany webpage See entry under "Kodaliparichchan" for discussion.   Map
කොතලගල්ල
Kodaliparichchan (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KOTHALIBARAHENA, kONDOLBARAHENA, KAEBEL-PITIHENA
Kothala Himbatu (Salacia reticulate ) is an endemic Sri Lankan plant, which may grow wild in Chena (hena) lands. "Kondol is a small tuber (dark brown outside, (not to be confused with the Filipino name for Ash Pumpkin) which may be boiled and eaten. Another possibility for the place-name is "Kaebaella", a large tree, see our botany webpage The place names may have originated from either of these forms, and the Tamilized form is an easy modification. Kothalabarahena is located in the Welioya (Manal aru) area.  Map
කොතලබරහේන
Koddagapulam(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KOTTEGAMPALA,   GODAGAMPALA
'Kotta' here means a 'kotuva' or fortification, with 'Kotte → Goda'
Thus 'Kotta-gampala' is a fortified garrison complex.
ගො ඩගම්පල
Koddaikkadu(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KOTTÉKADUVA
'Kotta' here means a 'kotuva' or fortification.
කෝට්ටෙකඩුව
Koddaikallar (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GODA-GAL-ARA
Meaning. In T., 'Koddai' would mean "Fort" as in "Kotte", Sinhala. There is a hindu temple with a five-headed giant cobra licking a lingam clearly indicating the absorption of a Naga shrine into subsequent Hindu worship. The Pali chronicles support the view that the eastern area centered around Mahiyangana, the western Maya rata, as well as the North were habitations of Naga tribes during the pre-Buddhist period.
ගොඩගල්ආර
Koddiavattai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KOTUVAATTE, KODIYAVATTA
Ancient Buddhist ruins.
කොටියවත්ත
Koddiyar,Kottiyar(Sri Gokanna[Trincomalee])
KOTTAASARA
This was regarded as part of "Koddiyar bay" in dutch-VOC maps.
කොට්ටසාර
Kodikamam, Kodigamam (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
GODIGAMA, GODIGAMUWA
Meaning. In Tamil "kamam" has no immediate meaning,
Frequent LTTE-Military clashes
SL-army's 53rd division stationed here.
see Jaffna map1
ගොඩිගම
Koddiyawattai (Yapanaya,[Jaffna])
KOTIYAWATTE, near Hunugama(chunnakam)
HIst. Ancient Dagaba, Buddha statue etc.
කොටියවත්ත
Kokkachchaankulam (Vannimava [ Vavuniya])
KOK-ATHTHANA KULAMA, Kokaththanakulama, Kokattanakulama
Kokuathtnana is a a type of Aththana (Datura) with spiky fruits (thorny), as implied by its Sinhala adjective "Koku". The Tamil place-name or word-grouping "Kokkachchan" has no clear meaning. The Tamil name for Aththana is Oomathai or Mattai" and hence does not connect with the place name. Note that Aththana is a hallucinogenic plant with many variant forms (kalu-attana, suduattana etc). (See also under Achchankulam where we discuss "achchan".). Hence the Tamil form is most likely an adaptation from the Sinhala.

The Eelam wars led to much upheaval in this area which became predominantly Tamil since the late 19th century (cf. J. P. Lewis). It was formed by a mosaic of caste-based hamlets. Resettling these villages mainly with the original occupants, or their kith and kin, without suitable social engineering poses the danger of recreating the old caste enclaves, not only in this village, but in similar war-ravaged villages

The possibility that the original name was "Ruk-aththana-kulam", i.e., named after Alastonia scholaris, ie., Alstonia scholaris (L.)., known as "Elilaipalai" in Tamil, cannot be excluded.
History
Second century Buddhist ruins and stone pillars have been recorded in this area (Archeological annual reports, 1982 and before).
කොක්අත්තන කුලම
Kokkaddichcholai, Kokkoddichcholai, Kokkatticcolai, Kottadikolai, Kokkadichcholai
(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KUKULANGOLLA, KOTHALIGOLLA
'Kokkaddi' is not mentioned in the Tamil Lexicons.
It could also have been derived from Gokatu (ceylon Gamboge, not Goraka).
However, 'Kukkuta' is a well established word in the source languages. Also, in sinhala "Kothala" Himbatu (Salacia reticulate ) is an endemic Sri Lankan plant, which may grow wild in Chena (hena) lands.
Only Saiva temple in the Batti district. Civil war See under Batticaloa for the caste system and differences in Hindu practice
Hist. Pre-christian era stupa, stone pillars, etc.
These are now completely covered up and replaced by
flourishing Ishwara Kovil even in early eighties.
See Archaeo. Dept. files= EC/B/27, folio 96-98
Map
ගොකටුගොල්ල,   කුකුලන්ගොල්ල
Kokkavil(Giranika [Killinochchi])
KOKKUVILA, KOKAAVILA
The form "Koka" is used for heron-like birds, storks, cranes etc in Prakrit. In Sanskrit it is more often applied to the Cuckoo. "Kokku" is used in Tamil for the mango (tree), and also for cranes and similar birds.
The Sinhalese origin of this type of place-names in Jaffna was first pointed out in the early part of the 20th century by Messrs.
B. Horsburgh. (1916. .doc file) and J. P. Lewis, both of the Colonial CCS. The late S. Gnana Prakasar, the philologist of international fame, agreed with them and furnished his own list of place-names of Sinhala origin found in the North and East. He mentioned village ending in "vil" like Kandavil, Kokkuvil, Inuvil, etc.; those ending in "vattei", like Polvattei, ittavattei, etc.; villages from the word "kumbura" like Markkamburei, etc., from "yaya" like Moolay etc., from "deniya" like Narandanei, etc., from "eliya" like Puloly, as examples.
As part of the post-war development, a radio and internet transmission column (highest in South Asia up to 2011) has been constructed in Kokaavila and opend in June 2011. Silumina report
කොකාවිල
කොක්කුවිල
Kokkuthuduwai, Kokkuttuduvai (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KOKKUTHUDUVA
The form "Koka" is used for heron-like birds, storks, cranes etc in Prakrit. In Sanskrit it is more often applied to the Cuckoo. "Kokku" is used in Tamil for the mango (tree), and also for cranes and similar birds. Map
කොක්කුතුඩාව
Koddiyar,cotiaar (SriGonakanda [Trincomalee])
KOTIARA, KOOTIARA
Hist. de Queyroz, Kodiara, Dutch fort,1865
n.b. There seems to be evidence for a "Kooti-aram-pattuwa"
n.b. Ven. Ellawala Medhananda suggests "Kettasara".
කොටිආර


Kokkilai Kokilai(Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KOKILAVA, KUKULAAVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Several sites by this place names.
Labeled #69, #70 in
Vanni Buddhist sites map
කුකුලාව
Kokkuthudai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KOKKUTHUDAVA
කොක්කුතුඩාව
Kokkuthuoduvai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KOKUTHUDUVA
Map
කොක්කුතුඩුව
Kokuvil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KOKUWILA
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning here.
A well respected Principal of Kukuvil Hindu College was assassinated,
c.f., also Principal, Jaffna Hindu College.
See Speech by Ahilan Kadirgamar
කොකුවිල
Kokuvil (Ampare)
KOKUVILA
කොකුවිල

Kokumarankuli, Kukumarankuli, Kokumaradinthaddi (Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
AMBAGASKULIYA, ambagaskolla
Disc.- 'Kokku' in Telingu and hence sometimes in tamil means
mango, or Mangifera Indica, and agrees with the Sinhala name

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – “I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province. The `Norther province, or Vaeligama mentioned in the Sigiri griffiti probably referred to some place in the Jaffna peninsula (Jaapanaya).
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #50 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
අඹගස්කුලිය
අඹගස් කුලිය
Kollamarutamadu(Mannarama[Mannar])
KALUBURUTHAMADUVA
See under "Maruthamadu" for a discussion.
See Map
කලුබුරුතමඩුව
Kollankalladdy(Japane [Jaffna])
KALUVAN-GALADIYA, KALUGALADIYA
This is a small village near Thelipala (Thellipalai)
A group of ex- LTTE cadre have been resettled here after the Eelam wars.
කලු ගල් අඩිය
කලුවන් ගල් අඩිය
Komari, Komarai (Ampare)
KOMARIYA
Local legend claim that the name arose from the sinhala "Ko kumari ?"!
This Sinhala name presently in use.
කෝමාරිය
Kombanachchi(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
KUMBANAEDDA, Kohombaganthota; the 'D in 'Naedda' is soft'.
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982
Hist.- 'Kumbagamathota' was used during Dutugamunu's time.
'Kohombagamathota' is mentioned during Parakramabahu's time.
c.f., p. 285 of Ellavala Medhananada (2003)
These refer to locations on the Mahavaeli river and may be close to
the present river which has changed course in historical times.
Thus 'Kumbanadda' will refere to this modern area.
The Buddhist sites consist of two groups. The first part
is referred to as 'Kumbanaedda' proper; there is a rocky hill
with ruins scattered in the entire area, a large
large rock cave, having at least six meditation chambers.
Recent reconstruction and temple activity exists.
The "Kumba Chaitya",m ~400m tall, is found on top of the hill,
excavated by treasure hunters. There are two stone stairs, a
stone wall and other artifacts. Nearby there is the 'Kumbavilluva',
with a ~100 meter Stupa, stone pillars shrine room etc. This
Stupa is said to be the "SOMAAVATHIE" chaitya. The area is locally
known as "Samurrordu", probably related to "Somanuvara".
කොහොඹනැද්ද   කොහොඹගංතොට
Kondavil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KANDAVILA
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning.
'Konda←kanda', means 'hill'.
See the disc. under Vilpattu.
කන්දවිල
Koomankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KUMANAVEVA
කුමනවැව
Kondachchi (Mannarama)
KANDUVACHCHIYA
C.f., 'maedavachchiya'. The word vachchiya ← Vaeikkiya means a
subsection of a 'pattuva' or small village unit.
Colonial era ruins
කඳුවච්චිය

Kongarayankulam, Konthakarankulma (vannimava[Vavniya])
KEVULVAEVA
Labeled #34 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
In south India, 'Kontakkaran' or 'Kongakarayan'
is a sub-caste of fishermen. (There is a 'Konthaipiddi' in the Mannaram area, near 'Uppakulam', where MUslim-Tamil disputes continue due to LTTE ethinc-cleansing of Muslims in 1990).
Map
කෙවුල්වැව
Kopay, Kopai, Koppay, கோப்பாய் (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
DOPE`, BOPÉ,   BODHIPAAYA, Bodhipaya
Meaning: The ending "pai",or "pay" is a typical sinhala toponym.
For example, such place-name endings are not found in Tamil Nadu.
'Pe(h)',පේ, typically indicates a village
while "paaya" could refer to a "mansion" or "Prasaada", as in
"Lovaa-maha-paaya". Thus 'Bope', or 'Bopaaya' may have
arisen from 'BodhiPaaya. The form 'Dope' already exists
as a place name. The Tamil 'Kovan'→Govan refers to a herdsman,
and Gopae→Dope is a possibility. The Malayalam 'Kon' and the 'Ko'
in T. suffix may refer to a 'kingly' status (cf. Tamil Kovilanku=lion).
Hence Kopay may indicate a royal residence, or a royal hamlet,
if the sinhala/Sanskrit 'paaya' meaning can be added to the
tamil suffix 'Ko'. However, if such a lexicographic stretch
is not used, "Pay" in Tamil would mean 'net' ; or 'sail', 'stretch' etc.
see section on place names in tambimuttu
Also See Dutch map, Kopay, Copaij, Copaay
Terrorism First cyanide suicide at bank robbery, Kopay, Sivakumaran June 5 1974
Also, Malathi, the first woman terroist sacrificed herself against the IKPF on 10-Oct-1987 in Kopay. Peter Shalk, LTTE writer on Malathi, "First woman martyr LTTE 'heros' resting place-cemetery.
Tigers built many war memorials and grave yards similar to christian grave yards, recognizing their propaganda value. This is indeed contrary to Hindu cultural practices where dead bodies are burnt (cremated), and grave yards are shunned except by the very "lowest castes". However, many of the suicde cadre were Catholics, and the Tamil population had been chritianized to a larger extent than the Sinhalese in the south. The Maavira Thuyilim Illam or "Martyrs' sleeping house was in the city's Northeastern limits. Around 2000 epitaphs had been placed, but it has been alleged that many of the graves were empty. The Sri Lankan army removed the cemeter y leaving behind only a commemorative plaque, following the practice of the Allied army in WW-II in dealing with Nazi cemeteries. Tiger supporters have retaliated by destroying the commemorative plaque in anger. see Tiger militants
MAP
දෝපේ
බෝදි පාය
Koraimoddai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KOORAMADE, KOORAMOTTE
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The Latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. In Tamil, Ala, Alaru Alakkar, Ceru etc., are used for mud.In some place names "Maetta" has become "Moddai".
Koora in sinhala refers to a dragon fly, or to stalks and spikes (a similar meaning exists in Tamil and other Dravidian languages). Korai in Tamil , "kalanduru" in Sinhala, is indeed a kind of grass with fragrant root nodules (Cyperus rotundus tuberous), but similar words also mean "stalk", spike, 'millet", 'currycomb",etc.
කුරමඩේ
කුරමොටේ
Koralaipattu (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
KORALAPATTUVA , KORALAPATTUWA
``Korala '' refers to the striated stoney ground found in some ares in this district. This location is on the border between the Batticaloa-Trincomalee districts. The people in these area are a mixture of Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims. They have extensive sea-faring experience. Boat built for tsunami victims used to smuggle asylum-seekers
කොරලපත්තුව
Koththiyaavaththai, Kottiyāvattai கொத்திய ாவத்தை (yapanaya [ Jaffna])
KOCHCHIYAVATTA, KOCHCHIYAWATTA
The name 'Kochchiya', 'Kocci', கொச் refers to people from the Cochin state (india), and borrowed from malayālam in to Sinhala and Tamil. Vaththai is not found in Tamil lexicons, and is most likely borrowed from the Sinhala 'vatta', or 'watta', which means a "demarcated area', usually to define the extent of a garden or to establish ownership. The place name "vaththai" occurs mainly in the Jaffna peninsula, where Sinhala influence has been long entrenched since the 3rd century BCE. Note also our comments on "pattana", "pattai", "patuna" etc., under the etymology of "Japanaya", or "Yalpanam". The meaning "Koththi" → "mother goddess", speculatively linked with "vaththai" is unlikely to apply here, and not collaborated in such a usage in Tamil Nadu either.

Note that in the southern part of Sri Lanka, the "v" sound is most commonly transliterated into European alphabets using "w", while in Jaffna the letter "v" is used. This difference arose because the Sinhala names were transliterated already during the dutch era, and in Dutch the 'v" is sounded as an 'f'. The Tamil names got transliterated during the British era.
කොච්චියවත්ත
Kottadikolai, (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KUKULANGOLLA, KOTHALIGOLLA
This is an alternative english spelling for 'Kokkaddichcholai';
See entry under Kokkaddichcholai
කොතලිගොල්ල
Kottalamadu(SriGonakanna[Trincomalee])
KOTUGALMADUVA
Disc. - KOTUGAL refers to stone ramparts of a fortification.
This place is close to Kadiravaella(Kadiraveli) near Trinco.
LTTE garrison; no map.
කොටුගල්මඩුව
Kottantivu (Puttalam)
KOTTANDOOVA
The Meaning: 'Kottan' in T. may mean 'owl'.
"tive" is tamilized toponym from "diva" or "doova" in Sinhala
'Kottan' in Sinhala probably refers to 'Terminalia Catappa'.
කොට්ටන්දූව
Kottanchole (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
KOTTANKOLLA
Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
'Kottan' in Sihala probably refers to 'Terminalia Cattappa'.
කොට් ටන්ගොල්ල
Kottukachchi (Puttalam)
KOTUKACHCHIYA
කොටුකච්චිය
Kovilkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KOVILVAEVA
කෝවිල්වැව

Kovilpuliyankulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
KOOTARAJAVAEVA, KUSTARAJAVAEVA.
Disc.-Here `Kovilpuliyan' does not refer to a Tiger
associated with a 'Kovil', as a literal view might lead one to believe.
The original 'Kuhstaraja→Kootaraja' was perhaps incorrectly
understood to mean a 'kotiraja' or 'king-tiger.
The prefix Kovil is indeed used in T. to imply a higher status
to an animal, an object or a location, e.g.,
கோவிலங்குž ([ kovilangku ] ko-vilanku, i.e., Lion, as king of beasts
See e.g., p 1199 of the Madras tamil Lexicon.
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #47 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කුෂ්ටරාජවැව
Koyitkulam, Koyithakulam (Mannarama)
KOLITHAVAEVA
කෝලිතවැව



Kuchchaveli, Kuccaveli (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
KESBAVAELLA, Kuseval, Tuchchabe~li
Historical Palvakki, 5km North is PALLAWAVANKA
Parakramabahu I ships set sail to Burma from Pallawavanka
Several ancient Buddhist sites in this area.
Labeled #135, 138 and 141 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
2nd century Buddha statue, two Buddha heads, 4th century Roman coins
6th century stone inscription. The inscription is the oldest Sanskrit
inscription in Sri Lanka. Wijesekera (p 57) says
"A headless limestone Buddha standing 6 ft was discovered at Kuchchaveli
superbly modeled in Amaravati style probably of 2nd century A.D.
The unique feature is the presence of two rosettes below the robe
between the ankles".
Vandals have attempted to destroy the site
Report of the Archaeological Commissioner, 1955;
Archaeology Dept. file ED/B/E/41; Epigrahica Zeylanica, Vol.3, p158
Map
කැස්බවැල්ල කුස්‌වෙල තුච්ඡවේලී
Kudarappu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KUDIRAPPUWA, KUDIRAPURA
කුදිරප්පුව
කුඩාතැන්ර
Kudatanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KUDAATAENNA
'Thaenna' is a common sinhala ending for 'place', location (thaena). Compare, prakrit/Sanskrit 'Sthaanam'.
In established Tamil the usage is '(s)thaanam', and the form 'thanai'
is probably a sign of adaptation from the Sinhala 'thaena'.
කුඩාතැන්න
Kudamian(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KUDAMEEYA
see Jaffna map1
කුඩමීය
කුඩිම්බිගල
Kudiramalai, Kudirimalai Kudramalai Point (Puttalama)
KIHIRAKANDA. KUDIRAKANDA, Kudiramale
A Legend has it that Kihirikanda (Kudiramalai), a point on the shore was the landing place of Vijaya, while Kuveni lived in 'Kālivila (Kali Villu)', in the Wilpattu. Pointedly, Kāli" is a female demonic (Yakkha) representation of Durga. Kihirikanda or Kudirakanda was visited by Roman sailors during the time of Claudius (417 AD), and Pliny talks of a large settlement called "Hippuros" here. But why would Pliny translate a name instead of using the local name? After all, Ptolemy's maps did not translate names. However, assuming such a translation, the word "hippuros" evokes horses, and connects with the word "Kudira" which is a Dravidian root-word for "horse". Thus there may have been a name like Thuranga-malé which was directly rendered in to Malayalam during the Magha invasions, giving the form Kuthirimalai, as it exists today. That the Magha invaders simply translated place names into Dravidian equivalents is seen from the rendering of Meepathota into Illupiakadavai by the Magha.
Another possibility is that the word 'Kadira', from Sanskrit, probably refers to Mimosa Catechu of the 'accacia' family, and is the 'Kihiri' tree in Sinhala; and 'Karuveal' in Tamil. This is consistent with the vegetation of the area.  See discussion on Kalpitiya region
කිහිරිකන්ද
කුදිර කන්ද

Kudumpimalai, Toppikal, Thoppikkal (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
THOPPIGALA, KUDAA-DIMBULGALA, KUDUMBIKANDA, CHOODAKANDA
Toppigala was known as "Barron's cap". It is 36km NW of Batticaola.
Disc.- The word 'Thoppi' is ascribed to the Portuguese 'chapeo', a type of hat, by A. M. Gunasekera, Comprehensive Grammar (1891). Ven. E. Medhananda posits that the ancient name is 'Kudaa-dimbulagala. 'Dimbulagala is a rocky ridge south of Pollonnaruva, with many ancient sites. The name 'Kudumbikanda', or 'Choodakanda' are also possibilities. The name 'Choodakanda'→ hill with a summit, has the Sanskrit word 'cuda', which means 'summit, crown' or 'on top', e.g., as used in 'chudamanikya', a jewel worn on the head. The Pali 'Kuta', Latin 'Collis', the sinhala words for the summit of a hill, e.g., 'thuda', 'kula' and the Sanskrit 'Chuda' are related words. Chuda also refers to the single tuft of hair left on the crown of the head, after tonsure (cf. Monier-Williams Skrt. dictionary). Thus the saivite custom of wearing a tuft or knot of hair on the head, 'Kutumi' in Tamil, 'Kutuma' in Malayalam is also derived from the Sanskrit root 'Chuda'. Thus 'Kutumi'→'Kudumpi' is often interpreted as referring to the knot of hair worn by 'Iyaar Tamils', and the Tamil place name 'kudumpimalai' is ascribed to the knot-like shape of the hill. In reality, all these forms are derived from the Sanskrit/Pali root. However, instead of using the direct form 'Kutumimalai', 'Kudumpimalai' has been used in local Tamil, suggesting a sinhala origin to the word. The proper, accepted rendering of Spizachus cirrhatus, the crested Falcon specific to Sri Lanka in Tamil is 'kudumipparuntu' (and not, say, kudumpipparantu), suggesting that 'Kudumpi' is from 'Kudumbi'. The word 'kudumbiya' exits in sinhala, and the piece of wood shaped to jut out in a dove-tail joint is called a 'kudumbiya'. That this is a word naturalized in old Sinhala, since pre-christian times is seen from the Mahavamsa (ch. 23), where a village named 'Kutumbiyagana' is mentioned, with respect to the Dutugamunu period. Thus the word 'Kudumbi' is a common heritage of both Sinhala and Tamil, via Pali and Sanskrit. See also the webpage entry under Okanda (Okantai) where there is a 'Kudumbigala' Buddhist shrine. There are ancient Buddhist ruins and many caves, rock temples etc. in the Thoppigala area. Another sinhala reference to 'kudumbiya' is found in 'Monarai-Kudumbiya'(Vernonia cinerea (L), a small plant that has small purple coloured flowers resembling the head ornament of the the peacock. This plant is used as a food prepared like a white curry.

This area was used by the LTTE and Karuna rebel bases. Col. Karuna broke off from the LTTE and helped the Government forces to defeat the LTTE in the East. The final capture of the Eastern province by the army is commemorated in the Sri Lankan Rs.1000 note, with Thoppigala in the background.

For Eelam-IV war and military actions etc., see
Lanka Library    report in THE HINDU    The view of a Tamil nationalist.
Sunday Times, 8-july-07    report with sketch map
Satellite Map of Thoppigala, reduce resolution if needed.
video of the UNP-allied Protest march demeaning the Thoppigala Victory in July 2007
තොප්පිගල  
කුඩාදිඹුලගල
Kuduvil, (Ampara[Amparai])
KUDDAVILA
This is an old village in the Ruhuna kingdom. Other placesnames like Kuddālamandala.-A village in Rohana is mentione din the Pali chronicles. Here a battle took place between the forces of Parakkamabāhu I. and his enemies (Cv.lxxv.16). Kuddarajja.-Probably a district in Rohana. Paranavithan found a Brahmi inscription here with the word "Dameda", refering to a 'Dameda Tisaya lena'. This is sometimes tanslated as ' Tamil Tisa cave, where it it can equally well be 'Southern Disav cave'.
කුද්දවිල
Kulamurippu, கூழாமுறிப்பு (Mooladoova[MUllaitivu])
BAHUVARAKANDIYA, BAHUVARAMURAYA
'Bahuvara' is a cherry-like tree, Cordia oblique.
see the etymology of murippu    Botany
බහුවරකන්ඩිය
Kulavisuddan (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
KURAVISATANNA
Meaning:  'Kura-visa' may imply 'snakes'
කුරවිසතැන්න
Kumakulam(Mannnarama[Mannar])
KUMARAVAEVA
There is also a well-known Kumanavila ( Kumanavillu) in Yala.
Map
කුමාරවැව
Kumalamunai (east & West) (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
KUMBAL-AMUNA
Part of the Weli-oya development area
කුඹල්අමුණ
Kumankulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
KUMANVAEVA
See LTTE activity
කුමනවැව
Kumaresan Kadavai (SrGonakanda[Trincomalee])
GOMARANKADAVALA; Also called katukulampattu
see entry under Gomarankadawala
ගෝමරන්කඩවල

Kumbhakanmalei,Kumbhakaranamalei (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KUMBAKANMALÉ KUmbakan-kanda
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
This is about 12 km NE of the WeliOya army camp, and the site is on a
hill capped with a huge rock cliff. A Stupa had existed on it. There is
a cave in the rock below the stupa site, stone steps, signs of buildings
supported on stone pillars etc exist. The army camp near here, known as
Kiriibban vaeva (කිරිඉබබන ් වැව) is curating several archaeo-objects, e.g, clay pots, elephant
figurines, pinnacle of a Stupa, and other artifacts.
The name 'Kumbhakarna' refers to a legendary giant, who allegedly slept in
the rock cave here. Aehaetugasvaeva Sambodhi Vihara, Viyayarama Vihara
and Dharmawardanaramaya are historical sites which are close to this site.
Labeled #46 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කුම්බකන්මලේ
කුම්බකන්කන්ද
Kumburupiddy, Kumpurupiddy (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
KAMBURUPITIYA, KUMBURUPITIYA
'Kumbura' is a field, in sinhala. 'Pitiya' would be a flat area. According to K. Vellupillai (Yalpanam Vaipava Kavmudi), Gnanaprakasar and others, Kumubura, and Piddy are borrowed to Tamil from Sinhala.
LTTE sea tiger base
කඹුරුපිටිය
Kumulamunai, குமிழமுனை (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
BATUMUNNA   ⚓name
Now in the Admin district of Killinochchci. Coastal point, 'munna' in S.
names like 'Atuk-kumulli', 'kumula' are used in Tamil for
Prickly nightshade, Holy Basil, Solanum species,
and beachberry varieties (e.g, Gmelina asiatica).
Thus 'Kumula' could be a loose alternative for the Sinhala word 'batu' loosely used for Solonum species.   Regional map
බටුමුන්න
Kunchakulam (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
KUNCHAVAEVA
c.f., sound of elephants.   Regional map
කුන්ච වැව
Kunjithapathamalai (Sri Gonakanna[Trincomalee])
BOPATHKANDA
Kunjara is a name associated with elephants, and with the Pipal tree.
Ancient Buddhist ruins.
බෝපත්කන්ද
Kuppilan (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KOKILANA
In Tamil, kupilan could mean king; 'kupinan could be a fisherman.
Tamil 'kukkil' or cow-pheasant, 'kuyil'; Sinhala Kokila for
'cuckoo', Eudynamis honorata.
see Jaffna map1
කොකිලාන
Kuragalai, Kurakkallai (Sabaragamuwa)
GURAGALA, KURAGALA
This is a hill-shrine with 2-nd century Brahmi-script Elu-Sinhala (prakrit) lithic inscriptions. . These were discussed by Charles Collins, the British Civil Servant and GA for Ratnapura in the late 1920-early 30s. The Collins article is, "The Archaeology of Sabaragamuwa, Bintenna" (Journal R.A.S (Ceylon) Vol. XXXII, No 85 of 1932).
The archeological interest is confined to two sets of highset rocky cliffs, with a deep cleft between them. In the first set (--)there are several caves and two inscriptions, ... (they) latter are found on a high rock known as Hituwangala. They are typical of thousands of such records of acts of charity to the Sangha found all over the country.
However, in more recent times, ridiculous claims that these are old Arabic inscriptions have been made to justify the attempt to convert the location to an Islamic shrine. No aArabic rock inscriptions have been found. As evidence of Qutub Muhiyuddin's links with Kuragala is a tombstone (not a rock) discovered in 1922 when excavating to build a mosque about ten feet below ground, with the words "Disciple of Mohyiuddin" dated 1322 AD. No additional evidence (e.g., from Muslim traveller Iban Batuta, 14th century) in support of this has been found. Hence there is much controversy and anguish about the Muslim claims of antiquity to the Kuragala Dafther Jailany Mosque.
These have been aggravated by what are claimed to be an encroachment into traditional Buddhist archeological areas, and a `take-over' of a Buddhist shrine. Some Muslim writers have attempted to deny the Buddhist claims by stating that the Buddhist claim dates only to 1961!. In our view, the Muslims have a tradition of regarding the location as holy to them since the early part of the 20th century, but not much more. Hence some provision for their worship should be provided, while fully guarding the historical heritage going back to pre-Christian times, recorded in stone by the ancients.
The place-name most likely came from "Guragala, where "Gura" (ගුර, ගුරා), or "Guru" refers to any type of hermit or holy person who also practices healing or engage in village rites and rituals. In Tamil we have the word 'Kurural' corresponding to the Sinhala "Gururaala". The word "Guru" is of Parkrit origin and came into old Tamil probably during the early 'sangam' period. It has also been incorrectly claimed that the "kura" in kuragala comes from the Dravidian 'Kuravar" caste, and KuraGala is the hill of Kuravar. This is very unlikely, since "low-caste" nomadic groups were never allowed to occupy high-lying lands. Those tribes who settled (in the outskirts of towns - (p)ur - added the ur-prefix and) were known as urk-kuravar   ஊர்க்குற வர


කුරගල
Kurrakkan-Kaddukulam (Gokanna [Trincomalee])
Kurakkankaelaevaeva, Kurakkan katukulama
The sinhala 'Kurakkan' (millet) is also used in Tamil, குரக்கன்
This differs from typical Dravidian-language usage (Indian tamil- Iraaki,
'Raagi' in Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu), suggesting borrowing from Sinhala.
See also the entry under "Pantrichurichchan" for other details.
There has been an army base and and sometimes also LTTE camps.
The village is buried in the deep jungles of
Kaddukulam Pattu when the British colonial Civil servants
serving at Trincomalee as Government Agents
(later Asst.Govt.Agents) first discovered other villages
like Morawewa, Ethawetunawewa, Pettawa, Kivulekada, Relapanawa,
Medawacchichiya, and others, populated by Sinhala speaking residents. See also Kaddukulam
කුරක්කන්කටුවන
KuriKadduvan (Urathota[Kaytes])
KIRALAKATUVANA
Disc. Kurikirraali, குரிகிற்றாளி, is a kind of root; MTL p1013.
Kirala in Sinhala is a type of mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris) with edible fruit, as well as a common water bird, the "red-wattled lapwing". See write ups under 'Iralaikulam, 'Kadduvan'. There is also a boat service to Mannarama (Mannar) from here.
කිරලකටුවන
Kurankupanchan, Kurungupanchan (Gokanna[Trincomalee])
VAN ELLA
This was an LTTE camp established after the CFA, and was also known as the "Manirasakulam" camp. visit to Manirasakulam-Kuranpanchan camp
See News report   See LTTE camps around Trinco harbour, 2003
This and 12 other camps were destroyed under the MR government in 2006
It has been suggested that 'Kuranpanchan' means 'monkey-jumping point'
However, 'Panchan' ← Sanskrit 'Pakkana' (→ malayalam etc.).
Thus it refers to a village or habitation of outcaste people.
Kuruanku (← Skrt. Kurane) means monkey as well as other beasts.
This is a caste-designated village where people feed on monkeys etc.
Such 'Kuankukatti' villages existed in Coimbatore, South India.
වන්ඇල්ල
Kurinchakemy (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
KURINCHAGAMA
"Kurinicha" may to the vine "Kuringgan" (S), (bot. Gymnema lactiferum ).
කුරින්ච ගම
Kurinjanpitai (Puttalam)
KURINCHAAPITYA
"Kurinicha" may to the vine "Kuringgan" (S), (bot. Gymnema lactiferum ).
කුරින්ච පිටිය
Kurudeepam (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
GURUDEEPA
ගුරුදීපෙ
Kurukkalkulam, Kurukalkulam (Giranikke,[kilinochchi])
GURUGALVAEVA
Meaning. 'kurukkal' could also refer to a hindu-temple priest.
In S., 'gurugal' refers to the colour of the clay
Map
ගුරුගල්වැව
Kurugalputhukulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
ALUTH-GURUGALVEVA
Map
අලුත්ගුරුගල්වැව
Kurukkalmadam, Mannunai(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GURUGALMADMA
Meaning. 'kurukkal' could also refer to a Hindu-temple priest.
Hist. Temple, flat figure resembling post-Gupta 600 A.D. work
See Wijesekera, Early Sinh. Sculpture. p 218
Syncretism between Mahayana Buddhist and Tara worship seen
here, with a well known image of Tara, and a Stone Bodhisattva
(Padmapani) holding lotus flowers, at the Gurugal-madama Temple.
map
ගුරුගල්මඩම
Kurummankadu (Vanimava[Vavniya])
KURUMANKADUWA
2 km west of vavniya
කුරුමන් කඩුව
Kurumbasiddy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KURUMBAPITIYA
Meaning: The sinhala 'Piti'→ 'Sitti' or Siddy' in T.
The name exists in Paranakurukorale as well
Map
කුරුම්බපිටිය

Kurundankulama (Vavnimava (Vavniya])
kurunthankulam (Mannarama [mannar])
Kurundankulama (Anuradhapura)
Both Vavnia and Anuradhapura are
Ancient Buddhist sites, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
KURUNDANVAEVA, KURUNDUVAEVA
This is close to "Tannimarippukulam" or diyamalan vaeva. The very
important Buddhist sites are very difficult to access, on a hill known
as Piankallu (Piyangala). There are remnants of Stupas,Shrine rooms, vatadaage
ponds, wells, as well as stone stairs, from a pre-christian era.
Place name with the "kurundunda" stem occurs in Attakatha, Kadaimpoth,
Pujavaliya, Nikayasangrahaya etc. The modern "Padaviya" is referred to as
"Padee rata". See p 379 of Ven. E. Medhananda(Pachina Passa-Uttara passa, 2003). The name may imply that Cinnamon was brought and planted here, during the time of the arrival of Mahinda from India
Labeled #37 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කුරුන්දවැව
Kurundanmalai (Mooladoova [Mulaitivu])
KURANDAKANDA, KURUNDUKANDA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Hist. 2 century B.C. Buddhist site identified as
'Kuruandapaasana vihara' built by King Kallata-naga
The Buddhist text "Kuruandi Atta katha', a Sinhala 'atuva' was written here
It was gazetted (no: 7981) a prime Archaeological zone in 1933
Destruction In 1981 terrorists destroyed the site and built
a Hindu temple. The ground has been covered with concrete and a trident
has been fixed. The 'Pada lanchana' stones are used for lighting camphor
at this new Murugan Kovil
Archaeology Dept. file EC/B/N/7 folio 5,10
කරුන්දකන්ද
Kurundanur (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KURUNDUPURA
Labeled #38 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Please see under Kurundanmalai, and Kurundankulama place names just above.
කුරුන්දපුර

L
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Lahukallai (Ampare)
LAHUGALA
ලහුගල
Lavanai (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
SAALAVANAYA
Forest of Sal trees.
Sal is either the "cannon ball tree" (bot. Couroupita guianensis), or the related north Indian diperocarpaceae referred to as 'Salva', 'sakhu', 'shal' and
also 'kandar', c.f., kunturukkam.
Map
සාලවනය
Linnadikudieruppu, Linnadikudiruppu(Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
HINNAKULISSA
DIsc.- 'Hinna, Kinna' are caste connotations.

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
MAP
හින්න කුලිස්ස

Lunuvarangala(Vannimava[Vavniya])
NOT a tamilized form.
This is on the Mamaduva-Bogasvaeva road, when many Buddhist
ruins are sen on both sides of the road in this area.
In one spot there are many stone pillars, and a large building
with guard stones etc. Bogasvaeva itself has many Buddhist ruins,
some stone inscriptions, stone Sri Pada, remnants of a stupa etc.
Labeled #76 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ලුනුවරන්ගල

M
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Maaviddapuram, mavitapuram (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MAHAVITAPURA
See also under /"Mavittapuram"
Meaning: 'Mahavita' would mean a 'demarcated area.
මහවිටපුර

Madamarachchi(Vannimav[Vavniya])
MAEDA-MURAEKIYA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #73 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මැදමුරැකිය
Madampei (Puttalama)
MADAMPE
This is an example of "Pe", i.e., a village, ending applied to a plant species known as Maadan, Syzygium cumini, berry bearing shrub or tree.
The tannivella (i.e., prince Thanya Vallabha, the second son of Veera-parakramabahu VIII of Kotte) Devale, with a white horse is well known and has its festival in August.
The annual Nanumura Mangallaya of the Tanivelle Devalaya
මාදම්පේ
Madduvil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MADUVILA
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning.
'Madduvil' in T. could mean 'Udder'; The S. name is a typical placename.
see Jaffna map1
මඩුවිල
Madhu Church (Mannarama [Mannar])
MADHU PALLIYA
This site had a "Pattini temple" till the 19th century. The Catholic shrine to St. Mary was established in 1876. The "Manual of the North Central Province", by R. W. Levers, 1889, establishes that there was indeed a Pattini Devala there. A short History of the Madhu Church, written by the Bishop of Jaffna and given to E. B. Denham (author of the 1911 Census report) also establishes that the church was founded in 1876 (p. 77), but not completely built even in 1891 (J. P. Lewis, A Manual of the Vanni Districts p.51). The statue of St. Mary is the hallowed figure of the Catholic shrine. It is believed to be from Mantai (see Mannar), where it had been since the mid 16th CE., and brought during Dutch presecution to the more tolerant region controlled by the King of Kandy in the 17th CE. "Maruthamadhu" near by (Madhu camp) was a Customs House of the Sinhala Kings.This was called the "maedige" ('middleway-house') and the name 'Madhu' may have even arisen from this. Other possibilities exist. Thus the word "madhu" could have come from "Marutha madu", where we note that the Sanskrit. "madhu" means mother, or 'Amman'(Tamil). "Kannaki Amman", or 'Paththni' of non-Saivite worship has been associated with the heroine of the Tamil epic, "Sillappadikaram", (written by the the ascetic brother of the Cēra king Ceṅkuṭṭuvaṉ, and author of the Cilappati- kāram) . "Manikekhalai", the daughter of Kannaki became a Buddhist nun, and the worship of Pattini is also a part of Sinhala-Buddhist custom since Gajabahu I (114-136 CE). The Sri Lankan version of the "Silappathikaram" is called the 'Kannaki Valakurai Kavyam'. See entries under Kannakipuram, Kannankuda, Gomarankadawala, Chankanai.
Also, G. Obesekera, The Cult of the Goddess Pattini, 1984 (Chicago U. Press)
See Controversy reg. the Madhu Church.     A Catholic perspective:   The LTTE, the Army and the Church
Hostilities in 2008 April led to the removal of the Venerated Statue of Madhu by the LTTE into the region under their control.
Report in the Asia Tribune    Comments by Rev. Emilianus Pillai, care taker of Madhu    map of Marutha Madu area
A fully liberated Madhu church celebrated a festival open to all pilgrims on the 15th of August 2009, with the Archibishop Malcolm Ranjith officiating.
මදුපල්ලිය

Mahakachchathkodiaya(Vannimava[Vavniya])
TITHTHAVAELKADA (Viharaya), Mahakassakodiya
NOT a tamilized form. However, it may have been
'Mahaakasyapa kodiya'?
Ancient Buddhist site.
There is a large tank, as well as meditation caves,and inscriptions dating to
pre-christian times. H. C. P. Bell has transcribed some of the inscriptions.
One of the caves is a shrine with at least 2 Buddha statues, seven Sri Pa stones
Beyond the shrine there are remnants of a square building, with 9 stone pillars
still remaining. There is also a stupa, and Sri pada stones which are unusually
thick.
Labeled #89 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහකස්සකොඩිය

Madukanda(Vannimava[Vavniya])
MADUKANDA (Viihare) Ancient Buddhsit site, reputed to have hosted the Dalada relic.
Some archaeo-objects are in the temple site, while others are on the
'Madukanda" hill. The "Ruvan maedura" at the temple site has old stone
pillars, and several chambers. The old entrance is well preserved, with
a stairway and "Korawak" stones, and a Naaga guard stone. It also shows
a dancer with four hands, and are valuable objects which need great care
The Madukanda(hill) itself has ancient meditation caves, Sri Pada stones
and other archaeo-objects. See also, Madukanda Balumgala , and the book by
Ven Kadurugoda Pangnasara on "Madukanda Dalada Viharaya"
Labeled #100 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මදු කන්ද

Madukanda Balumgala (Vannimava[Vavniya])
Ancient Buddhsit site, reputed to have hosted the Dalada relic.
See the book by Ven Kadurugoda Pangnasara on "Madukanda Dalada Viharaya"
Labeled #92 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මදුකන්ද බැලුම්ගල
Madurankuli, Mathurankuli (Puttalama)
Meeran kuliya, MADURANKULIYA

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province
The name may also have originated after a Pandiyan king, as in
'Madurantagam' near Chennai.
මදුරන් කුලිය
Madurankernikulam(Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
MEERANKAENNA Vaeva
The name may also have originated after a Pandiyan king, as in
'Madurantagam' near Chennai.
මීරන්කැන්න වැව

Mahamylankulam, Mahamallankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHAMELAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #126 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහමේලවැව

Maduvankulam, Maduwankulam, Matavankulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
UPULUVAN VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
Disc.- 'Matavan' is used in Tamil, from the Sanskr. Maadhva for Vishnu,
and by implication in the Sri Lankan context, for Upulvan,
a Buddhist deity often equated to Vishnu.
Note 'Upulvan' → 'Upuluvan' in the usage of the place name.
Labeled #40 in Vanni Buddhist sites map

Ancient Buddhist site with the same name near Gokanna[Trincomalee]
Labeled #136 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
උපුල්වන් වැව
Mahanagapuram (Ampare)
MAHANAGAPURA
මහනාගපුර
Mahaoya (Ampare)
MAHAOYA
මහඔය
Maharambaikulam, Maharamaikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHARAMBAVAEVA
මහරඹවැව
Maharugiramai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
MAHARAGIRAMA
මහර ගිරාම

Mahamailankulam(Yannimav[Vavniya])
MAHAMELAVAEVA
Labeled #44 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
However, the location given in Archaeo. map is different from this.
Map
මහමේලවැව

Mahathalithagama, Mahatalitagama (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
NO Tamil allonym is available.
Ancient Buddhist site. Mentioned in the Poojavaliya, Mahavamsa (Lxxxiii, vv15-18)
Labeled #64 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහතලිතගම

Mahaukulan kulama (vannimava[vavniya])
MAHAMUGALAN VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #122 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහමුගලන්වැව
Mahilankulam, Makilankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHILAVAEWA, VAKULAVAEVA
See discussion under 'Mahilavettuvaan'
The same toponym exists in the Mannaaram area.
මහිලවැව
Mahiappitti, Mahiyapitti, Makiyappiddy, Makayappiddi(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MAHIYAPITIYA, MAHILAPITIYA
Disc.- 'Mahila', 'Maila' may refer to a small tree, Bauhinia racemosa with Jasmin-like flowers. Another possibility is "Moonamal", or Mahila, is 'Mimusops elengi'.
Ancient Buddhist ruins. A Buddha statue and parts of a Dagaba and ruins of other buildings have been unearthed. See Thambimuttu's article , reg. discovery of a Buddha statue in the courtyard of the Meenachchi Amman Temple. Indraratna (Ph. D Thesis 1965) writes: "In a Saiva temple at mahiyapitti a Buddha image was found under a stone step in the temple tank".
Map
මහියපිටිය
Mailaddi, Mayiliddy, Myliddy (yapanaya[Jaffna])
MAHALIYADDA, MAILAEDDA
'Maila gas→Mali gas' is a small tree with Jasmin-like leaves. The name is probably malayalam in oigin (Bauhinia racemosa). 'Maligas', in Maligaspitiya is likely from 'mailagaspitiya'. The place-name may also be a deformation of the sinhala 'Mahaliyadda'. This area is being developed as a third harbour for the Jaffna area.
Selvara Pathmanathan alias KP, the arms dealer and International Head of the LTTE was a native of this village. There has been much traffic between this coastal town and south India. KP's parents who were fishermen, but not Karaivar,lived in Veeramanicthevanthrai. It is a hamlet near here named after a Maravar Clansman from Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu, who settled in Myliddy with his clan centuries ago. The LTTE leader known as Castro was also from this fishing village. Ilam Puli (Thurairathinam Kalairaj), a "black Tiger" implicated in the Anuradhapura air-base attack is from this fishing village. See A Tamil Nationalist view
See Map
මහලියද්ද   මයිලැද්ද
Mayilang-koodal(Yapanaya[jaffna])
MAILANGOLLA
'Maila' is a small tree with Jasmin-like leaves. The name is
probably malayalam in oigin (Bauhinia racemosa).
මලි ගස්ගොල්ල
Maha Mayilang Kulam (Vavniya)
MAHAMUGLAN VAEVA, MAHAMELAVAEVA Disc.- Mugalan is a senior Sraavaka of the Buddha
maha Monara vaeva, i.e, attributing the name to a peacock,
or attributing the name 'Maila' to the small
tree Bauhinia Racemosa, are other possibilities.
මහමුගලන්වැව
Mayilagasthidar, mayilakastitar (Ampare)
MALIGASPITIYA
Maila is a small tree, Bauhinia Racemosa, with jasmin-like
flowers. The name Maila is probably malayalam in origin. It could also be the tree Mimusops elengi
මලි ගස්පිටිය

Maligai, Malikei (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAALIGAAVA
Ancient buddist site listed in 1982 Archae. Dept. (Somasiri) inventory.
Meaning:   'Maaligava' is a palace or chateau.
Labeled #60 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මාලිගාව
Mailambaveli(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Recent military confrontations.
MAL-AMBA-VAELLA
Disc.- Due to dry conditions, sometimes Mango can flower and produce
fruit through out the year. Such "flowering mango" may occur in the dry zone
Normally, the mango tree bears fruit biannually.
However, the details of the process are not well understood.
E. K. Chako, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 291: III International Mango Symposium
මල්අඹවැල්ල
Makilavettuvan, Mahilavettuvaan, Makizhavedduvaan, மகிழவெட்டுவ ான் (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
VAKULAVAEDDA
Disc.-Vakula is the sanskrit name for the tree Mimusops elengi
known in Sinhala as 'Mahila Gasa', or 'Moonamal'. 'Magilam' in Tamil.
"Maila" could also be a small tree, Bauhinia racemosa, with jasmin-like flowers.
In Tamil 'Vedduan' refers to an open land, usually devoid of large trees
. In contrast, Sinhala 'Vaedda' refers to a
'forest' or to a an opening/clearing for arrival (Vaedeema), i.e., a Portal.
In this instance, VAKULAVAEDDA is an area overgrown with Vakula trees.
Vakula is also linked with nagula,'mongoose' in sanskrit, and the flowers
are used in religious and 'hooniyan' (witchcraft) ceremonies.
Vakula is also the name of a Buddhist Sravaka who was deified as
'Nakulesvarn' in the Hindu Pasupatha sect. See 'Keerimalai'.
වකුලවැද්ද
Malayadi Kanda (ampare)
ILUKPITIYA
Pre-christian Buddhist site.
Disc. 'Ilukpitiya Vihara' is the name of the temple.
Tamil name may refer to Malay or Kerala people. "Iluk" is " Imperata Cylindrica" (bot.)
There are two hills in this location. The ruins are mostly on one hill.
On this hill are 27 caves used for Buddhist meditation.
About fifteen of them have inscriptions,
and in one cave there are many primitive paintings.
The inscriptions establish connections with Mahanaga, Ghotabhaya,
Yataalathissa and Kavantissa.
ඉලුක්පිටිය
Malikei(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MAALIGAVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
මාලිගාව
Mallakam (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MALLAGAMA, Malalagama
Dis. Ancient village mentioned in the 'Nampotha, Buddhist ruins
Two fragments of a Yantaragala (chamber-stone) and a rock pond (gal-pokuna)
may be seen today. The rock pond was found by Paul E. Peiris.
Map
මල්ලගම
Mallavi (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MALLAVA
This is located on the Mankulum-Vellankulum road The name stub "Malla" occurs in many old place names, e.g., Mallagama (Jaffna), and in the name of the King "Nissanka-Malla.
මල්ලව
Mallikativu (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
MALIGADOOVA
මාලිගාදූව
Malwattai (Ampare)
MALWATTA
මල්වත්ත

Mamadu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAMADUWA, MAHAMADUWA
Labeled #87 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri.
මහමඩුව
Mampurai (Puttalama)
MAAMPURA
The form 'Mahagampure → Maampura'.
මාම්පුර
Mamunai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MHAMUNNA, MAHAMUNA
From 'Maha+Amuna → Mahamunna'.
see Jaffna map1
මහමුන්න
ManalAru, Manalaru, Manal Aru (Mooladoova (Mulaitivu])
VAELIOYA, Welioya Weli Oya
The name 'welioya' is used in old Sinhala literature. Similar names are found in the south, near Balangoada, Kalupahana etc.
This is the much-contested Weli Oya development ares, which includes Kokilava (Kokkilai), Kalu-naedakaenna (Karunaddukeni), Kokkuthudaava (Kokkuthuduvai), Kumbal-amuna (Kumalamunai East and West), Gammalé (Chammalai or Chemmalai), Uththiya-kanda (Othiyamalai), Handuvaana (Tanduvan), Thibbatuvala (Mulliyavalai East), Diyaunna (Thannirootu West), Kaanukaenna (Kannukeni) and Vaellampila (Alampil). Various "farms", e.g., Dollar farm, Kent farm Navalar farm, Ceylon Theatres farm, Menik Farm etc., also fall into this region.  Map See entries under the corresponding place names for more maps etc. Two maps which includes many of these places are the marithimepattu-Mullaitive Map   and the mullaitivu-oddusudan Map
Regional Map, and fighting in 2008   Welioya satellite pictures
See UTHR special report 5 reg. colonization policies
  Sinhalese of the North and East
වැලිඔය
මන්ඩ දූව
Manalkadu(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VAELIKADUVA
see Jaffna map1
වැලිකඩුව
Mandakal aru, Mandekal aru (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
MANDAGAL OYA
In Skrt. 'manda' means slime. This river falls into the Indian ocean on the west coast, near Kumbalamauna (Kumulamunai), while another branch falls into the see near Kumburukanniya (Chempankundu), near Punranna (Pooneryn)
මන්ඩගල්ඔය
Mandaitheevu, Mandativu, Mandaitivu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MANDADOOVA, MADADOOVA
In Skrt. 'manda' means slime. repeated military and terrorist activity
see Jaffna map1
මඩදූව
Mandur, Mandpur (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MANDAPURA
This is a town associated with "mada" or "manda" and situated near Madakalapuva.
මන්ඩපුර
Manipayi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MINIPAEE, minipaaya, Minipe
Ancient Buddhist site
Meaning. In Tamil "payi" may mean "net", or "sail", and has no contextual sense; the Sinhala name means "gem-castle" In Sinhala, `pe' also means `village' as in 'Dompe', and `Minipe' means `gem-village'. This name may have a relation to the 'manikyaparyanka" of the Legendary visit of the Buddha to Naagadeepa ?
See Jaffna map1
මිනිපේ
Manirasakulam(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
MINIRAESVAEVA
See also entry under "Kurankupanchan" in Gokanna (Trincomalee).
ම්නිරැස්වැව
Mankemi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAANAGAMA
මහනාගම
Mankerni, Makerny(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAANAKURANA
War LTTE base till 2006
Vedda villages, with known clans ("varige").
Map
මානකුරන
Mankulam (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MUVAAVA`VA, MAANAVEVA
Muva in S., 'Deer', becomes Tamil, (also Maly, Telgu and K.) 'maan'
, War: Prabhakarans first military trainintg camps were set up here in the 1976-1977 period. Read the founding-LTTE treasurer Ganesh Ayer's memoires Dayan Jayatilleke's discussion of 'Hitlarism' in the early LTTE
The 'Jayasikuru' offensive, 1997, was aborted here. 1998
32 km. south of Giranikke (killinochchi).
See Jayasikuru.
මුවාවැව
Mankulam (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
MUVAAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982
මුවාවැව

Mannakandal (Vannimav [Vavniya])
MONARAKADOLA
Disc.- 'Kandal' is probably 'Kandelia rheedii' or related Mangroves
Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora candel.
The word 'kandal' may also be a tamilization of 'gandara',
that is, the watery edge or swamp, where gan(ga) =river and 'dara' is
related to 'addara', i.e., neighbourhood.
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Ancient Buddhsit site, reputed to have hosted the Dalada relic.
See the book by Ven Kadurugoda Pangnasara on "Madukanda Dalada Viharaya"
Labeled #93 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මොනරැක්ක
Mannankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAANAVAEVVA, MAURAVAEVA
මානවැව, මයුරවැව
Mannar (Mannarama [Mannar])
MANTOTA, MANNARAMA
We should revert to MANTOTA
Hist.:
Manthota (mattottam) or Mantota
was a great sea port known to
the Babylonians, Chinese etc. Many names have been used:
Mahathitha, mahavoti, Mahaputu, Mahavatu, Mahavatutota, Mahapattana
Matota, ManthiDhathuwamsa uses the name 'Lankapattana', and some
scholars have considered this to be Mannar. However, 'Lankapattana'
is probably in the east coast, near Vihare (see entry: Vakarai)
'Man-ara' (i.e., the river flowing to mantota, i.e., malvatu oya)
may have given rise to the name 'manaram'.
Landing site of Vijaya's second wife.
Easy access to Anuradapura along Malwatu oya
The Tiruketheesvaram Temple is probably a recent construction. It is recorded that Ibn Batuta in the 14th century visited Mantota. The Kokila Sandesaya mentions it as a trade centre, but no mention however is made by these early sources of a Hindu Temple there. H. C. P. Bell in 1907 recorded that "some wealthy Tamils in search of the reputed 'Lingam' used 300 workmen for six months with the help of a soothsayer but found none except for some Buddhist objects, which was also reported by Hocart in 1927. The Edict of King Sena is near by.
The Mannaram Kachcheri location has an Sinhala edict of Kasyapa IV (9 CE).
Earliest conversions to Catholicism in Sri Lanka.
But 26% Muslims in 1981 census
see Carswell, John. 1991. "The Port of Mantai, Sri Lanka."
Begley, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 87, (1983), pp. 461-481
S. Kiribamuna, "The role of the Port city of Mahathathitha
in the Trade networks of the Indian Ocean", in
"Reflections on a Heritage", Part I 2000.
Note that the place name Mantotat itself exists just near Mannar.
See Map   Map indicating Military action 2008
මාන්තොට
Manniyakulam (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
TAMMAENNAVAEVA This is located on the Pallavrakadu (Pallavarayandaddu)-Thelamurakanda (Terumurikandy) road. See Map
තම්මැන්නා
Mannittalai, Manniththalai, மண்ணித்தலை (Yapanaya[Jafna])
VAELITHALAAVA
This is a sandy peninsular area near Punranna (Pooneryn). This may have been an ancient Potter's village. The name may also have come from the "maan" stub found in "Maanthota", "tham-maennava" etc, associated with the mannaarama region.
වැලිතලාව
Manthai, Mantai (Mannarama [Mannar])
MAANTHÉ MAANTE, Maennava
The name "maennava" is related to "Tammmaennava", and "Manthai" is a close cognate of "Maanthota". This location has been linked with the legend of Vijaya.
Map and Army action 2008
මාන්තේ
Manthikai(Yapanaya[Jafna])
MANDIKKA
The name implies a muddy, salty or slimy place.
Hospital; one time IPKF army camp here.
Map
මන්ඩික්ක

Manthriviharaya Manthirivihare (Vannimava[Vavniya])
MANTHRIVIHARÉ
Ancient buddhsit site
Labeled #99 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මන්ත්රිවිහාරෙ
Mantivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa]))
MANDOOVA
Compare etymology discussions under Manthai etc.
Map
මාන්දූව

Manukfarm   ⚓name, Kadirgamar IDP village(Vannimava[Vavniya]), MENIK FARM
This is a private land, adjavent to Intembifarm, and Appapillege Idama. These areas, together with Dollar farm, were subject to LTTE attacks on settlers in 1984 and colonization efforts by the government and by the LTTE.
See Malinga Gunaratne's book For a sovereign State (Sarvodaya Vishvalekha Publication 1988).
In 2009 this area began to be used for "internally displace people" (IDPs). The "Kadirgam village" has been established near here. When two other names, Ramanathan and Arunachalam were proposed, there were objections from dissident writers like Sebastian Rasalingam.   Ramanathan, Arunachalam and the IDP villages, by S. Rasalingam ,   See also Upulvan in the safe zone These lands contain ancient Buddhist archaeological sites, as cited in the (Somasiri) archeological Commissioner's report. "Mahathalithagama" mentioned in the Mahavamsa may have this area and the surroundings.
There are two buildings with stone pillars, a stone pond, and ancient ruins.
Labeled #110-116 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහ-තලිත-;;ගම
Marailuppai(mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MAARAMEEYA, GAETAMEEYA
'Iluppa', see MEEPATHOTA, which was rendered 'Iluppaikadavai',
after the Magha invasion. 'Maarameeya' suggests a knotted "Mee""tree,
as more explicitly used in 'Gaetameeya'.
Ancient Buddhist ruins.
More Buddhist ruins at "Periyamarailuppi", or MAHAMEEYA.
map
මාරමීය,   ගැටමීය
Marakkarampalai, Marukkarampalai (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MALLAKARANAPOLA
Meaning:  In S., site for wrestling sports.
map
මල්ලකරන්පොල
Maranwadiyai,Maranvadi(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
VARAN-VAEDIYA
Disc.- Names suggests a 'place for blessings.
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982.
වරන්වාඩිය
Marathamunai (Ampare)
BURUTHAMUNA,MARUTHAMUNNA
See under 'Maruthamunai' for details and map.
බුරුතමුන්න
Maraviluppai, maraviluddai (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHAVILA-UDA, MAARAMEEYA, Gaetameeya
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning. 'Iluppa', see MEEPATHOTA, which was rendered 'Iluppaikadavai',
after the Magha invasion. 'Maarameeya' suggests a knotted "Mee""tree,
as more explicitly used in 'Gaetameeya'.
මහවිල්උඩ
මාරමීය
Maravanpulavu(Yapanaya[jaffna])
MAAVANPOLAWA
Disc.- 'Maavan' exits in Sinhala places names , e.g, Mavanella.
It may refer to a 'mahavana', a timbered forest
'In T., 'maravan' could be related to to 'mararam, trees.
Paluva here refers to a grove of Palu trees.
see Jaffna map1
මාවන්පලුව
Maracci(Japanaya[Jaffna])
MARACHHIRATA
As given by Dr. K. Indrapala in his Ph. D. thesis.
මරච්චිරට
MarichchiKaddi, Marichchukkaddi (Mannarama [Mannar])
MIRIJJAKADA, MIRIJJAKARA
Disc. 'Marchchi', Marikki, Marikku' etc., have no meaning in Tamil
'Kaddi, Kattai' etc., also do not provide a useful meaning in T.
'Mirijjakada', Mirijjakara' in S. would mean 'a strip of unsalted water'.
N.B., 'salted water is 'Karijja' in S., where 'kara' is sea shore.
Dutch VOC records give Marsikatte, Martikatte.
Hence the name had already changed by the 17th century.
Colonial ruins
Map
ම්රිජ්ජකඩ
Maripututivu(Puttalam])
MALIPUTHU DIVA
This is 'Malia-puthra theeva', found in the Puttalam kalapuva (Lagoon).
මලිපුතු දූව
Marthand, Markand, Markandal (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
MALKADOLA
This is small Island located in the Kivul-ara (Upparu) Lagoon close to Vaakaraya (Vakarai). The island's Sinhalese name originates from a type of flowering mangrove ('Mal Kadol') found in such islands.
මලිපුතු දූව
Marukaraimoddai, Mathukkaraimotte மருக்காரை ;மோட்டை (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MARU-VAELI-MADDÉ
'Moddai', 'Motte' are derived from the sinhlala "muddy place=maddé", as discussed under "Adaikkalamoddai", or "Athimottai". Also "Maru-Vaeli" in S. means "quick-sand", "dangerous shore" or "dangerous bank". "Karai" in Tamil, and "Kara" in Sinhala also means "shore" or "bank". The name "murukarai" may also signify a type of thorny shrub in Tamil ("emetic nut tree in English, Kukurumuvan in Sinhala, Madana-phala in Skrt., Randia dumetorum, in L.).
මරුවැලිමඩේ
Maruthamadu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BURUTHAMADUWA
Meaning:  'Burutha' in S., and Marutha in T. is Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna), or sometimes "Satin",
a teak-like tree, "Chrolophylla sweetnia".
Map
බුරුතමඩුව
Maruthamunai,Marathamunai (Ampare)
MARUTHA-MUNNA, Kumbuk-amuna
See discussion under 'Maruthamadu'for another meaning of "Marutha. However, we believe that here "marutha" is the sinhalese word "Maarutha" for "storm". Also, "Munna is facing-point, usually near the sea.
This location was strongly damaged by the 2004 Dec. 26 Tsunami, and about 3000 people died in he area.   Tsunami in Maruthamunna Regional map
බුරුතමුන්න
Maruthankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BURUTHAVAEVA, Kumbukvaeva
See discussion under 'Maruthamadu'
බුරුතවැව
Maruthodai (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BURUTHUOYA, Kumbukoya
Meaning:   In S., 'Burutha+oya → buruthoya'.
In T., 'odai' is an 'oya' which dries up occassionly
Sinhala 'Burutha' is Satin, Chrolophylla sweetnia. Marutha in T. could often be used for: Terminalia arjuna, Kumbuk.
බුරුත ඔය
Matavittikulam, Madaviddikulam, Mattavithikulam,
Mathavuvaithakulam, Matavuvaittakulam (Vannimava, [Vavniya])
MAEDAVITIVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dept. (Somasiri), 1982
However, although the same name, the location is different.
map
මැදවිටිවැව
Mathagal (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MAETTAGALA
No meaning in Tamil.
මැට්ටගල
Mathalai, Matali (Mathale district)
MATHALE, Maathalé Matale
The name may have arisen from "Maha-thalé:' meaning big plateau in Sinhala. The town is at the base of the Dumbara Kandu-yaaya, known in English as the `Knuckles range', famous for its bio-diversity. New Flower species in Dumbara Kanduyaya 2011

Matale is 142 km from Colombo. The `Aluvihara Temple' is where the Pali Canon was first written down circa 29-17 BCE on ola (palm) leaves, during a period beset with the Brahmana-Tissa' famine, when Vattagamini was the king with the capital in Anuradhapura. The temple was then probably called the `Abhayagiri temple', and possibly also the "Aloka Vihara". The latter probably gave rise to the name `Alo Vihara'. The writing of the canon has been discussed by Russell Bowden

Matale was also the site of the Matale Rebellion in 1848 when the British garrison in Fort Macdowall was placed under siege by Weera Puran Appu, Gongalegoda Banda and their troops. Monarawila Keppetipola, the leader of the Wellasa rebellion (1817-1818, or Uva uprising) against the British had his ancestral home (Kappetipola Walauwa) in Hulangamuwa, Matale. The Amman Hindu Kovil, the `Christ Church' which was built in 1860, and many Islamic Mosques are found in this city which has acquired a growing Muslim population.
මා ත ලේ
Mathawachchi (Vannimava [Vavniya])
Maedavachchiya
No meaning in Tamil. The village is populated mainly by Sinhala and Muslim people.
මැදවච්චිය
Mattakkalappu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MADAKALAPUWA
see Batticaloa under letter B
There is an unidentified 'mattikaratitha'
referred to in the Pali chronicles.
මඩකලපුව
Mattutivu (Puththalama [Puttalam])

MADDU-DOOVA   ⚓name
The 'D' here is the soft 'dh' sound as in 'the'.
Meaning:   'Maddu'(මද්දු) means 'in the middle', 'Madya' in Sanskrit, Sinhala and and indeed absorbed into Tamil as well. This is an island in between Kalpitiya (Galpitiya) jut-out and the mainland. Map Part of the post-war tourist development project: Sri Lankan government to lease out 10 more islands in the Kalpitiya area for tourism
මද්දු දූව
Matauvainthankulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
See entry under Maduvankulam
උපුල්වන්වැව
Mavadimunmari, Mavadi Munmari(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAHAVAEDI - MULVAERIYA,   A` sound as in AT
Dis. 'Mulvariya' seems to mean cultivation before the rains arrive.
'Mahavaedi' may mean chief Veddha, or it could also be 'mango' tree in T.
This has been an LTTE military training camp or 'Kottam'
See also 'Berawa Munmari'
Map
මහවැදි මුල්වේරිය
Mavediodai(Ampare)
MAHAVAEDI-ODE
'ODE' is pronounced with a long 'O'.
This is close to Thopigala and has been an LTTE camp/td>
මහවැදිඔඩය
Mavadippalli, Maavadippillai (Ampare)
MAHAVAEDIPAHALA, MAHAVAEDIPALLIYA
'Mahavaedi' may mean chief Veddha, or it could also 'mango' tree in T.
'Palli' could refer to a non-hindu (e.g, jain, Buddhist) shrine or,
a low-lying region. See the entry under 'Pachchilaippalli'.
Also, 'palli','halli, alli' mean village or place ('pala' in S.), a
current usage in telugu and kannada (c.f., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli.)
It also means a place of worship as villages usually involved
a temple. In modern usage in SL, it refers to a christian church or mosque.
මහවැදිපහල
මහවැදිපල්ලිය
Maveliturai (Naedundoova [Delft])
MAAVAELITHOTA
SL-government Naval base.
Ancient Buddhist Ruins. Mr. D. T. Devendra, during a visit in the 1940s
to Delft , discovered a mound which on closer examination turned out
to be a Dagoba. No recent excavations have been done.
Map
මාවැලිතොට
Mawadichenai, Mavadichenai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
MAHAVAEDIHENA
මහවැදිහේන
Mavidivembu, Mawidivembu, Mavithivempu(Ampare)
MAHAVAEDIKOHOMBE
This is located east of Toppigala(Baron's cap)
'Vembu, Vempu' (T, M) refer to the Neem tree.
මහවැදිකොහොඹෙ
Mavilaru, Mavil Aru (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
MAVILOYA, MaavilAara, Mavilara, MAHAVILOYA
War: Confrontation over Maviloya Anicut started on 21- July- 2006, when the LTTE high command closed the water supply to some 20,000 farmers. The objective of the LTTE was to make the government yield the Gokanna (Trinco) area and the harbour which was vital for linking with the Jaffna garrisons, as all land routes to Jaffna were under the LTTE gun. THe Jaathika hela Urumaya organized public protests in the area. The area includes Galaara (Kallar), Thoopapura (Thoppur), Seruvila Rajamaha Vihara area, Pallikulissa (Pallikudirippu), Girivaedda (Kiliveddy), Sankavaella (Kanguweli) and other multi-racial as well as Sinhala villages, all of which seem to have had established sinhala place names, said to be found even in Dutch records.
Quite unexpected by the LTTE, their advisers as well as the UNP-led opposition, the government stood firm. General Pannipitiya led the offensive, fought hard and captured the Anicut. The Tigers intensified the offensive and launched the Eelam IV war which they eventually lost, in May 2009. One of the heroes of the Maavil Aara war, General Parakrama Pannipitiya fell out with the commander Gen. Sarath Fonseka, and this led to a court martial of Pannipitiya launched by Fonseka. The Court Martial was challenged by Pannipitiya, and it was eventually overturned by the supreme court.
After the defeat of the LTTE in May 2009, Gen. Fonseka turned against President Rajapaksa, and formed the UNP-JVP-TNA alliance against the President. This alliance was strongly supported by the West as well as the Tamil-speaking diaspora, but was decisively beaten by the incumbent president who polled almost 60% of the votes. During the campaign Fonseka claimed that the government forces killed off white-flag bearing LTTE leaders seeking surrender. This claim led to a court martial of Gen. Fonseka.
map
මහවිල්ඔය
මාවිල්අɔර
Mavittapuram, Maaviddapuram (yapanaya [Jaffna])
MAVITAPURA
Mavitapura is in the vicinity of the shrine Keerimallai (Vakulakanda). The Kandasamy Kovil, close to the High Security Zone, Vaeligama (Valikaamam) is located here.

The word Maavita most probably means a demarcated area (c.f., old Tamil, maavItal, and mavita in Sanskrit, signifying 'bound', 'marked-of' or 'tied together' (Monier-Williams). Thus the area is associated with the more important Keerimalai (Vakulakada) shrine. In fact, an alternative Hindu name that has been used from time to time was "Kovil Kadavi", which can be taken to means "the neighborhood under the control of the Kovil". So the latter is consistent with Maavittipuram, the long-standing name. The "designated area", i.e., Mavittapuram, was also designated mainly for the higher castes who had sufficient purity to work in a sacred area. Hence, this area has always been a hot-bed of casteism.

Local anecdotal story-tellings (with no historical foundations), similar to the legend of a blind Lute-player giving rise to the name Yalpanam have been sometimes offered for the origin of the place-name Mavittapuram. Thus, one story claims that Ma could refer to horse in Tamil, while Vitta could be construed to mean removed, while puram (Skrt. Pura) means city. So the intriguing horse-removed-city name is substantiated with the following story. A teenage Chola Princess in South India was cursed by a sage (clearly a very spiteful sage !) when he was laughed at by the princess. In some versions of the story, the sage had a "horse-like" face and it was this that caused the princess to laugh at the sage. The curse turned the face of the princess into that of a horse. In order to undo the curse, the princess had to come to Lanka and bathe at the Keerimalai (Vakulakanda) sacred springs, and invoke the blessings of Murugan.
The story is inconsistent, or has incorrectly confused several threads of Hindu iconography and representations of the avatars of Vishnu, Ganesh, Murugan etc., as well as the historical facts associated with the Keeramali (Vakula Kanda) shrine. Keerimalai (Vakulakanda) is associated with Lord Nakulesvaran (rather than Murugan), i.e., the mongoose-faced God of Hinduism and also of early Mahayana Buddhism where Vakula is the name of a Mahayana-Arhant (i.e., a Buddhist saint who has achieved one of the higher mental states leading to emancipation). In contrast, the horse-faced Hindu deity is Hayagriva, and is a part of Vaishnavite worship rather than that of Murugan. Furthermore, many of the Hayagriva Kovils are old temples designated to God Naka, the God of the Naga tribes, and are found in towns with links to a Nagpur (Nallur), and not at all associated with God Murugan.

Shanmugathasan's Peking-wing (Communist Party) agitated in 1976-1977 here for low-caste temple-entry-rights, schools, water-wells etc., and accused the TULF-Federal party and S. J. V. Chelvanayakam for supporting the caste system. He challenged S. J. V. to re-contest his seat on the caste issue. This has been historically a very caste conscious area. Thus recorded caste clashes here are found from 1871 up to modern times. The earliest documented clashes occurred between Vellalar, Vanavar (dhobies) and Ambattar (barbers) groups in Mavittapuram. The conflicts started when the the dhobies refused to wash the barbers' clothes. The Vellalar have been blamed for the conflagration where they attempted to impose the usual orthodox hierarchy.
මාවිටපුර
Maviddapuram, maavitapuram (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MAHAVITAPURA
Meaning: 'Mahavita' would mean a 'demarcated area.
මහවිටපුර
Mayavan Aru (Puttalam)
MEE OYA
Disc. Near Halawatha; (Chilaw)
Historic Munneswaram Temple near Mee Oya (Mayavan aru)
මීඔය
Meesalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MEESA`LA
See Map
Meaning:  In T., 'meesalai' could mean 'big street', however,
it is a small place bit off the highway. In S. it means a honeyshop
මීසැල.

Melinchimunai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MADINNAMUNNA, madina-amuna
මදින්නාමුන්න
Metikumbullai(Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
MAETIKAMMULLA
Labeled #27 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient buddhsit site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Dis.-'Matikam' is brick and pottery related work.
මැටිකම්මුල්ල

Mettukulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
IHALAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #39 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
ඉහලවැව
Minipai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MAENIPAY, MAENIKPAYA, MENIKPAYA
Ancient budhist site.
See Interactive map of pre-CE Buddhist sites in Jaffna
ම්නිපේ
Miravodai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MEERAVITA
Postal code BCS30426
මීරවිට
Mirakkappannai (Mannarama [Mannar])
MIRIJJAPAENNA
meaning:   In S., fresh-water spot.
This is in fact the last fresh-water point in Mannar Island.
See Map
ම්රි ජ්ජ පැන්න
Mirusuvil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BAMARAVILA, miridiyavila
meaning:   In S., fresh-water pond.
'Bamara' is a species of bee.
බඹරවිල,   ම්රි දිය විල
Miyankulam(Valashena[Valachchenai])
MIYAN-VAEVA, MAHIYANVAEVA
Near Viharae (Vakarai)
'Mahiya' is probably same as 'Moonamal', i.e., Mimusops elengi.
The names 'Miyanakandura'(Badulla), and 'Miyanavita'(Kegalle) exit.
Mahiyan(gana)→Miyan ?
We have found no map for this location
Typical war zone
ම්යන්වැව,   මහියන්වැව


Mohaunthankulama, Mohunthnkulam, Mohontankulam(Vannimava [Vavniya])
MUHUNTHAENNA VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
There are two sites with the ame area name
The site 118 has two ancient shrine rooms and remnants of a stupa.
Labeled #111 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Labeled #118 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මුහුන්තැන්නවැව
Modarakam Aru (Mannarama)
MODARAGAM OYA
The Sinhala place name 'Modara' is derived from "Mooduthara" (its Tamilization being 'Muththur'), and refers usually to a place where there is an opening to the ocean via a river . Thus "Modara" in the north of Colombo is effectively the exit of the Kelani (Kaelani) river to the sea. Thus Kaelanithota or "kolonthota" 'Kolon-ahamba" (Colombo) are all words with kindered toponymic structure.
'Modaragam Oya' falls to the sea near Mannarama (Mannar)
මෝදරගම්ඔය
Moolai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MULLA
This is located in Vaeligama (Valigamam ), on the Jaffna-Karainagar road. The Vishnu temple here was found to have vestiges of ancient remains of walls and a broken sedent Buddha image.
මුල්ල
Moondumurippu,Moonrumurippu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
THUNKANDIA, THUNMURAYA
see the etimology of murippu
Map
තුන්කන්ඩිය
Morakkottanchenai (Madakalpuwa [Batticaloa])
MORAKOTANHENA
Meaning:  : in S. ' Mora kotan' are logs of 'Mora tree'
Pometia Tomentosa is a common species of Mora.
Nephelium longanum / Dimocarpus longan are other forms.
This is a large tree with Lychee-like fruits.
See Map
මොරකොටහේන
Mottuvarm, Muhattuvaram (Sri Gonakanna[Trincomalee])
MUHUDUVARAMA, Lankapatuna
Hist.- Located N. of Verugala, The tooth relic was brought
here by Princess Hemamala and Prince Dantha of Kalinga, in ~310 AD.
King Keerthi Sri Megavanna's time; Samudra Giri temple, ancient port.
The LTTE Illankkasthurai camp was established here.
There is also a "Muhathvaram" in Batticaloa.This is also
of historical interest, as it is believed to be an ancient port.
ලංකාපටුන
මූදුවරම
Mudalakkuli (Puttalama)
MUDALIKULIYA

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya).
See entry under 'Mudaliyakulam'.
මුදලිකුලිය


Mudaliyakulam, Muthaliyakulam (Vannimava[Vavniyava])
MUDALIYAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Disc. The word "Mudali" is probably of Kannada (modaliga) or
Malayalam in origin. It is also a caste title of a section of the
Velalas (cenkuntar group), it is also used by a Jian sect in Tanjore.
In Sri Lanka it refers to a local chief, or landowner and this
became a title under the British.
Clearly, an older place name besides MUDALIYAVAEVA should exist,
and presently we do not know what that was.
Labeled #90 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Labeled #117 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මුදලියවැව
Muthalikulam, Mudalikkulam(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
MORAVAEVA
Also called 'Katukulampattu'. (East)
This tank became the focus of a colonization scheme around 1960
This village was at ~60% Sinhala speaking, but came under LTTE
"ethnic cleansing", while the tamil nationalists claim that this was an original tamil village. For details, see Malinga Gunaratne, "For a sovereign State" (1988)
මොරවැව
Muhamalai, Muhamaali, Mukamaalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MURA MAALÉ,   MUHAMAALÉ, MUHAKANDA
Meaning. "Muha" could mean "mouth" or "face" in Tamil.
There is a "Mohakulam" near Kerala, where "Moha" is
perhaps related to "Moham". Maali in Tamil would refer
to a garland, c.f., Maalé in Sinhala.
This area has always been a nothern defence line since ancient
times, and the name "muramaaé" means a defensive ring.
The most likely possibility is that
"muha" is a typonym from the Sinhala "maha".
Military base and frequent clashes
see 2006 October Clashes
Forward Defence Line
Map
මුරමාලෙ,   මහකන්ද
Muhathankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHATHANVEVA
මහතැන්වැව
Mulankavil (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
Morangavila
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no valid contextual meaning here. The area is rich in history, although very little archaeological research has been done. The word "molagu" in Kannada, and its Tamil cognate "mulanku", may mean "to roar, thunder", etc., and the name may suggest a tank with "roaring water". Moranga refers to "murunga", a tree known now a days as "Murunga". There is a hospital and this has been an important garrison town and ceremonial site of the LTTE until August 2008 (used for Maavir day celebrations etc.). Kollanvillu (kollanvila), 4 km south, has been an LTTE training site for some time. Army report and Map
මූලකොවිල
Mullativu, Mullaittivu, Mullaiththeevu, முல்லைத்தீவு (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MOOLADOOVA
'Mooladoova' means the 'principal islet, or main islet', and this name may have been given to it during its use as a central depot of a sea port. Another possibility is that the name is derived from the name of trees like Cassia fistula, "Ehela" (Aehaela) in Sinhala, commonly ''Konnnai', or rarely Mullaimaram' in Tamil, or possibly from solanaum Indica, known as 'Mulli' in Tamil, and "Thibbatu" in Sinhala. However, no 'Cassia fistula' type vegetation is found here to justify this name.
Hist. This was an ancient sea port during Anuradhapura-Pollonnaruwa era. Even today 109 Buddhist archaeological sites have been identified in the Mooladuva district. See D. somasiri, Archaelogy Dept. Report, 1982. There is also evidence of Jain religious sites; c.f., monument/area named
"Thirthankara", mostly destoryed by the 2004 Dec. Tsunami. There are some "Tirthankarai" Hindu sites as well.
War:  This is a frequent hot spot;
Some 1200 soldiers killed on 18-July-96 LTTE battle.
Ethnic clensing Expulsion of Muslims by the LTTE,
Read views of Satyendra, Balasinham, Prabakaran etc.   Map
මූලදූව
Mullikulam(Mannaram[Mannar])
Thibbotuvaeva
Disc. Thibbotu is 'solanam Indica', 'Mulli' in Tamil
This is near the forward defence line in Mannarama.
තිබ්බටුවැව,   තිබ්බොටුවැව
Mullikulam Malai (Ampare)
BATUVA`VKANDA
Disc. Thibbotu, Katuvalbatu, etc., e.g., Solanum Indica , 'mulli' in Tamil
Hist. There are two short rock inscriptions of the 1st century B.C.
beside a flight of steps cut on the hill of MULVAGIRIYA (Mallikulam Malai).
Below the drip ledge of a cave is a cave inscription (1st century B.C).
Seven lines of the inscription are given in Ven. E. Medhananda's book (2003).
there is no toponymic information in the inscription.
බටුවැව්කන්ද
Mullivaikkal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MUL-AGALA,Mulvakkkadé MULVAKKDE   ⚓name
Meaning:  In S., Agala is a channal or sewer. Vakkadadaya is a water sewer or "Agala, (va)ggala, vakkala". In Tamil vaikkal could also mean a water sewer or drain. "Mulli" could also refer to "Tibbatu", but in this context we believe that it is based on the stem "Mul".
This is in the No Fire Zone in 2009   designated in 2009 during the LTTE last stand
  Claims of civilian casulties in the NFZ
See discussion under "Mulliyavalai"
මුල්වක්කඩේ
මුල් අගල
Mulliyan, Mulliyaan (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
THIBBOTUVANA
Disc. Thibbotu, Katuvalbatu, etc., e.g., Solanum Indica, 'mulli' in Tamil
තිබ්බොටුවන
Mulliyaditidal(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
BATUVANTHUDAAVA
See discussion under "Mulliyavalai"
Map
බටුවන්තුඩාව
Mullikkandal(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
BATUGANDARA
Disc.- Gandata or Gamthara is a low-lying marshy edge
of the river (gang-addara -. gandara, gamthara). Regarding "Batu', 'Mulli",
see discussion under "Mulliyavalai"
'Kandal' is also related to the 'kadol tree', Rhizophora mucronata
Rhizophora candel, and related species./td>
බටුගන්දර

Mulliyawalai Molliyawalai,Mulliyavalai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
THIBBOTUVALA
Labeled #32 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Disc. Thibbotu, Katuvalbatu, etc., e.g., Solanum Indica, 'mulli' in Tamil
Here 'Vala' in Sinhala does NOT mean pit, but 'thicket' or forest
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Map
තිබ්බොටුවල
Munsal(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
Madurusaala
මදුරුසාර
Mundampiddi, Moondrampitty(Mannarama[Mannar])
Mullepitiya
Disc.- 'Mundam' in T., also can be understood to mean
'first', 'primary' equivalent to Sinhala 'Mul'. This is on the A32 road.
මුල්ලෙපිටිය
Mundamuripu, Mundumurippu (Mannarama[Mannar])
THUNKANDIYA, MULMURAYA
see the etimology of murippu
The name perhaps implies 'three dams', or the 'Main watch-station'
Historically, the port of invasion used by the Magha, i.e.,
Meepathota(Illupaikavai) is close by.
තුන්කන්ඩිය
Mundel (Puttalama)
MUNDALAMA, MUNTHALAMA
'Mundalama' is currently in use.
It is a 'partial tamilization' between 'muntalama' and 'mundel'!
Tamil for 'junction of three roads' is 'muntal'. In sinhala, munthalam
would mean 'flat region or field (talama) where 'mun peas'
(e.g., Phaseolus mungo) are grown. Note the existence of place
names like 'Munthana' on the Maduru Oya, Vaelikanda area.
Postal code PXP61250
මුන්තලම
Munaggam, Munnagam, Munnakkam Mooladoova ([Mullaitivu])
MULGAMA
Mulgama suggest the existence of an older village or settlement here, and is consistent with the Tamil "munna" which could also mean "old or ancestral". This is in the Welioya area. This was part of the LTTE complex involving the Munnakam, Michael and Sugandan bases. Toops of the 59th division captured these in the first half of August 2008. See Military front August 2008   For other maps of the region etc, please see entries under Manal aru (Weli Oya). Map   See Military activity in the area  : This is also an area full of ancient Buddhist archeological ruins.   See Buddhist archeological sites in the Welioya-Mooladoova area
මුල්ගම
Muntiriveli, Munthiroveli (Mannarama [Mannar])
MIDIVAELLA
This is on the Mannaram island, near Talaimannar.
'Mudrika → midi' in sinhala is grapes, probably the wild form
'Vitis latifolia'. The Tamil 'muntiri' may also have arrived from
the root 'murdika' just as in Sinhala.
The Malayalam word for 'Cashew' may also be a source of the word 'Muntiri'.
MAP
ම්දිවැල්ල
Murakottanchanai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MULAKOTAHENA
Postal code BCS30392
මුරකොටහේන
Murasumoddai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
MURATUMOTTE'
'Muratu' in Sinhala, 'moradu' in 'Kannada', and muratu in T., may mean
rough, knotty, poorly grown part of trees.
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime.   Regional map
මුරටුමොටේ
Murikandy, Murikkandy, Murkandi, Murugandi (giranikke [Killinochchi])
MURAKANDA
Note that Murikandy on the A9 road and Murikandi west of it are two separate villages.
"Muri" in Tamil, முர, or 'murik' do not have contextually useful meanings for the place name. "Murrikka' in Malayalam may mean 'to snap'. By contrast, the sinhala place name indicates a watch (mura) located on a hill. The elevation here is about 100 meters. The "Murikandy Pillayar shrine" is located here. The name Pillayar is given to Ganesha - `remover of obstacles and Lord of auspiciousness'. It is a stop point for Hindus who worship for a safe journey. Interestingly enough, new kovils with the 'Pillayar' name have sprung up in the south with the migration of the Tamil-speaking population to the south during the Eelam wars. Thus a 'Visa-Pillayar Kovil', using by people planning to go aborad, has appeared close to Ramakrishna Road, in Colombo
In 1985 TELO blew up a Colombo-bound 'Yaldevi' train here. This was a stronghold of the LTTE that fell to Govt. forces on the 21st, october 2008. See also "Terumurikandy".
Map
මුරකන්ද
Murunkan (Mannarama [Mannar])
MUDUNGAMA
Colonial ruins
මුදුන්ගම
Muruthanai(Madalalapuva[Batticaloa])
MURATHAENA
Dsc.- 'Murutan' has no contextual meaning in Tamil or related languages.
'Thaenna' is a common sinhala ending for 'place', location
In pure tamil the usage is '(s)thaanam', and the form 'thanai'
However, 'Mura' for watch is common to old sinhala and tamil, possibly
derived from etruscan sources which fed the early prakrit forms.
see the etimology of murippu, mura etc.
found only in Sri Lanka is probably a sign of adaptation from Sinhala.
Map
මුරතැන්න

Murutumadu (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
Buruthumaduwa
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #75 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
බුරුතමඩුව
Musali, முசலி (Mannarama [Mannar]) MUHALA, MUSALA
THe AGA division with the same name was created in 1981. The name is most probably from the sanskrit Musalee→Muhala (crocodile) and thus refers to a place (e.g, swamp, tank) with crocodiles, (kimbula in Sinhala); Chaanaakam in Tamil; Crocodylus Palustris in L. The name could also refer to "face, mouth, bud or flower" as in "Kehel-muha", (flower of the plantain) or in the Skrew-pine ((Pandanus odoratissimus). Note that in Skrt. "Muha" or 'Mukha" may have this meaning and exists in standard Sinhala and literary Tamil. The Muhala (Musali) village is in an area which was called "Muhala pattuva", or "Musalai pattuva", where "pattuva" is a subdivision of a ``Korale''. Note that the sinhala "Patuna" (e.g., as in Yapa Patune, c.f., Jaffna) and the corresponding sanskrit word "pattana" is used in the Mahabharata to denote a town or village, and "Dharmapattana" is a name given to the city of "Sravasti" in Pali. Enter Pattana into Univ. of Cologne dictionary
See the write up under අගස්තිමුරේ Akattimurippu.
See water management in Ancient Lanka
මෝහල,   මුසල
Musalpitti, Musalipiddi (Puttalama)
MUSALPITIYA
This is in the thin strip of land forming the western edge of the Kalpitiya Lagoon, and north of the Talavila sanctuary of St. Ann.
මුසලපිටිය
Muthaliyarkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MUDALIVAEVA
මුදලිවැව
Muthauyan Kaddakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MUDUNKOTUVA VAEVA
It is unlikely that the name has anything to do with "Burutha". 'Burutha' is Ceylon satinwood, Chloroxylon swietenia.
It is more commonly known in Tamil as 'Varimari' or 'Varimarai', etc.
Perhaps 'Buruthe' → Murutha → Muthau is unlikely. See "Muttiyankattu" below for a discussion of "Muduna" (sinhala).
මුදුන්කොටොව වැව
Muttiyankattu, Muththiankattu, Muttiankaddu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MUDUNKADUVA
"Mutti" in Tamil also indicates "crown", "head" etc., and agree with the sinhala meaning "Mudun", i.e., 'crest' or 'top'.   Area Map, and military activity in 2009
මුදුන්කඩුව
i Mutur,Muttur (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
MOODUTHORA, MOODUTHARA(anchor name), MODARA, Mutugama ?, Girinuwara ?
In Tamil, `Mooththa' means old, 'oor' is town or city
and 'muttur' may mean 'Old-city'
Hist. In 1762, Pybus, the British Ambassador to Kandy was received by the king's officers at Mooduthora, when Trinco was used as a port of the King of Kandy. Robert Knox surrendered to a Disawa of the King of Kandy, at Moodutara (Muttur)
G. D. A. Perera has suggested that "Mutur" is derived from "Old city", which was "Girirnuwara".
We feel that Girirnuwara was a much larger city, while Muttur, (c.f., Modara), is derived from Moodutara, and was a sea port near Girinuwara. The long pronunciation, "Mootur", which is locally found, is more consistent with Mooduthara, than the Tamil "Mutoor", where "oor", or "(p)oor" means village in Tamil, and sinhalizes to "Mutugama".
That is, the original Sinhala "Mooduthora" became Moothur and Mutur.
Note that many journalists write the name as "Muttur"
See Link to GDA Perera's article under "Sampur" .
මූදුතර,   මෝදර
Mutuaripputurai (Mannaram)
MOODUSIPPITHORA
Colonial ruins
මූදුසිප්පිතර
Mylanthanai, மயிலந்த னை (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
MAHILATHAENNA
'Mahila' in sinhala is a tree, also known as 'Moonamal' when used
in exorcisms etc in the low-country Sinhala areas. See discussion
There is some ambiguity as it may refer to Mimusops elengi
or to a small tree, Bauhinia racemosa, with jasmin-like flowers. See also under "Mahilavettuvaan'.
This area was noted by the Dutch Governor Rycloff Van Goens as being
"populated by the Kandyan King's subjects". Other related records are
given in Dutch records, nos. 2507-2508, SL National Archives.
Similarly, north-eastern villages were noted by 19th Century British
administrators like Hugh Neville to be populated by Sinhala peasants, and
changing to Tamil speaking populations coming to the interior from
the coastal area. This is similar to demographic changes in Kaddukulampattu.
(see entry there). Recently, this area has been subject to the ebb
and flow of the civil war and the character of the population has changed. accordingly.
මහිලතැන්න
Myliddy,Mayiliddi, Mailiddi(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MIRIDDA
See entry under "Mailaddi, Mayiliddy, Myliddy"
මහලියද්ද   මයිලැද්ද

N
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Naanaaddan, naanaattan(Mannarama [Mannar])
NAANADDDANA, NAANADESSA, Navanthanna
This is probably a settlement of merchants belonging to a trade guild that operated in the south-asian region, esp after the 8th Century. There were such settlements near Manthota, an important port The word `navandanna' may have arisen from the use of craftsmen by this guild.
Map
නානදද්න
Nachikuda, Nachchikuda, Nachchikkuda, Natchikkuda நாச்சிக் குடா (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
NAGATHUDAVA, NAKATHUDA
Disc.- This location, north of Mannarama (Mannar) is a very old pre-christian site, and linked with pre-Vijayan 'Naga' settlements. Even today Nachchikuda is a fishing port and has currently no religious significance. The use of the Tamil meaning 'nachchi'→'Lady'→Parvati→Kaamaakshi etc. is found in, for example the 'Naachchimaar Kovil', Jaffna, and signify the apotheosis of Naga animistic cults into Hinduism.
Possible sea-Tiger base here in 2008.
Military activity in July 2008     Regional map
නාගතුඩාව
Nachuvantivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NAPITADOOVA, Naapitadoova
Disc.- The name nachuvan may be நாசுவன், and this agrees with the Sinhala name 'Naapita' which is a reference to a Tamil barber caste.
නාපිට දූව
NaddanKandal(Vannimava[Vavniya])
NAEDAKADOLA
Disc.- 'Naddankandal' is most probably Tamil for for giant mangrove, e.g., Rhizophora mucronata, 'mahakadol or naedakadol. See p. 0688 of the Madras University tamil Lexicon.
Map
නැඩකඩොල
Naduturitti (Japanaya [Jaffna])
Madduriththa
Disc.- c.f., The name 'Maddu-riththa', or 'Madya-riktha', means 'middling' reef, or middling leftover-ledge, adjacent, in this case to Pungudoova (Pungathhetha of the Pali chronicles) or Tamil form: Pungativu.
මද්දුරිත්ත
NagarKovil, Nakarkovil, Naakarkoayil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAGAKOVILA
Military/LTTE confrontations. Nakar, Nagar can also mean Town. But we believe that here "Nakar" even in tamil is related to Naaga, see also Madras Tamil Lexicon, p 2198
නාගකෝවිල
Nagasivanthurai (Yaapanaya [Jaffna])
NAAGASIHATHOTA, NAGAESIVTHOTA
The names "Naagasiha", Naagasikha", and "Naagasiva" are found in early budhhist writings, and in the name " Nakhasikhā Sutta" of the Buddhist cannon. There are many allusions to Nagas in Buddhist and Jain texts. In Tamil, Naaga and Siva are not usually linked together in place names. But the two parts exist in Indian proper names (e.g., Naga Siva Kumar), and may have also been the origin of the place name. Shiva is worshipped as a snake god in India (e.g., Nageshwar). The Puranic account of the encounter of Krishna with the Naga king Kaliya, and his victory over the Nagas signify the suppression of the Naga cult by the Krishna-Vishnu main-stream Hinduism. In the Ramayana, "Surasa" is said to be the "mother" of the Nagas, and no divinity is attached to the Naagas. On the other hand, the MahaBhrata mentions "Kadru", wife of the sage "Kasyapa" as the mother of the snake people, i.e., the Nagas.
This costal location is near Punranna (Poornaryn), and has a boat yard jetty and communication center. The LTTE and the SL-navy have clashed often. News report Aug. 2008
නාගසීහතොට
Naidalnagar(Mooduthara[Muttur])
NAAGALNUVARA
Map and news item
නාගල්නුවර
Nainamadai (Puttalama)
NAGAMADUWA
නාගමඩුව
Nainamadu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NAGAMADUWA
නාගමඩුව
Nainativu, Nainathivu, Nayinativu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAGADEEPA, Naagadoova
Ferry link to main Island In ancinet times, he name "Nagadeepa"applied to the whole Jaffna peninsula. However, see Map of Buddhist sites in jaffna Regarding the Nainative edict by Parakramabahu VIII, Kathigesu Inthirapalan says "the fact that this edict was issued not by any subordinate official, but by the king himself shows that the monarch was in supreme control of the northern most region of the island?" (UCR.Vo.XXI, p.66). Legend attributes a visit here by the Buddha, to settle dispute between the nagas who lived on the mainland, and the "sea nagas" whos lived on the islands. A naga king (perhaps 3-4th century BCE), named Valavana (Valai Vanan in Tamil) is mentioned in the Manimekali.
The island would have been much larger and connected to the mainland during the last ice age some 5 centuries before the Buddhist era. Afet the conversion of lanka to Buddhism, it became a well known ancient (BC) Buddhist center. The "Nagapooshani Amman" temple has afive-head cobra figure,and shows how naga worship (God natha) has survived in low-brow Hinduism. The Naga Deva was adopted into Buddhism as the "Natha Deviyo", who is recognized as a Bodhisatva (a potential Buddha). There are many shrines to God Natha in Sri lanka, and the Naa tree (Ironwood tree) is closely associated with the shrine (see also, write up under:
Nalluruva,   Lankaweb article  Nagapoosahni temple

There has been a Military base on this island due to the LTTE war. The communist party activist and bookpublisher Poopalasingham was from this area. Map
නාගදීප

Nakanagar(Mooladoova[Mullaitive])
NAKANAGARA
Labeled #62 in Vanni Buddhist sites map Ancient Buddhist site
නාගනගර
Nalladarankattu (Puttalama)
NAALADAARAKADUWA
Naaladaara katuva is said to be a forest where a monk named Naala lived as a recluse.
නාලදාරකඩුව
Nallimuruppu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
MAEDAMURAKIYA
'Maeda-murakiya' means, a centally located watch-point. This meaning can also be accomodated within Tamil, as in "நள் +. Middle place, central", p 2182 of MTL
මැදමුරැකිය
Nallur (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
NAGAPURA, NALLURUVA. naagapura
නල්ලූරුව
Nallur (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAGAPURA, NALLURUVA. nalluruwa, naagapura, ⚓name: nalluruva
The English spelling Nellore was used in the 19th century, e.g., in CMS (Church Missionary Society) documents. Today it is a Murugan- shrine-centered suburb of Jaapanaya (Jaffna) 3 km south. The Kandasamy Nallur temple was built in 1807; the original shrine, destroyed by the Portuguese in 1625 honoured Hindu Gods, the Buddha, Prince Sapumal Abu-mahalu ~ Mahalu-abhaya as well as as an Islamic Sufi saint.
According to the Portuguese historian de Queroz, Nallur was populated by Sinhalese, Muslims, Vadukas, and Tamils. There were several tanks (reservoirs) in the area.

Although many theories exist for the origin of the place name (see below), we favour the following:
The earliest name for the whole of the Jaffna peninsula was Nagadeepa, or Naakadeepa. The capital of Nakadeepa was Nagapura → Nakpura → nakpur → nakkur → nallur. The Nagas lived in many parts of Sri Lanka including the Maaya Rata, with the capital near the mouth of the Kelani river. Naga Deviyo → Natha Deviyo is a deity revered in the Kelaniya Raja-maha viharaya (Buddhist temple) and many other Buddhist shrines. The place name "Nallur", i.e., Nagapura, is found even in the western province today. Similarly, the proto-forms of Nallur, viz., Nak-ur, Nagpur etc., exist even today in India, and in some place-name stems in Sri Lanka. A village near Panadura south of Colombo, and a coastal village near Mooduthora (Muttur) are known for their "Nalluruva" placename.
The Nagadeepa island (Nainaative, or Nagadoova) even today has a shrine to a five-headed Cobra. Today it is the sanctum of the Nagapooshani Amman Kovil, which is located near the nagadeep Vihara.  Nagapoosahni templein Nainativu

Pandit AM Gunesekera (1890s) had suggested that Nalluruva was originally 'Yahapura'. Similarly, suggestions that "Nallur" mean Nalla-(p)ur, or "good-city", given by Pandith W. F. Goonawardena, and also favoured by Gnanaprakasar are not consistent with the history of this region which was originally occupied by the Naga people (who presumably revered the Cobra as a sacred protective deity manifesting as the God Natha). The largest Buddhist shrine to God Natha was in Chavakakachcheri (Javakachcheri). This was destroyed by the Portuguese. All this is also consistent with the historical and legendary traditions recounted in the Pali chronicles.
Nallur was the principality of various local rulers of Nagadeepa until the advent of Chardrabhanu (13th century) who settled Javanese people near here, creating Jaapané (Jaffna), as discussed by Paranavithana. It has also been claimed to be the same as Chunguinayanar (Singai City). However, see Rasanayagam, History of Jaffna. The work Kailayamaalai refers to Nallur as Nallaimoodhoor, where 'Moodhoor' may be Mooduthora→Modara, i.e., sinhala (portal to the sea), or 'Mootur', i.e, 'old city' in Tamil as well since (p)oor=pura was absorbed in to Tamil.

Nallur (nagapura) is located at the eastern Edge of Jaffna, on the road to Irupalai (Hirupala). It has the old "Kandaswami Kovil", re-built by Parakrmabahu's generals in the 15th century as a goodwill gesture, then destroyed by the Portuguese, and rebuilt in the 18th century. Bhuvanekabahu's(1470-78) viceroy Sapumal Kumara ruled from Nagapura (Nallur).   Lankaweb article
See Giritharan for a recent discussion which is more of a a nationalistic treatment going beyond empirical historiography. LTTE 'fast-unto death' human-sacrifice of Tileepan was staged here.
President Rajapaksa visits Nallur Temple, Jan 10-2010
නාගපුර
නල්ලූරුව

Nambankulam, nampankulam (mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
SAMBUDUVAEVA
Labeled #86 in Vanni Buddhist sites map Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982 'Namban' could mean 'Sacred, divine', or of 'Siva' in T. map
සම්බුදුවැව
Namaloyai (Ampare)
NAMALOYA
නාමල්ඔය
Nanattan (Mannarama [Mannar])
NAVANTHANA
See Naanaaddan
නවන්තැන
Narakkali (Puttalama)
MORAKAELÉ
This is on the coastal strip of the Kalpitiya Lagoon
ෙමාරකැලේ
Narikulam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
NARIVAEVA
'Nari' in Sinhala, Malayalam, Tamil (Nariyadu) etc, means Jackal. IT could also more likely to be "Naari".
නාරිවැව
Nanjundankarai (Puttalama[Puttlam])
DEVIANDARA
MeaningTamil "nanjundan",or the one who "took poison" is a reference to Shiva and the legend of his retaining the poison in his throat, and "karai" is "side" or place". Thus the Sinhala "Deviandara" agrees with the tamil, God being "shiva". Note also, 'Devundara' in the south.
දෙවියන්දර
Nanthi Kadal, Nanti Kadal, Nandikadal(Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
NANDA KALAPUVA, Nandakadola
Kadala, Karal and kalal refere to to shallow sea near land. That is, a "kalapuva". The word "nandu" may be the stem fo "nadthi", and it could come the sanskrit "sanku" for conch shells. However, this should have given rise to the form "Nathuk-kadal". In fact, we have other place names involving "sanku", "Chanku" etc., e.g., Sangupitty, Sanguveli, but the form "nanthi" is not found. A more likely explanation of the etymology is that "Nanda, Nandhimitra" etc., are old Sinhala proper names which can be traced to the source languages (Sanskrit, Pali), and are probably connected with Nandi, the Bull-faced attendant of Siva.
Alternatively, it is common to find Mangroves in this sort of locality. In place names, trees are often the source of such names. Thus there is a very strong possibility that the root name is Nandakadola In Tamil as well, the word Kandal could have been the source of "Kadal", or it could be an adaptaton of "Kadola".
This is a lagoon where Mooladoova (Mullaitivu) is located, and served as an ancient sea port.This area has been the theater of dramatic escape of people from the No Fire Zone in 2009, or "safe-zone", during the last confrontarions of the LTTE in April-May 2009. See Report in the Island Newspaper
Map, A-34 to Welioya area
After the defeat of the LTTE in May 2009, Gen. Fonseka turned against President Rajapaksa and claimed that the Rajapaksa government ordered the killing of the white-flag bearing LTTE leaders seeking surrender. This claim was presumably made for electioneering purposes, at an interview with the Sunday Leader.i in Dec. 2009, without considering its wide implications. The ex-general contested the Predidential elections, as the candiate of the joint UNP, JVP and TNA, and garnered 38% Votes, mainly in the TNA-favouring areas, compared to Rajapaksa's 58%. Rajapaksa also captured a very respectable vote in the Tamil areas. (The 158,000 votes in 2010, from the Jaffna district, of which nearly 50,000 went tp Rajapaksa, compare well with the 130,000 or so that the TNA polled in the post 2000 elections.)   Predidential election 2010,
The unsubstantiated white-flag claims led to a court martal of Gen. Fonseka in Sept. 2010. Frederica Jansz's version, Jan 2010 : Fonseka on the demise of the LTTE leaders
නන්ද කලපුව
නන්ද කඩොල
Naranthanai, Narantanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAARANTHAENNA, Naarandeniya
In sinhala 'naaran' is a tangerine-like citrus variety (bot. Citrus crenatifolia). 'Thaenna'← Sthana' (Skrt.) is a common sinhala ending for 'place', 'location' In pure tamil '(s)thaanam' is used, and the form 'thanai' found only in Sri Lankan T. is probably a sign of adaptation from Sinhala. 'Naarai' can mean 'cranes and water birds' in Tamil. Map
නාරන්තැන්න
Naruvilikkulam(Mannarama[Mannar])
NARABILIVAEVA, BAHUVARAVAEVA
"Narabiliveava" is alleged to have earned its name from people drowning in it. The 'b" in Sinhala becomes 'v' in Tamil. An alternative name has also been suggested, viz., 'Bahuvara' or 'Koola" is a tree with cherry-like fruits
Cordia obliqua, and known as 'naruvili, ali, namviri' in Tamil.
නරඹිලිවැව   බහුවරවැව
Natchikkuda,Nachikuda (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
NAGATHUDAWA
නාගතුඩාව
Natpitiyamunai (Ampare)
HATHPITIAMUNA, HATHPITIMUNNA
Regional map
හත්පිටිඅමුන
Nattandi (Puttalama)
HATHHANDIYA (NATHTHANDIYA)
හත්හන්දිය,   නාත්තන්ඩිය
Navagirinagar (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NAVAGIRINAGARA
නවගිරිනගර
Navaly (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAVAELLA, Naavaella
නාවැල්ල
Navakkiri, Navarkiri (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
NAVAGGIRI
Disc.- A limestone Buddha had been discovered at Nilavari close by.
නවගිරි
Navanturai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
NAVANDARA
see Jaffna map1
නවන්දර
Navathampirumkerni (Japanaya [Jaffna])
NAVAGAMPURAKAENNA
Postal code: BCS30018
The names means the digout (or quarry) for the 'new village', in Sinhala. This is in the "Punagudoova (Punkuduthivu) island east of the Jaffna penninsula.
නවත්කඩුව
Navatkaddu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NAVATHKADUWA
Postal code: BCS30018
'Nawat-tuduva, Nawat-alwatta and Navat-hispane' are known. Postal code BCS30018 same name exists in yapanaya and Mannarama as well.
නවත්කඩුව
Navatkuli (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NAVTHTUDUWA, NAVATHKULIYA

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
See also entry under Navatkaddu (Madakalapuwa)
See Map
නවත්තුඩුව   නවත්කුලිය
Navithanveli (Ampare)
NAAVITAVAELLA
Possibly from the Skrt. 'Naapita', i.e, babar (caste or profession) See Map Postal code: APRS32308
නාවිටවැල්ල
Nawaladi, Navaladi (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
NAWALAEDDA, NAVALA
  Regional map
නවලැද්ද   නාවල
Nayanmarkaddu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
MAAGALMANKADA
The name originates from the existence of a passage way near a "mahagal", or bastion-like stone work in a fort or temple. Note that the Nallur temple is near by. The Sinhala "mahagal → Maagal → naayal in Malayalam is distorted to Nayan in tamilized adaptation. The LTTE leader Pottu Amman is from this area.
මාගල් මන්කඩ
Nayaru (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
NAAYAARA
The name refers to an "ara" or "oya" which has originated from the ground sinking and erosion. This has been cited as a se-tiger base during the civil war.
see Map
නායාර
Nedunkandal, nedung kandal (mannarama[Mannar])
NADUNKADOLA
This name may probably be attributed to a type of mangrove, botanical name Kandelia rheedii. or Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora candel. The word 'kandal' may also be a tamilization of 'gandara', that is, the watery edge or swamp, where gan =river and 'dara' is related to 'addara'. map
නැදුන්කඩොල

Nedunkerney, Nedunkaerni, Nedunkeni(Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NADUNKURANA, Nadunkaenna
Labeled #51, #56 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982 There are two modern 'Naedunkerni's as well. These are along the Vavniya-Mullativu road. An important set of ruins is associated with a stupa, remnants of a temple, and a small tank Around it there are many stone slabs, inscriptions etc. Nedun tree is the Sinhala name for 'Pericopsis mooniana', (Latin) while "Kaenna" is a fast tense of "Kaeneena", to dig. Map
නැදුන්කුරන
නැදුනකැන්න
Nedunkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NADUNVAEVA
නැදුන්වැව
Nedunteevu, Delft (Jaffna [Japanaya])
Meadundoova, Naedundoova, Nedunduva see Delft
මැදුන්දූව
නැදුන්දූව
Neduvarampu(Mannaram[Mannar])
NAEDIVARAMA
Disc.- Land given to a king's relation.
නැදිවරම
Neelavanai, Periya Neelaavanai, நீலாவணை (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NEELAVANAYA MAHA-NEELAVANAYA
This is in the GS area of Galmunna (Kalmunai) and the name "neelavanaya" arises from the blusih appearance of the landscape ("vanaya") as reflected in the lagoon. See also Thuai-neelavanai (Neelavanthota).
නීලවනය
Neerkozimpu, Negambo (Halavatha [Chilaw])
MEEGAMUVA, MEEGAMUWA
"Mee→Nee", "Gammuva→Gambo", gives the European "Negambo". The name Meegamuva may refer to a village which was reputed for its honey. Thus the Mahavamsa-based tradition has it that honey was procured from this region for Queen Vihara Maha Devi, (2 century BCE). It could also refer to a forest of Mee trees (Madhuca Longifolia (Koenig). Another legend is that the name is related to "Nihumbala", the Nephew of the Yakka king "Raavana". The Tamil form நீர், nīr, may mean water, and 'colompu' is sometimes claimed to mean 'village', but such a meaning is not recognized in standard Tamil Lexicons. Also, the Tamil name originally applied to the lagoon-like area, and, given the ancient history of the village, it may have come from the sinhala "kalapuva" attached to tamil "nir". Thus "Neerkozimpu" is probably based on the older name "meegamuva→ neer-kalampu→Neerkozimpu".
Maya Oya flows north of Negambo and falls into the ocean near Kochchike.

This was an early center of the cinnamon trade, set up by the Moors in medieval times. The Portuguese ousted them in the 16th century and built a fort, and established a strong Catholic religious centre here. The Dutch ousted the Portuguese in the 1644 CE. The ruins of the fort, with its fine archway marked '1672' can still be seen. In 1796 the British took over Negombo, by which time the cinnamon trade had declined. The town has remained strongly Roman catholic to this day.

Frivolous folk-lore etymology attributes the name 'Negambo' to "nikam biruva'. A a dog 'just barked' is said to be the response given by a non-comprehending bystander to a colonial who asked 'what is the name of this town?.
මීගමුව
Neervely, Neelaveri (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NEELAVAELLA, NILAVERIYA
Hist. Limestone Buddha found here, now in Jaffna museum
Ancient well, Bo tree and unexcavated site. Stone pillars etc. Pre-christian to 6th century (?) Buddhist site Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/N/56 folio 73 Blue Indigo is "Nil Averi", and this may also be the origin of the name.
නීලවැල්ල, නිල්ඇවරිය
Neeraviyadi, Neeraaviyadi (Anuradhapura)
NIRAVADIYA
'Neeravi' could mean an open space/park with a well, as in a game sanctuary. This location, only 6km north of Anuradhapura, may have been an old park or sanctuary. 'nirvyaadhi' Sanskrit, means 'no-hurting' presumably, of animals. 'Niravi', Malayalam, signifies a well.
නෙල්ලියද්ද
Nelliyaddi, Nelliyadi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
NELLIYADDA
'Nelli', (phyllanthus emblica, 'Dhatri' in Skrt., is a medicinal fruit. LTTE' first suicide bomb, by "Captain Miller", 5 July 1985 occurred here. "Miller" is Vallipuram Vasanthan, from Peduru Thuduva(Point Pedro). See also, entry under "Umrumpirai"
නෙල්ලියද්ද
Nelukal (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NELUGALA
Hist. Very ancient (3d century BC), extremely important Buddhist ruins Stupas, Pilima ge, meditation caves, fountains etc. 2 century Stone inscription Destruction. Forced occupation, New Hindu Kovil built.
නෙලුගල

Nelukulam, Nelukkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NELUNVAEVA
Labeled #102 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Disc.- Note that 'Nelun' is not in the Tamil Lexicon. Latin Nelumbo nucifera , Tamil 'Ambala'. Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri Hist. 30 ft. stupa, set on a square stage, stone support rod constructed to hold a stone circular structue at the center Excavations show stages of construction, from 3-6 century B.C. Other old ruins of temples etc, stone pillars etc. Recent attempts to build a Hindu kovil here Destruction This site has been completely destroyed. The stupa has been flattened and a trident (trishula) has been embedded on a concrete slab This was raised in parliament(Hansaard report), Oct. 7, 1983 See Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/N/57 folio 124,22,185 Map
නෙලුන්වැව
Neriyakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NERIYAVAEVA
'Ne-eriya' is probably a kind of tall grass; c.f., Minneeriya is the well known Tank built by Mahasena, 3Cen. AD
නෙලුන්වැව
Nilavarai,(Yapanaya[Jaffna]) NEELAVEHERA, NILAAVARA
This is in the Vaeligama (Valikamam) DRO div., near Navagiri(Navakkiri). Ancient Buddhist site; A Buddha statue in the "Abhaya-Mudra" has been recovered and displayed in the Jaffna museum. There
are ruins of a ~10CE dagaba, shrine room etc. Indraratne (Thesis, 1965) writes: "A lime-stone Buddha image and the remains of an ancient dagaba were unearthed at Nilavarai, in Navakiri. Among the debris were two sculptured fragments of shaped coral stones with a stone railing design. According to D.T. Devendra, who conducted the excavation at this site, the dagaba can be dated at least to the tenth century A.D. Near these ruins are the foundations of an ancient building and in the middle of these is a modern Siva temple. It has been conjectured, and rightly so, that the old foundations are those of the vihara attached to the ancient dagaba.
The plant known in 'Sinhala as Seneha' (laxative) or nilaevari,
'Cassia senna', is known as 'avaram, nilavirai, nilavakai, and
Nilavarai' in Tamil.
නීලවෙහෙර
Nilaveli (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
NILVAELLA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Old dutch ruins.
This is a very popular beach area. The `pigeon island', (Parei gala, Purankallai, ?, புறா=pigeon; two rocky islands inhabited by Rock pigeons) is a nature reserve under the nay since 2003. It is one km into the sea, and is unusal for its coral-covered shores. Pigeon islands
නිල්වැල්ල
Nintavur (Ampare)
NINDAPURA
Nidndagama, or Nidndapura are alotments given by the king to
temples of feudal chiefs. Today it is mostly a moslem region, with
great sociological interest from the point of the "kula-vrige" (Kudivali)
system. See the account of the caste system under batticaloa.
See also The land of Matri-clans by A Hussein.
War: Massacre of Muslims, June 1990
Postal code APRP32340
නින්දපුර
Nirveli(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MIRIVILA
see Jaffna map1
ම්රිවිල

Niraviya(Vannimava[Vavniya])
NOT a tamilized place named
Ancient Buddhists site.
Labeled #80 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
නිරලිය
Nasiventivu(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Nadee-paen-doova
Dis.- 'Nadee' in Sanskrit → river.
'Paen' → water
Vedda villages were located here
නදීපැන්දූව
Niyankallikulam, Niankallakulam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NIYAGALAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982
Euphobia Tirukalli, is known in Tamil as 'Kalli',
The sinhala name has prompted the 'Niyan' prefix.
Although 'Niyagala', Gloriosa Superba is 'kantal' or '..kilangu', the
form 'Niyankallikulam' is a transliteration of the Sinhala "Niyangala---". This cyanide containing plant is poisonous. The LTTE has adopted the flower as their 'official flower'.
නියංගලාවැව
Nochchikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NIKAVAEVA
This is close to Vvniya town.
නිකවැව

Nochchimoddai, Nochcimotte (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
NIKAMOTTE
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. Nika is 'nika' tree 'Vitex negundo', see 'Killinochchi'. Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri. About 8km north of Vannimava, and near the stream "Parangi-ara", there many ancient buildings with stone pillars and remnants of a Buddhist monastery. Bulldozers used here for framing etc., are destroying these ruins. The railway bridge (located between Tandikulam and Omanthai (Omanda)) was destroyed by the LTTE but was rebuilt in 2010. Labeled #77 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
නිකමොටේ
Norochcholai , Norachcholai, Nuraicholai (Puttalama)
MORAGOLLA,
The name probably arose from "Mora", Nephelium longanum. It is a large tree with small lychee-like fruits. In Eastern-province Tamil it is also known as Murali or Nurai. The name "Murali" for Nephelium longanum itself seems to be a modification of the Sinhala "Mora", as it is not known in other Dravidian languages.
The word stems "Nora", "Noro" or related forms do not occur in Tamil. In effect, the changes "Mora → Nora → Nora" seem to accommodate "cholai", the tamilized version of Golla=grove. In sinhala, and also in some Hindi forms, "golla" is also used for people (logga), as in the Sinhala "Devigolla"=gods, "Degolla"=two-groups of people etc. "Golla → kollai → choalai → cholai" சோலை cōlai. The form "nurai" also means ``paddy stub'' in Tamil and Malayalam, a word-stem found in the place name "Nuraicholai". This is a neighbouring area. The place name "Nuraicholai" is also found in the Ampare district.

Initilaly highly contested installation of 900MW coal-powerd electricity Generation station, funded with a Chinese grant. First stage completed in 2010. Second and 3rd stages to be completed by 2012. Development spin-off in the area.
මොරගොල්ල
Nunavil(yapanaya[Jaffna])
AHUVILA
Disc.- 'Ahu' has the botanical name Morinda citrifolia This is a type of Mulberry, and is known as 'noni' or 'nuna' in Tamil. see Jaffna map1
අහුවිල
Nunakal(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
THIUNGALA
This is in the Punguduthive (punkuduthivu) Island Here 'Thiun' means 'thiunu' or sharp, and refers to the sharpness of the corals The Tamil name 'nuna' can probably give a similar sense. See Map
තියුන්ගල
Nuraichchoalai (Ampara, also Puttalama) MORAGOLLA, Horagolla
The name probably arose from "Mora", Nephelium longanum It is a large tree with small lychee-like fruits. In Tamil it is also known as Murali or Nurai.
Nuraicholai, Puttalam is on the coastal strip of the Kalpitiya Lagoon. See also Norochcholai.
මොරගොල්ල

O
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Odawelikulam, Odavelikulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MAKULAVAEVA, MAKULUVAELI VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982. Labeled #57 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මකුලවැව   මකුලුවැලිවැව
Oddakarantivu, Oddakarentivu, Ottakarantivu (Puttalama)
OTHTHAKADOOVA, Uddakaadoova
'Oththan', malayalam, (ஒட்டன்) are a labourer-caste group involved in digging tanks etc, and/or trade-guild, possibly descendants of people from Orissa (Kaalinga), Ottar, who came with the Maagha invasions. 'Ottam' is also a Kerala folk dance. See write up on Oddamavadi given below.
ඔත්තන්කන්ද
උද්දන් දූව
Oddamkulam, Oddankulam, Oththankulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
OTHTHANKANDA, Uddakanda
This located on the Vannimava (Vavuniya)-Dunukaaya (Thunukkai) road. See write up on Oddamavadi given below.
ඔත්තන්කන්ද
උද්ද කන්ද
Oddamavadi, Oddaimavadi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
OThThAN-VADIYA, Uddan-vaadiya
'Oththan' are a labourer-caste group involved in digging tanks etc, and/or trade-guild, possibly descendants of people from Orissa (Kaalinga), Ottar, who came with the Maagha invasions. 'Ottam' is also a Kerala folk dance. Ottacci is used for Fuller's earth, but this is not found in this region. map
ඔත්තන්වාඩිය
උද්දන් වාඩිය
Odduchudan,Oddusuddan,Oddusudan,Oddichuddan (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
OThThAN-THUDA, Uddanthuda
Disc.- 'Oththan' are a labourer caste group and/or trade guild, probably linked with Orissa. 'Oddevaadu' in Tamil. War:- Many battles between LTTE and SLF here. Ratwatte, 1998 Map
Postal code: BCP30420
ඔත්තන්තුඩ
උද්දන් තුඩ
Oddupeli(yapanaya[Jaffna])
UDUPAELLA
see Jaffna map1
උඩුපැල්ල

Odiyamalai, Otiyamalai, Othiyamalai (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
UTHTHIYAKANDA
Labeled #91 in Vanni Buddhist sites map Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
Disc.- 'Odiya' has no Tamil meaning; 'Ottia' could refer to sorcery However, given that this is an ancient Buddhist site, and 'Uththiya' is a canonical Buddhist name, thus 'Othiya' may be a translit. of Uththiya. We need more authentication for this name. The hill forms one side of a tank; there are remains of a temple, limestone Buddha etc. at the site. Buddhist ruins extend over at least a square mile. A Kovil has been erected recently on the tank bund. map
උත්තියකන්ද

Odivettikulam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
UDAVAEDDAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri. This location is labeled #83 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
උඩවැද්දවැව
Okantai, Okanda mallai(Yala)
OKANDA, Okanda
"O,ඕ" in Sinhala means "yonder", as in "Obadawatta", "Omanda" etc. "Kanda" is a small hill.
This is an eastern entry point to the Yala sanctuary, and a seasonal hamlet for fishermen. That is, starting from Pothuvila, through the villages of Panama and Helava, arrive into Okanda. The Okanda-Kudumbigala is a shrine dedicated to Alexander the great, subsequently deified as Iskander or Skandha, the God of Katharagama. Cults associated with Valli Amma, Ukantha Malai, Velayudha, Murugan, Al Khadir (Moslem) etc. also flourish. The Murugan Devala has a note-worthy entry tower Gopuram. The "Valli-amma" temple is on the "Okanda malai", where "malai" in Tamil, and "malé in Sinhala is another word for "knada", or hill, or rock. Murugan (Skandha), Valli and Devani are claimed to have arrived in Lanka using stone boats and landed near Okanda.
Ancient Buddhist meditation caves are found nearby, e,g,, at Kottadamuhela, and in Kudimbigala. Map
ඕකන්ද
Olumadu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
OLUMADUWA
ඕලුමඩුව

Oluvil, Oluwil (Ampare
OLUVILA)
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning. The meaning of the sinhala place-name is self-evident.
Marginalization by the peace process and fear of living under a terrorist LTTE regime radicalized many young Muslims, who began to demand a separate Muslim region in the southeast. On January 29, 2003, students of the South Eastern University put forward a separatist Muslim platform- the Oluvil Declaration. Echoing the 1976 Tamil separatist declaration, the Batakotte (Vaddukodai) Resolution, it asserted that Muslims are a separate nation with claims to a 'traditional homeland', self-determination, and political autonomy apart from both Tamil and Sinhala domination.
The Oluvila fisheries habour and port project has been supported by Denmark. The port authority uses the palatial house built by Mr. Asharaff as its circuit bangalow.
JVP activists have worked against the port project (due to local politics), claiming that the Piyangala rock is being used as a source of stone, destroying "ancient veddha frescoes". We visited the Piyangala rock caves as well as the stone quarry in June 2009. We talked to the monks who lived there, and found that the politically motivated newspaper claims were unfounded. In 2009, the Piyangala cave monastery was still protected by an army unit as this had been an area subject to strong LTTE attacks.
The Oluvila harbour project is on track. Sunday Observer 1st August 2010 report
ඕලුවිල

Omanthai, Omantai, Omanthei (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
OMANDA, Omantha, Omaththa
Road-side destination board. Labeled #79 in the clickable Vanni Buddhist sites map, Omanda turns out to be an ancient Buddhist site.
The name "Omanthai" in Tamil has no clear contextual meaning. However, in Sinhala it has a very clear meaning where the "O, ඕ" means "yonder", as in 'Obatawatta', 'Omatta', 'Okanda', 'Omaththa' etc. The "O" sound with the same meaning occurs in "Oba", i.e., 'you'. The sinhala word "manda" is derived from the same Indo-European cognate as "mundane", "earthly, muddy", or "manda" in Sanskrit. In Latin, "mateo" signifies a "marsh". while the sinhala 'Maetta' means a 'mire' or 'clay-laden' place.

With the renovation of the Omandtha-Jaffna railroad (destroyed by the LTTE), the railroad sign was written to correctly reflect the names Omantha and Omanthai in Sinhala and Tamil respectively, instead of the exclusive use of the Tamil form imposed by the Tigers. However, some writers, egged on by Tamil nationalists, claimed this to be an example of "Sinhalization". See Discussion about Omantha and Omanthai, Sept. 2011, Island Newspaper. Hist. Buddhist ruins. Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Omanda was the checkpoint (LTTE) and entry into Vanni during the Eelam wars. Read Omantha check-point Three-hour delays at the Tiger frontier were not uncommon. Such delays may have sometimes been used for arranging attacks on conveys that would be marked for their destruction. Rajive Wijesinghe on NGOs entering the Vanni   Sri Lanka, A9 to reconcilliation, euronews 2012
ඕමන්ද

P
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PaalamPoddaaru(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
BALANBODA ARA, BALANGODA ARA
The 'p' in Tamil often replaces the 'B' in Sinhala. Thus 'Balanboda' is probably more likely than Balanagoda. Tamil 'Pottal→poddal', open space → 'boda'. The word "boda" also occurs in words like "Obodawatta", "Mebodawatta", in Sinhalese villages . Recent (2005s) construction of a Buddha statue here has lead to ethnic acrimony
බලන්බොඩ ආර
Pachchilaipalli, Periya Pachchilai Pallai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi], Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PATHTHIRAPAHALA, PATHTHIRAPALLIYA
Hist. Baldeus, 1658, Patchiarapahlle
Disc.- 'Pathhira' tree is also known as "rata-goraka" tree Skrit: Pichchalabija, Malaylam, K.: Paccila, T: Pachchila. Botany: Garcinia family. 'Palli' could refer to a non-hindu (e.g, jain, Buddhist) shrine or, a low-lying region, or 'back-yard, and may imply 'burial grounds'. Also, 'palli','halli, alli' mean village or place ('pala' in S.), a current usage in telugu and kannada (c.f., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli.) It also means a place of worship as villages usually involved a temple. In modern usage in SL, it refers to a christian church or mosque.

This village is mentioned in Paul E. Pieris's Kingdom of Jaffnapatam" where we are told that “In the time of the native Kings the inhabitants of Pachchilapalai and Illidematual used to go to the Vanni to cultivate camas (Sinhalese gam -villages) there and would pay to the renters from ten to twenty lachas (Sinhalese Laaha, a measure of grain, and correspondingly, the area coverd by sowing the grain) of foodstuffs for each cama, in accordance with its size.
පත්තිරපහල
Padahuthurai(Mannarama[Mannar])
PAARUTHOTA
Disc. 'Padahu' in Kannada for small 'Pada' boat
The Tamil word is 'patavu', படவு,
'Paaruva' is a similar sinhala word This a small coastal hamlet near Mannarama and there is no Map Map of Mannar
පාරුතොට
Padappamodi, Pattapamoddei (Mannarama[Mannar])
VAETAPAMADÉ
This is located on the Mannarama-Punranna (Poonaryn) road. The name means a muddy area designated by a fence or a parapet wall, bund etc. The etymology of "modei, moddei" etc., has been discussed previously (see, e.g.,Tuvarimoddei ). "Padappa" in Tamil may also mean a "vaththa (sinhala)", i.e., a garden or region demarcated by a fence or barrier.
වැටපමඩේ
Padavikulam, Pathavikkulam(ANURADHAPURA district)
PADAVIVA`VA
පදවිවැව
Padaviya (ANURADHAPURA district)
PADAVIYA
This is an ancient name resurrected during the D. S. Senanayake's time when irrigation schemes were being constructed. Tamil nationalists claim the name "Parvathi Giramam", a name introduced in recent times. Padaviya, or Padavi-parakrama pura is situated in the North-Eastern part of the North Central province, bordering the Northern and Eastern provinces; ~96 kilometers from Anuradhpura. There are relatively few Brahmi cave inscriptions in and around Padaviya. Gradually the region developed to be the centre of the Eastern Division (Pacinadesa) of the 'Rajarata'. One of the earlier names of Padaviya was Padinnoru which is derived from the Pali form Pacina-nagara or the Eastern city. It also came to be known as Padirattha or Padavi country. The Padaviya tank was built by King Mogggllana in the 6th century CE., and known as Dhanavapi, and subsequently Padavapi. The Moragoda inscription of Kassapa IV (898-914) records the grant of immunities to a track of land belonging to a Buddhist monastery irrigated by the reservoir. The inscriptions and ruins in and around Padaviya indicate that the region had grown into a large town of commercial and religious importance by the 11th century. During the Chola rule of the rajarata (1017-1070 CE), Hindu temples etc., were constructed. A Tamil inscription from the 26th year of the Chola king Raja raja I records endowments of gold lamps, cows and other gifts to the saiva temple in Padaviya. A Tamil inscription referring to Chettis, Nanadesis and Ainnrruvar (south Indian trading communities) is found in Padaviya (c.f., R. L. Brohier). tamil inscriptions of the 11th century show that Padaviya was an important trading center with links to Gokanna. After the demise of the south Indian invasions, Parakramabahu I restored the padaviya tank. A stone inscription on the bund of the Padaviya tank claims that Parakramabahu I constructed it; but this should be understood to mean that he restored it. Ancient names and builders of the Padaviya and nachchaduva tanks
For historical aspects of irrigation, colonization etc., see the entry under "Galoya".
පදවිය
Paddanichipuliyankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PADANTHA-KODTIVAEVA
පදන්තකොටිවැව
Paddippalai,Padippali(Ampare) GALOYA
Now identified with the 'Galoya development project, spear-headed In 1936, D.S. Senanayake as Minister of Land and Agriculture proposed to dam the Galoya river at Inginiyagala and divert the waters to a build a large reservoir, and proposed the Gal-Oya multi-purpose project. The dam is 3,600 feet long and 154 feet tall at its highest point. J. S. Kennedy, the Director of Irrigation, proposed a deep-water reservoir to prevent loss of water by evaporation. The reservoir was appropriately named Senanayake Samudra (sea) the biggest man-made tank in the whole of Ceylon. Gal Oya Development Board spent a US $67.2 million on the Galoya colonization project. The dam was built by the American engineers, Morrison Knudsen of San Francisco, completing it in 1947. The Gal Oya Board was officially inaugurated by Senanayake, the first prime minister, on August 28, 1949. Tamil Nationalists led by G. G. Ponnambalam accused Senanayake of discriminatory colonization favoring the Sinhalese, during the years leading to these colonization schemes. These accusations were rejected by the Soulbury commission. Michael Roberts, reviewing the period 1920-1955, claims that there is no evidence for for a 'racial land grab' in the colonization policies of that period. However, tamil nationalists continue to claim this as "addippalai Aru", a part of "Tamil Homelands". In fact, much of the `"dry zone" have been claimed as "Traditional homelands" by the Ilankai Tamil Arasu kadchchi since 1949, and this claim has been reaffirmed at the vadukkoddai (batajkotte) resolution of 1976, and the TNA claims of the 2010 manifesto. A recent review of Dry zone colonisation and myth of demographic displacement of Tamils" has been given by Prof. Shantha K. Hennayake Department of Geography University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
See Tamil Claims.
ගල්ඔය

Paddikudiruppu, Pattikudiruppu(Vannimava[Vavniya])
PATHIKULISSA, PADIKULISSA
Labeled #26 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Disc.-'Patti' in Dravidian languages and in Sinhala have meanings associated with cow hearding. However, given the ancient Buddhist history of this site, the name "Path", derived from "Pathra" means that this is a village designated by a royal decree or "Pathra" Thus "Patti" is a "designated village", a usage found in Kannada and also Tamil etc. 'Kuliya', Kulissa, in S. and 'Kudiyirupu' in T. both mean 'quaters' or area;
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
See Paddiruppu below Also, alternatively 'Padda' or 'Paedi'is a caste group'.
Map
පත්කුලිස්ස
Padiennakulam, Padiannakulam, Patiannakulam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PADIYANTHA VAEVA, the 'D' is soft, like 'the'.
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982.
පදයන්ත වැව
Paddiruppu(Madakalapuwa[batticaloa])
PADIRISSA
"Pati", in Tamil may mean 'hamlet, quarters', etc. In K. and M., it becomes 'padi'. The Sinhala 'Pada', 'Padaviya' etc., are related to 'Pradaanthya', or settlement. Map
පදරිස්ස

Padivettikulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
PARIVAASAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri. A large rock plateau; three excavated ponds; set of stone steps. Several caves and ruins of at least 10 temple buildings are scatterd here. Labeled #125 in Buddhist sites map
පරිවාස වැව
Paduvankara.(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
PADDANKARA
Disc.- 'Puduvankara' in Tamil could mean "shores of the rising (sun)". However, the name is "PADU-" and not "Pudu-" or "Puthu-". This is an east coast village, and the Sinhala name relates to a caste-designated hamlet. The "Padu" or "Padda" caste, also known as the "bathgama" caste is an agricultural "low"-caste group. There was a significant presence of "Padu" people in the Kumana forest area, and in the Batticaloa jungles. Some of them may have been low-caste Kandyan peasants forcibly evicted by the British when creating coffee plantations. A similar caste name exists among the Sikhs, but no connection with the "Padu" caste of the Sinhalese has been established. The "padu" people were also used as palanquin bearers during colonial times. See D. Wickramanayake's article (p179-190) in: "Case studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, A world survey", Vol II, Edited by Willem Veenhoven et al., (Published by M. Nijhoff, The Hauge 1975).
A newspaper article on the caste system in Sri Lanka
Padda caste among the Sikhs
'Kara" here implies a costal location, and is not related to the "Karaava" caste.
පද්දන්කර
Pairikkodddal, Payirikkoodal பயிரிக்கூ டல் Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PAS-IRI-GODAELLA
"Pas-iri" is a ground creeper [meaning "lines (iri) on sand (පස් pas)"] with small fleshy leaves, related to the Purslane family. Also, note that "Dheera" in Sanskrit. → Iri or the Tamil "Keera" for herbs. Hence see the discussion under Hirikaaenna (Thiraykkeani, Tiraaikeni). 'Godaella' is from 'ගොඩ' as in the sinhala 'egoda', 'megoda' etc., i.e., a stretch of high ground. The is a small location in Karainagar island.
පස් ඉරි ගොඩැල්ල
Palachenai (madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PALUHENA, PAHALAHENA
Disc. 'Palaa' is green herb or 'Keerai' War: Sea Tiger base.
පලුහේන, පහලහේන
Palachcholai (Madakalapuwa [batticaloa)]
PAHALAGOLLA, PALUGOLLA
See Map
පහලගොල්ල   පලුගොල්ල
Palai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
PAALLA, PALUYAYA
Palai is also a common Malayalam place name. The 'Palu' (timber) tree is Mimusops indica, and is known in Tamil as 'Paalai'. The tendency in Tamil to substitute 'p' for the sinhala 'v' may suggest an origin from the sinhala 'vala', i.e., depression or water-hole. However, 'vala' usually occurs with a prefix to it, as in 'Vattap-palai'. See areas 236,237 in Map for 'Chankanai, Sandilipai, Tellipallai'
පාල්ල, පලුයාල
Palaikkadu, Pallaikkaadu, Pallikaadu (Ampara)
VIHARAKAELE
Vihaara→Palli, Kaele → Kattu→Kaadu seems to be the evolution
of the tamilized form for the old Sinhala name.
This is close to Deeghavaapi and once part of the
temple lands. Now it is being used for a Saudi sponsored
Housing complex.
විහාරකැලේ
Palaikkallu (Vannimava[Vavniya])
PALUGALLA
Map
පලුගල්ල
Palaikkuli, Paalaikkuli (Mannaram[Mannar])
PALUKKULIYA

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
MAP
පලුකුලිය
Palaimoddai (Vannimav[Vavniya])
PALUMOTTE
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. 'Palu' is a timber tree. Map
පලුමොටේ

Palaimoddai,Palaikoddai(Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
PALUMOTTE, PALUKOTTE
'Motte ← Modde ← Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place. The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime. 'Kotte ← kotuva' usually means a fortified or secured square. Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982 Labeled #48 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
පලුමොටේ
Palaitalvu (Mannarama[Mannar])
PALUTALAAVA
MAP
පලු තලාව
Palaitivu Giranikke [Killinochci])
PALUDOOVA
is an island near Poonakary (Pinkaraya). The same name occurs for an island near Pungadoova in the Jaffna district. පලු දූව
Palaiyadikkulam (Jaffna )
PALUYAAVAEVA
This signifies a tank near ('ya' ← yaabada) Palu trees.
Map
පලුයාවැව
Palaiyatisirukkulam, Palaiyadisirukkulam (Mannarama[Mannar])
PALURAAJAVAEVA
The name probably means 'Tank near dominating Palu trees'.
Map
පලුරාජවැව
Palaly, Palali (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PALUYALA (ALYALA?)
War Airforce base, runaway etc Map, Eealm war iv Mahindapala on Austin Fernado's visit to Palaly
පලුයාල
Palamattalan (M ooladoova [Mullaitivu])
PALAMASSALA
This was part of the No Fire Zone in 2009 LTTE last stand. civilian hostages of the LTTE, and area map
පලාමස්සල
Palamoddai,Palmottai (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PALAMOTTE
'Palaa' is 'green herbs' in Sinhala
'Motte ←- Modde ←- Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime.
Ancient Buddhist site.
Slab inscription in Sinhala by King Vijayabahu (10 CE.)
පලාමොටේ
Palampiddy (Mannarama [Mannar])
PAELUMPITIYA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, see p.78 E Medhanada(2003).
පැලුම්පිටිය
Palampoddaru(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
PALUPOTHOYA
පලුපොත්ඔය
Palamunai (Ampare)
PAHALAMUNNE
පහලමුන්න
Palavi, (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
PALAAVA
See Palavi in Puttalam for a discussion.   Regional map
පලාව
Palavi, Pallawi,Paalaavi(Puttalama[Puttlam])
PALAAVA
Meaning "Pallavi" in Tamil stands for the lead stanza which defines the tune of a Karnatic poem/song or dance ritual. It is also a personal name in North India, but it hardly found as a place name. A form of Brahmi script, and an Odessi classical dance are also called "Pallavi". However, 'Paal' in T. is milk; and the word 'aavi' is a tamilzed form of the sinhala 'vaapi or 'vaeva' for an irrigation tank. Thus 'aavi' does not occur in tamil nadu with this meaning. But one may stretch the Tamil etymology a little bit and 'Paalaavi'may perhaps be a 'reservoir' with milky water. On the other hand, if we assume that this is a sinhala place name, then the meaning is more direct. It is also a common place name found in the south. The sinhala "palaava" implies a place where 'greens' (palaa), i.e., herbs, are found or grown. The same old sinhala place name occurs in Mannar and Jaffna.
පලාව
Palayadithona, Palaiyadittona, Paalaiyadiththoa'naa (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
PALUDONA
'Palu' is a timber tree, Mimusops indica, and 'dohona' is an inlet (c.f. 'donaava') in Sinhala. Map
පලුදොන
Pali Aru (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
PAEHAELI OYA
This empties into the western seaboard near Bellanvaeva (Vellankulam). "Paehaeli" here probably means "free-flowing" or "clear".
පැහැලිඔය
Palk Strait, Palk straits, Palkkai sandhi, Palkkai-sandhi (Mannarama [Mannar])
SETH-SAMUDRA YAAVA
The Tamil name 'Palkai-sandhi (பாக் சலசந்தி), or Palkai jalasandhi is sometimes mentioned, and is clearly an adaptation of the English name (after Robert Park, the Governor of the Madras British Protectorate during the middle of the 18th century). The Sinhala usages 'saagara-yaava' for strait, moodhu yaav', or samudra yaaya සමුද්‍ර යාය are consistent with the word 'sandhiya', derived from Sanskrit.
The Sanskrit epic, Ramayana. is mythical history enshrined in the Ramayana epic, where an army led by Hanuman the monkey king, comes to help Rama to get back Sita, i.e., his wife who had been abducted by Ravana, the king of Lanka. The name Rama Sethu රාමසේතුවhas been being associated with the natural ridge that connects Dhanushkodi (India) with Talaimannar (Lanka) Sinhala and the 'Palk strait' connects the ocean across the 'Raamaseth'. Palk strait is appropriately called the seth samudrayaaya, or the `sethu mooduyaaya' සේතු මූදු යාය
The Indian continent and Lanka were connected by relatively dry land during the most-recent glaciation and humans and animals passed across from Lanka to India and vice versa (see Who were the Nagas, Jains, and Buddhists in Pre-Christian Lanka ? . In addition, Lanka was an important sea route bringing in Sumerian and other early sailors. The Ramaayana alludes to hoards of monkeys and other 'forces' of Rama crossing to Sri Lanka to fight Ravana, the legendary Raksha king of Lanka. Thus the legend harks back to social memories of the most recent cold spell of the earth. The Seth Samuduram shipping canal project has run into religio-political, as well as conservationist opposition. There are also oil and gas explorations undertaken in this area by Sri Lanka and India. These and especially the digging of the rama-sethu ridge for deepening the strait for shipping have very serious ecological implications, as such diggins bring out heavy-metal toxins in to the biosphere and total contamination of the sea in the area, killing plankton, fish sperm, oysters and pearls, crustaceans, and affecting coral reefs, and ultimately the bigger fish in the food chain.

The alternative Sinhala name 'Seth samudra-yaaya' uses the word 'seth', සෙත්. It is clearly derived from the 'Raama sethu' name, and basically means the 'bridging sea-passage' in Sinhala. This is also an appropriate name as the strait links the Mannar Bay (Mannaram Bokka) to the 'Bay of Bengal' (Bengaala Bokka). Finally, it should be noted that some Sinhala geography school texts use the name 'Palk samudra sandiya' (Palk sea-junction).
රාම් සාගර යාය

රාම් සමුද්‍ර යාය

සේතු මූදු යාය
Pallai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
PAEHAELLA   Regional map
පැහැල්ල
Pallama (Puttalam)
PALLAMA
Disc. No tamilization here
පල්ලම
Pallamadu (Mannarama [Mannar])
VIHARAMADUVA
This is located on the Mannarama-Punranna (Poonaryn) road Palla (i.e., Palli) is a Tamil rendering of "Viharé".
විහාරමඩුව
Pallavarayandaddu, Pallavarayankaddu (Mannarama [Mannar])
PALLAVARAKADU
This is located on the Mannarama-Punranna (Poonaryn) road. The Pallava and Lankan kings collaborated against the Cholas during the Vijayabahu-Parakramabahu era. This may be a town designated to a "Pallavarayan", i.e., probably a Pallava General.   Regional map
පල්ලවරකඩු
Pallikkuda, Pallikuda (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
PALLI-THUDAAVA, Pahalathudaava
The name suggests a religious shrine near the bay. Ancient Buddhist temple ruins are found near by at Palavikkulam (Paluvaeva). The usage 'palli' could imply a mahayana Buddhist shrine, a Jain shrine, or a low-lying region('pahala' ion S.), or 'back-yard', and may imply 'burial grounds'. Also, 'palli','halli, alli' mean village or place ('pala' in S.), a current usage in telugu and kannada (c.f., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli). In modern SL usage, it refers to a christian church or mosque.
විහාරකැලේ
Pallikudiyiruppu, Pallikkudiyiruppu Gokanna ([Trincomalee], Ampare)
PAHALA-KULISSA, Pallikulissa.

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – “I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
For a discussion, see entry under 'Pallivasalthurai'
Map
පහලකුලිස්ස
Pallimunei, Pallimunai, Pallimunnai (Mannarama [Mannar])
PAHALAMUNNA
For a discussion, see entry under 'Pallivasalthurai'. The word "Munna" is a frontal projection ("muhuna") or abutment of land into the sea or lake.
A Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L. family Bombacaceae) in this town is said to be some 800 years old. The circumference of the tree is 19.5 meters and 7.5 meters tall in 2011. It is a protected archeological site. An attempt to place a statue of Mary next to by Fr. Peter Manoharan of St Lucius Church, Pallimunei, and erect crosses at the Baobab, and in the mannar area were faced with litigation. Public outcry against Crosses and Statute illegally planted across Mannar
පහලමුන්න
Palliwasalturai, Pallivasalthurai (Puttalam)
PARIVAASALATHOTA, PALLIVAASALTHOTA, Pahala-vaasalthota Disc.- 'Palli' can apply to a non-hindu religious building. 'Palli' may have come from Brahmi-Maghada usage for Jain monasteries. The sinhala 'Palliya" is today mostly used for Muslim and Christian places of worship, and hardly ever for Hindu Kovils. 'Palli',pari, may also be related to 'low-lying', or 'pahala'. 'Vaasala' in sinhala (and indic sources) is a distinguished building. Also, 'palli','halli, alli' mean village or place ('pala' in S.), a current usage in telugu and kannada (c.f., Thiruchirapalli, Jalahalli).
පරිවාසලතොට
Pallivasalveli (Mannarama [Mannar])
PAHALA-VAASAL-VAELLA, PALLI-VAASAL-VAELLA
see the entry under Palliwasalturai.
පහලවාසලවැල්ල
Pallugaturai, Palugaturai (Puttalama)
PALUGASTHOTA
This is in the Vanathavilluva area near Wilpattu
පලුගස්තොට
Palukamam, Palugamam (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
PALUGAMA
Hist.- This was an eastern residence of the Kandyan kings.
Map
පලුගම
Pammivedduvan (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PANIVAEDDUVA
This is located near Vihare' ( see Vakarai)
'Pammi' in T. has no contextual sense
Veddu, vedduvan do not occur in the Tamil lexicon, buti may refer
to open land; vettuvan may refer to hunter.
In S. 'vedduva' where the d is a soft 'dth',is e recognized place name,
and exists in the S. province, and may have arisen from 'vaeduma,vaevuma', plantation.
පැනිවෙද්දුව
Pampaimadu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BAMBAMADUVA
Disc.-In T., "pampai" could mean a Tammatan drum The name "bambamaduva" suggests a place used for religious services. 'Bamba' is sinhala for 'Braahma', also a type of Drum. There is also a tank by the same name. Map
බඹමඩුව
Panama (Ampara)
PANAMA, Panama (anchor name), Paanama.
Disc.-"Panaya, Panama, Pané, Pé " are words synonymous with village, that we find occurring in place-names like Ja-panaya, Uda-panama, Thum-pane, Dompe, etc. The name has been phonetically modified to "Paanama".
This village is close to the Kumbukkan oya, and the Kudimbigala sanctuary (3rd century BCE Buddhist rock caves, Brahmi inscriptions etc are found here). The Muhudu Maha Vihara, picture by cdw, 2009, dating back to probably the 3nd century BCE, and at the edge of the sea, surrounded by sand dunes, is in a state of utter neglect today. The temple name is often anglicized as "Mudu Maha Vihara", and has a 3-meter high Buddha statue and several Bodhisatva statues, all subject to erosion. Some traditional settlements of Panama villagers are still found inside the Kudimbigala sanctuary. The Pada yaathra route to Katharagama falls near by. There is also a Pattini Devala in Panama. The Panama area, originally Buddhist Sinhalese, Veddaha, and Tamil has now acquired a larger Muslim presence, and the temple-land area of some 300 acres donated to the Muhudu Maha Vihara by royal decree has absorbed recent settlers, especially during the Eelam conflict This has reduced the temple to a small pocket of land at the edge of the sea, c.f., Lakbima July 11, 2005 report.. There is one monk, Katharagama Sri Rathana Thera, picture by cdw in 2009, living in an impoverished 'aarama', with a meager supporting community in 2009.
පනම
පානම

Panankamam, Panamkamam, Panankaamam (manvaeva[Mankulama]) PAHANGAMA
Labeled #45 in Vanni Buddhist sites map 10th CE inscription at Isurumuniya confirms this name. More recently, a vanni chieftain known as Vanni bandara (also known as 'Pandara Vannian' in Tamil) fought with the British at Kohilamaduva ( Katsilaimadhu). Map
පහන්ගම
Pandarikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BANDARAVAEVA
See discussion under "Bandarikulam".
බන්ඩාරවැව
Pandaterippu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BandhaKalapuva
The place-name means `twin-pond' or two small connected bodies of water. The word 'Terippu' in Tamil could also mean `pond', as well as other meanings inconsistent with the context. Hist. coins of Queen Lilavati (12th-13th Century A.D.)
බන්ධ කලපුව
Pandikkeitakulam ( Vannimava [Vanniya])
BAENIDIKAETIVAEVA
බැඳි කැටිවැව
Pandiruppu (Ampare)
BANDARA-PATTUVA, PADIRIPPUVA
`rippa', and `rippuva' have been used in place names to mean `village'. Regional map
බන්ඩාරපත්තුව
Pantrichurichchan, Periyapantrichurichchan (Mannarama)
OORA-KURAHANA
'Pandi' in Tamil, and 'Pantri' in Malayalam do mean "Pig" or wildboar. Kurakkan (Eleusine coracana) is a millet planted since ancient times in Sri Lanka. The Tamil names, Keazh-varaku, Thinai, etc., are not used in SL Tamil. In fact the Sinhala name "Kurakkan" has also been adopted in SL-Tamil. குரக்கன் This differs from typical Dravidian-language usage (Indian tamil- Iraaki, 'Raagi' in Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu), confirming the borrowing from Sinhala. "kurahana" may refer to the shape of the early flower of this type of Millet. see Kurakkan etc.
There are varieties of kurakkans, and they require little water.
Cereals cultivated in the medieval period included different varieties of rice, as well as "kurakkan, iringu and amu, java, meneri, undu, mun, tal", green gram, mae-ata and barley. Even today, "thalapa" or gruel made with kurakkan and a curry made with "kollu" is eaten in the dry zone. See also the entry under: Kurrakkan-Kaddukulam
ඌරකුරහන
Pandivirichchaan (Mannarama)
ORRAKURAHANA, OORA-VIDI-THAENA   See discussion under Pantrichurichchan
ඌරවිදිතැන

Panemiyankulam(Mooladoova[Mulativu])
LUNUVILAVAEVA
Labeled #29 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Disc.-'Lunuvila' is L., Bacopa monnieri or water hyssop. An old tamil word for this is Piramiyam although other names, e.g, "neer-brahmi" etc are used in Aurveda. Sanskrit name: "Brahmi". See also p 2691 of Madras Tamil lexicon. The name needs more authentication. This is an ancient Buddhist site, listed in 1982, by Arch. Dep. Somasiri.
ලුනුවිල
Panichankemi, Panichchankeni, -kerni (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PANIKANGAMA, Thimbirikaenna
Disc. 'Pannikka' in S. refers to the barber caste. In T., 'panikkan' may refer to 'teacher, dancing master, carpenter, mahout, barber, etc., or a subcaste of the Pallar caste The 'Mahout-Pannikiya' subcaste existed mainly in the Vanni The Timbiri tre is called 'Panichchai (Embryopteris glutinifera)' in tamil. (Note: Timbirigama in the Gampaha district.) Map
තිඹිරිකැන්න, පනික්කගම
Pannikkaddi Murippu (Gokanna [Trincomalee])
Pannikettiyaava
පනික්ක කෙටියාව
Panikkaniravi, Penikaneeravi(Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PANIKKANIRUWA, Thimbiritheeruva
Disc. 'Pannikka' in S. refers to a caste designation which may be barber, athletic trainer, etc. 'Iruwa' is a portion of land, well or tank ascribed to this caste In T., 'panikkan' is not necessarily a specific caste designation. It may refer to mahout, barber, etc., or a subcaste of the Pallar caste 'Panikkan' ←- Panichcha could arise from the name of the Timbiri tree The 'Mahout-Pannikiya' subcaste is present in the Vavnimava area Map
පනික්කන්ඉරුව, තිඹිරි තීරුව
Panikkankulam (Giranikke[Kilinochchi])
PANIKKANVEVA
Disc. 'Pannikka' refers to the barber caste. In T., 'panikkan' may refer to 'teacher, dancing master, carpenter, mahout, barber, etc., or a subcaste of the Pallar caste. Vanni elephant trainers in Dutch times as well as the "caste" of elephant catchers in the Vanni, were known as the "Panikkara" - a name originating from "Vannikaara". See also the entry under "Eravur" regarding elephants. The LTTE had an airstrip in this location, and it fell into the hands of the SL-forces on 30-Sept-2008. Defencewire report   Map
පනික්කන්වැව
Panichchaikkulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
THIMBIRIVAEVA, PANIKKAVEVA
Disc. 'Pannikka' in S. refers to the barber caste. In T., 'panikkan' may refer to 'teacher, dancing master, carpenter, mahout, barber, etc., or a subcaste of the Pallar caste. Also 'Panichchai' is Tamil for the Timbiri (Embryopteris glutinifera) tree Map
තිඹිරිවැව,   පනික්කවැව
Pankudavely, Pankudaveli (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PANGODAVAELLA
This is towards Thoppigala, and an LTTE center till 2007.
පන්ගොඩවැල්ල
Pankulam (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
PAENVAEVA
South east of Vilpanakulam, ~25km west of Trinco. GajabaLen Vihaara is found here. Large stone pillars, and several meditation caves, 3 with inscriptions. Listed in Archaeological Dept. surveys.
පැන්වැව
Pannai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PAENNA
Disc. This is an area accessing Yapanaya via a bridge and connecting Valigama (Valikamam) to Jaffna islets Meaning Pannai in T. could mean 'farm' or related to farming 'Pannai-pay' in T. could mean 'dive and play in water' The latter meaning is consistent with the S. alloform 'Paenna' which could mean 'water' or 'jump'.
පැන්න
Panrikeithakulam,Pandikkeitakulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BANDIKA`TIVEVA
Map
බැංදිකැටිවැව
Papparappiddi, Peparaputti; பப்பரப்பிட்டி (Yapanaya [Jaffna]) GATHTHARA-PITIYA
Disc.- It is tempting to identify 'Pappara' as 'Barbar', i.e., Muslim west African people, since the word is recognized as such in Tamil and possibly in sinhala (Baabura) usage, as well as in English. The more likely source is the word "Gaththara" used in sinhala. It is in many ways equivalent to 'Pappara', and is probably derived from Sanskrit. 'Gothra' = 'clan' → 'Gaththara.'
It is known that an early Dutch census (1790 CE) records 196 males belonging to 'Pallivili' caste as taxpayers, and no mention of African Muslims. So this 'gothra' need not be west-africans or muslims at all. This caste is probably those who lived near a Buddhist or Jain temple but had no right of entry into the temple (Madras Tamil Lexicon). This is consistent with the Tamil விழி which could mean "watchful", and these people watched over the Temple.
We may also remark that "Pey" or "Pei" in Tamil is etymologically related to "Pretha", and means "spirit" or "devil", and "pey-para", if taken as a Pali/Sanskrit word, would been the the devils who are outsiders (para). However, that too would be consistent with our interpretation of "pappara" as "Gaththara", the latter being the the outsiders.
ගත්තරපිටිය
Paranaddakallu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BALANAEDIGALLA
Disc. The S. name suggests a watchpost
Vanni Buddhist sites map
බලනැදිගල්ල
Paranattakulam(vavnimava [vavniya])
BERA-NAADA-VAEVA
ancient Buddhist ruins here. it is close to nikamotte(nochchimoddei)
shown as label 77 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
බෙරනාදවැව
Parangi Aru, Paranki aru (Giranikka [Killinochchi])
PARANGIOYA
This rivers empties into the western seaboard near Andaradoova (Viduthaltheev)
පරන්ගිඔය
Parankiamadu (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Parangiyamaduva
"Parangiya" refers to Portuguese.
පරන්ගිමඩුව
Parangikkulam (Mannarama[Mannar])
PARANGI-VAEVA
Map
පරන්ගිවැව
Parankikamam (Mannaram[Mannar])
PARANGI-GAMA
Map
පරන්ගිගම
Parangkisirukulam(Mannaram[Mannar])
PARANGI-HITI VAEVA
Military action in Mannar, 2008
පරනපැන්තැන්න
Paranpanjan, Paranpanthan (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
PARANA-PAEN-THAENA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Disc.- The place name has no clear sense in tamil, M., Tu or K. The sinhala name suggest an old water disrtibution point to Pilgrims.
පරනපැන්තැන්න
Paruthu Thurai, Paruththith-theevu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PULUNDOOVA
Indian cotton plant, Gossypium herbaceum, is "pulun". It has also been speculated that the original name was Paaruthota, since the Tamil form should have been Purutti-th-thuri rather than Paruthu Thurai.
පුලුන්දූව
Paranthan, Parantan (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
PURANTHANNA, PURANTHAENNA
Disc. In T., 'Paranthamam' could mean 'heaven', or Lord Vishnu' In Sinhala,'Puran-thanna' could mean 'old-field', or 'a field gone fallow'. This is located at the intersection the A9 North-South road through the vanni and A35 East-West road. Its capture on 2nd January 2009 in the last war with the LTTE was a crucial point in the war.
Lanka Libraray report   Regional map
පුරන්තැන්න
Paranthan (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PURANTHANNA
See previous entry
පුරන්තැන්න
Parappakandal (Mannarama [Mannar])
PURANKADOLA
Disc.- Region filled with large Mangroves. 'Poorna → Puran'. The tamil 'from' 'parappa' could mean 'full', or 'exremely extended', 'large' etc. It could also mean a type of scorpian, but scorpians are not associated with mangroves. There is no "Gonusu-kadol" variety known in Sri lanka or tamil Naadu. The various types of mangroves found in Sri Lanka are listed in our Botany Page
පුරන්කඩොල
Parasangkulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
PULASVAEVA, PARASANVAEVA
Disc.- The red flowring tree known in Sinhala as 'Pulas', or Palas, or the sanskrit name has given the form 'Parasan' in the place name. Thus there is a 'Parasangaha' in the Anuradhapura district. The tree (Butea frondosa) is commonly known in tamil as Murukku.
පුලස්වැව
Paravaveli(Mannarama)
PARAVAVAELLA
Disc. Parava is a sea fish in Sinhala, a name used by Sri-Lankan fishermen of all communities. However, in Tamil 'Paravu' is a river-fish, black, reaching 12cm. in length, latin name: Nuria danrica,
or silvery, attaining 5 in. in length, Rasbora buchanani. Also, "Para(tha)var",பரதவர் could refer to a fisherman caste.
පරවවැල්ල
Pasikudah, Passikuda,Passekudah(Madakalapuwa[batticaloa])
PAASITHUDA
Beach resort 32 km north of madakalapuva, now affected by the civil war
Dis. 'Pasi' in S. could mean a type of coral. Also, in Urdu, 'pasi'
may mean 'fishery' and may have come from Moor fishermen
Paasa in Sanskrit→Sinhala may mean a fishing net or rope noose.
Varuna is depicted as such in medieval sculptures, but not in early sculptures,
with such a noose in his hand.
see East coast Map
පාසිතුඩාව
Patchenai(Madakalapuwa[Batticaloa])
BATAHENA
Map
බටහේන
Paddiapuliyankulammalai(Vannimava[Vavniya])
MAHA SIYAMBALA VAEV-KANDA
See Periyapuliyankulammali Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri. Uttiya and his consort are mentioned in an inscription here, See Archeo. Survey of Cey., Ann. Rep. 1905.
Labeled #84 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහසියඹලාවැවි
Pattiniyamakilankulam(Vavnimava[Vavniya])
PATTINIMAHIMAVAEVA
Disc. See also entries under Chankanai, Kannakipuram, Vattappalai, Madhu Gomarankadawala etc. regarding various aspects of Pattini cults. 'Makil' in tamil could mean 'joy, religious sprit' etc., and the Sinhala 'mahima' means 'miraculous' or 'glorious' import. Map
පත්තිනිමහිමවැව
Pavanai(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
PEHEVANAYA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982.
පේහේවනය

Pavatkulam, Pavkkulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PAWATTAVAEVA
'Pavetta Indica' is known as "Pavatta" in Sinhala Large shrub/tree (gardenia family) with white flowers, medicinal uses, often confused with 'Adathoda', 'Agaladara' etc. See, e.g., Thabrew et al Planta Med. vol. 53, p239 (1987). Ancient Buddhist ruins, listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. (Somasiri). Two buddha statues have been destroyed in renovations of the tank. Several sets of stone pillars, a stupa, shrine room, and other ruins are near the stream known as Galara(kalaru) which flows through here. Labeled #105-108 in Vanni Buddhist sites map About Pavetta
පවත්තවැව
Pavattaikulam, Pavatkayikkulam(Puhulmotte[Pulmodei])
PAVATTAVEVA
See Pavatkulam
Map
පවත්තවැව
Pembathy(Japanaya [Jaffna] or Mannarama [Mannar])
PINGBADDA
Disc.- According to Paul E. Pieris,Kingdom of Jaffnapatamthe “Sinhalese Patabenda, usually applied to headmen of the Fisher caste” are referred to as "Patangatin's in Portuguese texts (specifically, the Floral). These headmen had been given the village Pembathy “as an emphyteuta” by the native kings of Jafanapatam and by the Portuguese too “this was confirmed on the Patangatin Mor Thome de Mello, the heir of the last holder, on condition of his supplying yearly an aleya or aliya (i.e., elephant, usually without tusks) of not less than four covados.”-
Anecdotally, we have been told that the old name of the village was "Ping-Badda", where "ping-badda" means a "neighbourhood" given as a gratuity. This is consistent with what is stated in Paul.E.P.
පිංබද්ද
Peraru (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
NaaOya
Disc.- 'Naa' in Sinhala is Iron-wood, 'Peri' in T., 'Peri-aru→'Peraru'.
'Na' is L. Messua nagassarium or Mesua ferrea , adopted as the national tree of Sri Lanka, 1986. The Naa forest planted by King Dappula IV in the 8th CE still exists (~100 hectars) and is one of the oldest man-made forests. The wood is very heavy and strong.
LTTE base near Panvaeva(Pankulam), Gokanna(Trinco).
නාඔය
Periya-Alankulam, Periya Alankulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHARANVAEVA
Army action near Mannar 2008
මහරන්වැව
Periyakaddu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHAKADUWA
Map
මහකඩුව
Periyakallar (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAHAGALAARA
North of Galmune (Kalmunai)
MAP
මහගල්ආර
Periyakulam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MAANAVATHUVAEVA, MAHAVAEVA, site 1
Labeled #54 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site. site 2, same name. Periyakulam(Gokanna[Trincomalee]) MAANAVATHIE tank is the original name. The name Periyakulam was given in 1929. See the entry under "Vilgamvehera'. Bronze Buddha statues, figurines, coins etc. have been found here. Velgam vehera is close to this site, i.e., Periyakulam. Label 167 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
See entry under 'Vilgama Vehera'.
මහවැව,   මානවතු වැව
Periyakulam(Puhulmotte [Pulmodei])
NAAMAL VATHA
The name periyakulam had been used in some parts of the area which was extended and connected with the Naamalgama area, and the name Naamalwatha has been used for the whole, extended area. Regarding claims of tamil nationalists, see discussion under GalOya
නාමල් වත
Periyakunchikulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHAKUNCHAVAEVA
මහ කුන්චවැව
Periyamadhu (Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHAMAUDWA, MAHAMMAWA
Meaning:   Madhu in Skrt. may mean "Lady" or 'mother', i.e, Periya-madhu is big-mother, i.e., Holy Mary, c.f., Madhu church.
මහමඩුව

Periyamariluppai, Periyamara (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MAHAMEEYA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. (Somasiri).
Labeled #52 in Vanni Buddhist sites map.
මහමීය
Periyaneelavanai (Ampare)
MAHANEELVANAYA
Regional map
මහනීලවනය
Periyaparanthan (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
MAHAPURANNTHANNA
  Regional map
මහපුරන්තැන්න
Periyaporativu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAHABORADOOVA
මහබොරදූව

Periyapuliyankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHASIYAMBALAVEVA
Area associated with Nadhimithra, a worrier of Dutugaemunu.
Ancient Buddhist ruins, see p. 76, E Medhananda(2003)
මහසියඹලාවැව
Periyapuliyankulammalai (Vannimava[Vavniya])
MAHA-SIYAMBALA-VAEVKANDIYA
Ancient Buddhist runs, cited in Archaeo. Dept. List (Somasiri) 1982. Uttiya and his consort are mentioned in an inscription near here. Label #84 in the Vanni Buddhist sites map
මහසියඹලාවැවි කන්ඩිය
Periyapullumalai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAHABULUKANDA
මහ බුලු කන්ද
Periyapullaichchipotkeni(Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHADIVIPOKUNA
Map
මහදිවිපොකුන
Periyapunchankulam(Mannarama [Mannar])
MAHAMUVAVAEVA
මහමුවවැව
Periyathampanai (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHADAMPANE, Maha-damana. This is
මහදංපනේ,   මාදංපෙ
Periyativu, Periyathivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
MAHADOOVA
This name is also found applied to several islands. In particular, an island in region between the Puttalam Lagoon and Mun-thalam laggon.
මහ දූව
Periyaulukulam, Periya Ulukulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
MAHA-ILUKVAEVA
මහඉලුක්වැව
Periya Villan Kulam (Gokanna [Trincomalee]) Maha Divul waeva, mahadivuloya. Regarding this village and Tamil claims of Traditional Homelands, etc., see discussion under GalOya. මහ දිවුල්වැව
Pesalai (Mannarama [Mannar])
BERALA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, stone pillars etc. see also Ancient Buddhist ruins, see p. 76 E Medhananda(2003). Map
බෙරල
Pillaiyaradi (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
PIHILLAYARA
Meaning:   In T., 'Pillai' is a name, or a reference to Ganesh'.
පිහිල්ලයාර

Pilikulampam(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
MONARAKALAPUVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
Labeled #58 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
මොනරකලපුව
Piramanalankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PIYAMANARANWEWA
පියමනරන්වැව
Pirappuvedduvan (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
PIDENI-VAEDDA
This is located on the (OThThAN-THUDAVA)Oddusuddan-(Aluthkulissa) Puthukudiruppu road. "Pideni" are food offerings to deities and spirits, usually placed in a forest setting. "Vaedda" may mean "forest", or "approach" to a place.
පිදේනිවැදද්
Point Pedro, Pt. Pedro (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PEDURU THUDUVA, VAK THUDUVA
This is a name introduced by Portuguese sea farers. Older names "Kapu Thutduva", "kava thuduva" and "vak-thuduva--> Vaththuduva" also seem to have existed. "Vartha", "Vak", "kava" etc., mean circular, and may have refered to the shape of the coastline here, when the easterly extension of the shore ends and the shore line curves southwards. In Pali, 'Vartha" becomes Vatta", and in sinhala it changes to "Vaka". A recognized transpositon of phonetic elements may change "Vaka" to "kava". "Varthi" in Sanskrit also stands for "mfn. growing near the water (said of water-plants)", cf. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dict.; or "Ocean" etc.,. In Tamil, the name Parithithurai has been used. Here again, Parithi may have come from "Vartha", the Sanskrit word for "cirum-circular", or from "ocean", Sea shells etc., accepted into old Tamil.
This is an old sea-farer town. See   Valvettithurai sailors   Westward Ho
G. G. Ponnambalam entered politics by winning this seat in 1934, where he defeated Sri Pathmanathan of the P. Ramanathan family. Prior to GGP, this was the "home seat of K. Balasingham, who was part of the "Jaffna boycott" of the Donoughmore commission proposals. 1931. See Jane Russell, Communal Politics under the Donoughmore Constitution, 1931-1947 (Tissara Publishers, 1982, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka).   see click "map 1 Jaffna peninsula" after clicking here.
ප්රේරුතුඩුව
වක්තුඩුව
Pokkaravai (Vannimava [Vavuniya])
PUDUKARAVAAPI
Disc.- See Pokkarvanni below.
'Vapi' here means 'tank' as in "deegavaapi'
පේරුතුඩුව
Pokkarvanni(Mannarama[Mannar])
PUDUKARAVANAYA
Disc.Pokharini in Prakrit means "Sacred" tank, or place. e.g, as donated to a temple. A similar meaning is found in Dravidian languages (K., T.). Effectively, in Sinhala "Poojaakarapu → pudukara" lieu. Thus "Pokkara" is perhaps a liguistically correct Tamilization. This is an ancient Buddhist site (listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982). Map
පුදුකරවාපි
Poligandy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BOLKAENDA
A Coastal village in the Vaedimuraekiya (Vadamaratchy) area. 'Bolkaenda' is chaff or useless grain left in winnowing. See Polikkantu in Tamil. It could also mean a ridge between the ocean and a lagoon-like area. The sea-tiger leader soosai (Sivanesan) is from this village.
බොල්කැන්ද
Polonnnaruvai, Pollonnaruwa, Pollonnaruva (Pollonnaruwa Dist.)
Polonnagara, Pulatthinagara, Pollonnaruva
This is the city adopted by Parakramabahu, one of the greatest kings of Sri Lanka; he is the hero of the second part of the Mahavamsa, known as the Chulavamsa. The Chulawamsa (13th Century) gives the name "Pulatthinagara" for this city. The older Velaikkara inscription (12th century or before) refers to a temple of the Tooth built by Vijayabahu at Pulanari, which is most probably modern Pollonnaruva. Polonnaruva is referred to in, e.g., a 12th Century slab inscription from the reign of Vijayabahu I, where the names Polonnakara, Polonnakaru are used. However, a number of scholars including S. Paranavithana and Godakumbure have claimed that 'Pollonnaruva' is derived from 'Pulaththinagara', presumably giving priority the name used in the Chulavamsa. They have gone on to interpret "Pulatthi" as a the Indian Muni-sage "Pulasthi" mentioned in the Rig Veda. Furthermore, the statue is believed to be that of Pulasthiya. Raja de Silva has however speculated that the statue is that of the Indian muni Agasthiya. Another view has also been proposed, mainly by Sri Gunasinhe, who believs that the statue is most likely to be that of a lankan Rish known as Kapila Siri Gunasinghe, Statue in Pollonnaruva, Oct 26 Island 2011 midweek review

However, the place-name Pollon-nakara probably came from 'Poron-nagara', where 'porana', or 'Paerani' means old, or precedent, i.e., 'Pala(mu)'. Thus the Mahavamsa writer used "Pollasthinagara" to mean "Poorva-shthaavira nagara → Pullatthinagara"; thus it is consistent with "Poronnagara" and the slab-inscriptions. Hence a correct rendering of the Pali, and rendering it into English as "Polatthinagara", rather than "Pulasthinagar" clarifies its meaning. It has nothing to do with "Pulasthi", the Indain Muni-Sage . Any details of the "old town" which gave rise to Pollonnaruva are unknown at present. This would require deeper excavations in the area.
(Note that the 'w' was used in the south for rendering the ව sound, while in the north the 'v, வ', and not 'w' is used in English transliteration of Tamil place names. The dutch 'v' is pronounced as an 'f', and led to this distinction in the south where names were europeanized prior to the North.). The Island newspaper 29- Oct-2011
පොලොන්නරුව
Pomparippu,Pomparippuwa (Puttalama-Mannar)
RANPARITHTHA, Thaambraparni
රන්පරිත්ත
Hist. Tamil scholars have claimed that "Ilam" means gold and SriLanka was the "gold Island", using a suggestion that Ranpariththa means "gold-spread". Having said this, they, e.g., Sirinivasa Aiyankar, also contend that "Ila" is morelikely to mean Toddy. There is also a strong possibility that the name 'Ranpariththa' may have evolved from 'tham(bra)parni' referred to in the Vijaya legend recorded at the Sanchi site in India.
V. Begley's excavations in 1981 found no gold ornaments Clay Urns from 200 BC Dental morphology from the iron age and the early Sinhalas
රන්පරිත්ත
Ponnaveli (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
RANVAELLA,
See Map
රන්වැල්ල
Poonagama(Giranikke[Killinochchi])
PINGAMA, PUNYAGAMA
From the Sanskrit, to "Purify", or "having merit"
C.f., also, Punaka, an old name of Pune, Maharashtra, in India.
There is a copper-plate from the Rashtrakoota period indicating that Pune,
in India was known as "Punya-Vishya" in the 10th century CE.
පින්ගම
පුන්යගම
Poonakary(Giranikke[Killinochchi])
PINKARAYA, PUNYAKARAYA
This the name of the region, near the western coast. From the Sanskrit, to "Purify", or "having merit"
C.f., also, Punaka, an old name of Pune, Maharashtra, in India.
There is a copper-plate from the Rashtrakoota period indicating that Pune,
in India was known as "Punya-Vishya" in the 10th century CE.   Regional map
පින්කරය
පුන්ය කරය
Poonagar (Sri Gonakanda[Trincomalee])
MAHINDAPURA
මහින්දපුර
Poonthottam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
PINTHOTA, punyatheetha
Buddhist archaeological remains have been discovered in this area and reported in the annual reports the Archeology Dept., and in the report by Mr. Somasiri, Ass. Archaeological commissioner, in 1982.
This has been a region affected by Eelamist violence and war, and a large refugee camp has existed since the late 1990s. The government allowed food and medicine to the terrorist occupied areas at all times, provisioned the refugee camps as well as the LTTE dominated areas where it maintained a skeleton government service. The Government Agents were paid salaries etc.(For details of the LTTE war and the government, see Gerald Peiris, The Twilight of the Tigers, Oxford University Press, 2008)
Click here to see the 2002 Flicker Photo of a refugee camp in Pinthota
After the war the refugee camp swelled enormously, with the influx of some 300,000 refugees who broke out from the LTTE enclosure in April 2009 (this became part of the Menik Farm complex which covers the area Mahathalithagama of the ancient texts.). However, within two years most refugees seem to have been resettled. In 2011 Pinthota was the location of a rehabilitation and welfare center for the ex-LTTE combatants. Gen. Metha of the Indian army visits the ex-LTTE rehab center in Pinthota
පින්තොට
පුන්යතීත
Poornaryn, Pooneryn, Poonakarai (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
PUNRANNA
Meaning:   If the name had been 'Ponnery' it could have meant 'golden (big) tank' in Tamil, however, there is no tank here. 'Poonakarai' would mean 'sacred shore' in Tamil Ancient Buddhist ruins are believed to be in this area. Upatissa Nagara, mentioned in the Mahavamsa as th earliest town, may have been near here. Pooneryn's past
In 1993 notable LTTE/SLF military battles took place at Poornaryn. See   Regional map
පුන්රන්න

Poovarasankulam,Puvarasankulam, Puwarasankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SOORIYAVAEVA
Labeled #43 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
There is also a "Sinnapuvarasankulam" or PODI-SOORIYAVAEVA.
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982 Labeled #42 in Vanni Buddhist sites map Podi-sooriyavaeva is Labeled #74. Meaning:   Here 'Sooriya' (bot. Thespesia populnea) is the 'Portia' tree in E., 'Plaksa' in Skrt. Poovarasu' means 'king of flowers' in Tamil. Map
සූරියවැව
Poovarasantivu, Poovarasanthevu,Puvarasantivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
Sooriyadoova
See Map
Disc.: See 'poovarasankulam' reg. 'Sooriya' tree. 'thev' ending is sometimes used. This village is NOT near the sea in spite of the 'thivu' or 'Doova" in the name.
සූරිය දූව
Poramadu(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
PORAMADUVA
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982.
පොර මඩුව
Poththanai, Pottanai (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
POTHUTHAENNA, POTHTHAENNA
c.f, Pothuthaenna → Patana
For a discussion, see Pothuvila below.
This is a village close to Serapura(Eraavoor)
පොත්තැන්න
Pottuvil, Potuvil, Poththuvil (Ampare)
POTHUVILA, Bodhivāla
Meaning. 'Pothuhaera' in Sinhala is a type of bullrush. A similar meaning may be given to Tamil, 'pottukkampu', with the botanical name: Penicillaria involucratum. Other types of rush used for making mats, "pan", are Scleria oryzoides. and Sacchorum spontaneun etc. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and is not valid in this context. Other possible origins, given the Buddhist antiquity of the place, are: "Buthvila", "Bodhi vila", or more probably, Bodhivāla. A village known as "Bodhivāla" is mentioned in the Chulavamsa (lvii,54) in the context of the Ruhuna campaigns of Vijayabahu I. It is not yet clear if "Bodhivāla" is the present day "Potuvil" In Pali and Sanskr. "vāla" does mean water in compound usage (PTS dict., p 610) as in "Aalavaala"(Sanskr.), i.e, basin of water found at the root of a tree. "vāla" is also a type of jasmine, Pavonia Odorata grown in temples. "Vaala" also means circumference or periphery (c.f., chakravaala), and "Bodhivaal" could simply mean the region enclosing a Bodhi (c.f. Devaala). If we consider Sinhala-tamil hybrids, "Puthuvil" could mean "new-pond". The suggestion that "Pottundy" is a name for "Kaāli", Hindu godess, is not supported by the Madras University Tamil Lexicon, chankam or other south Indic dictionaries that we have searched. We also note that "podu (පොදු)", i.e., "common property" in Sinhala (also malayalam, and tamil) may imply a pond (vila) held in common by several villages. However, "Pothuhara, Poththaenna, Pothuvaeva" and similar place names exist in other provinces. Hence we opt for "Potuvila" as a proche-form to the existing name, and aand adopt the form "Bodhivāla" as the archaic toponym. Hist. Mooddu Maha Viharaya is near by; Dhatusena 5th cent.,14th Cent. inscriptions It has also been claimed that Viharamahadevi landed near here, or in Kirinda. Read the Article
පොතුවිල, බෝදිවාල
Pudukottai, Puthukottai (Gantale [Kantalai])
ALUTHKOTTE
අලුත්කෝට්ටෙ
Pudukudiruppu(Yapanaya[Jaffna]) ALUTHKULISSA

The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – “I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
See entry under 'Puthukudirupu'
අලුත්කුලිස්ස
Puduvaikadu, Pudawaikadu, Puthivaikaddu, Pudavai Kulam (SriGonakand, Trincomalee])
SAAGARAPURA. Some writers have used "sangara pura".
සාගරපුර
Pulakkadu, Poolaakkaadu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa})
PULUNKADUVA;
Bombax malabaricum or Purani (Poolai), mullilavu, Ilavu, in Tamil. In sinhala it is called "KatuImbul" or "pulun gaha", as it has silky cotton pods. Here "pulun" refers to "cotton", and may be connected with the sanskrit. Thus name "Pula" may have links to the Sanskrit "Purannee", or tamil Purani. Map
පුලුන්කඩුව
Puliyantivu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa})
KOTIDOOVA
Hist.Dutch Fort, King Wimaladharmasuriya,
see Arasaratnam, CJH&SS, vol.6,#1.
කොටිදූව


Puliyankulam(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
SIYAMBALAVAEVA
There are two such sites with the same name in the area.
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982. Labeled #146 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
සියඹලාවැව
Puliyankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SIYAMBALAVEVA
Milit. Important LTTE battles, Sept.-Nov. 1999. Currently(2006 update), this is an LTTE checkpoint on A9
Journey to LTTE controlled ...
සියඹලාවැව
Puliyanpokkanai (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
Siyambalapokuna
  Regional map
සියඹලා පොකුණ
Pullawali, Pullavali (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
PUHULVAELLA, PULUNVALA
Remarks:   'puhul' in S. is a gourde grown in the dry zone. 'Pull' in Tamil could mean 'grass', or Purani, i.e., KatuImbul (pulun gaha)   Regional map
පුලුන්වල
Pullimulai(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Eluvamulla
Disc.- Pulli-(nam, naataayan etc) in T.) connotes "Goat, Sheep", etc.
එලුවමුල්ල
Pulumalai, Pullumalai(madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
THANAKANDA
Ancient Buddhist site, in the Arch. Dep. list, Sirisoma 1982. Disc.- The word stem 'pulu', 'pul', in Telegu, M, K and in Tamil correspnds with grass. Tus Pullukkattai is a stubble of grass.
තනකන්ද

Pulmoddai,Pulmuddai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
PUHULMOTTE`
Mineral Sands
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982
See Remarks regarding 'Pullawali'.
'Motte ↔ Modde ↔ Made' signifies a muddy, swampy place.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo', while Skrt. 'manda' means slime.
Strategically situated on the sea route connecting Trinco and Jaffna
sea battles
tiger massacre of 230 Muslims at Prayer
Labeled #131 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
පුහුල්මොටේ
Puluddumanoddai, Puluddumaanoadai புலுட்டு மானோடை (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
MEEMINNAOYA, MEEMINNAODAYA MeeminOde
Meeminna is a mouse deer (Moschus meeminna) shown in the Rs. 4.00 stamp. "Tragulus meminna or Moschus meeminna", is the zoological name, derived from the Sinhalese name for it. "Puluddumaan " is the Tamil form. 'Ode', (Odthe) is an intermittent water stream used for small "Oya".
මීමින්නාඔය
මීමින්ඔඩය
Pulukunavai (madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
VEHERAGALKANDA
Pre-christian Buddhist site, with ruined buildings, stupa, inscriptions, many medidation caves, including those of 'Theraputtbhaya' and 'Phussadeva'. There are long stairs, pathways, ponds, stone pillars, guardian stones etc. 14 stone inscriptions from caves have been published. The hill is known as 'Viharakanda', while the stupa on the lower level is "Miyuguna Saaeya". It is incredible that this site is simply neglected and left to erosion and plunder. See E. Medhanada (2003), p. 225
වෙහෙරගල්කන්ද
Punanai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
DOMBAPE, PUNNAAGE
Punnaga (pkrt) is Masstwood, Calophyllum inophyllum, or 'Domba'.
දොඹපෙ
Punanaitupe(Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
DOMBATUVA, PUNNAAGADUVA
Village or islet with mastwood Calophyllum inophyllum, or 'Domba'.
දොඹටුව
Punevai, Punewai(Vannimava [Vavniya])
PUNEWA, PUNEVA
The name 'PUNEWA' is what is used today, while the tamilized form is also found in Tamil sign boards. This is a small hamlet north of Madavachchiya, on the A9 road, with a small roadside Pillyar shrine. Pillyar (Ganesha) shrine
පුනේව
Puloli(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
PUHULELIYA
Ancient Buddhist ruins. Puloli W is ~3km from Point Pedro. A 'siripatul' (foot-print) stone was discovered from the site. Remains of other buildings are visible at the site. Map
පුහුල්එලිය
Pungudutivu, Punkuduthivu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
PUNGUDUDEEPA, PUVANGUDOOVA, Puvangudeepa
Hist. Mahawamsa, Nampotha refs., Baldaeus,1658, "Pongardiva" Thus this is an ancient name, and may be based on a type of tree known as "Puvangu" (Myristica horsfieldia, and Aglaia roxburghiana)
පුවගුදූව
පුන්ගදිව
Punnainiravi(Giranika(Killinochchi])
Punnya-niravia, DOMBAVELA, Punnagavela
Ancient Buddhist site. 'Niraeviya' is a well or water-logged region. Punnaaga (pkrt) is Mastwood, Calophyllum inophyllum, or Domba
දොඹවෙල   පුන්නාගවල
Punnalai, Ponnalai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
PUNNAAGA, DOMBAPE
Punnaga (pkrt) is Masstwood, Calophyllum inophyllum, or Domba. Ancient Buddhsit site, and causeway to Karadoova(karaitivu). Alfred Duraiappah, mayor of Jaffna was assassinated. at the Krishnan Temple here on 25 July 1975, allegedly by Prabhakaran himself. This assassination was part of the program of rising Tamil terrorism where some members of Tamil society were declared to be "traitors", and targeted for elimination. The organization "Maanavar Peravai" (Student Federation) led by Sathiyaseelan was one of the earliest such organizations which mis-represented the district-based affirmative action program for the admission of students to universities to its political advantage. Prabhakaran was an early member of it who went on to from the TNT (Tamil new tigers) in 1974. Assassination of Durayappah by T Devendra   Map of Punnaaga
දොඹපේ,   පුන්නාග
Punnalaikkadduvan, Punnalakadduvan, Punallaikattuvan, Punnalai Kadduvan, புன்னாலைக்கட்டுவன் (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
DOMBAKDUVA, PUNALAKADUVA
Calophyllum inophyllum is Punnnaaga(pkrt) or Domba in sinhala. Meaning:   'Kadduvan' in T. could mean a bobcat For other meanings, see the notes under the place name 'Kadduvan'. This village has recently been in the news because it has the typical caste structure of Tamil villages where one part of the village is for the depressed castes who have never had any, "human rights", but were later recruited to fight for the separatist war led by the upper-caste Tamil leadership which attempted to establish "exclusively Tamil homelands" free of Moslims and Sinhalese, in the North and the East. Here is a brief extract from Ragavan (LTTE founding member C. Rajeshkumar), while the full text may be followed from the link below:
My village, Punallaikatuvan, was divided into various areas, and Punallaikatuvan did not have one identity, there was the North side and South side of the village and marriage customs were different and restricted. So when I was quite young, there was a man called Thuraisingam, an upper caste man and a Chandiyan (a local village thug), my mother told me that he murdered a man long ago. He also owned land and the Dalits were the service caste and they would work for him. At that time I was about six or seven years old, in the early 60’s, and one day, there was some problem with the Dalits, possibly because they didn't want to work as he hadn't paid them properly. The outcome was that the entire Dalit community was chased away from my village. If you look at our recent history, it is like the manner in which the Northern Muslims were chased away. So, all the Dalits were chased away from my village and their belongings were taken away by the Chandian and his followers. And it took them a long time before they could come back and resettle. No one challenged that eviction at that time and that had a lasting impact on me even though I was also from a Vellala middle class family.
In the 70s, the government tried to implement existing legislation allowing equal access for Dalits to temples and public places. Temple entry in my village was out of the question. Nobody wanted to challenge the strength of the caste system. I remember going to a barber saloon (barbers belonged to the oppressed castes) when I was small, and asking the barber if he would allow Dalits into his saloon. There was a big muscular farmer standing next to me and he slapped me, because he was angry that I would even ask such a question. The barber saloon was soon closed down as the barber was scared of the upper castes. He started visiting people’s houses and doing his work. The caste system was strong in the villages. With the service castes, there was no question of workers’ rights. Whether or not you were paid, you had to work.
In the seventies, the village and caste identity were stronger than Tamil nationalist identity. I believe this to be still (Feb. 2009) the case. In practice, cultural and religious festivals are caste orientated and the identity is preserved. Although there is, in a sense, a Tamil identity, it is the outer layer rather than the substance of the Tamil community. Social practices such as festivals, marriage and death are arranged according to the caste and village hierarchy. And although communist parties in the north talked about class during that period, there was no real working class formation and only a few factories, like the cement factory. I would say class was subsumed under caste. There may have been class divisions but there wasn’t a strong consciousness of class whereas caste consciousness was strong. Without the elimination of the caste system, I believe that class unity is not possible.
See Ahilan Kadirgamar: Interview with Ragavan, LTTE co-founder, on Tamil Militancy (Early Years): Role of Caste and Hitlerian views
From the Tamil writer Ganeshan Iyer (LTTE founding Treasurer) The last Sinhalese to run a business in Jaffna is back Map
දොඹකඩුව
Punochchimunai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NIKAGASMUNNA
Disc. Sinhala 'Nika gaha', is 'Vitex trifolia' In tamil, Malayalam, K., etc, kattunocci, karunocci, cirunocci, cennocci, Punnoci, nirnocci, nocci, noccil etc., are used for various types of 'Chaste tree' See discussion under 'Kilinochchi'. The word "Munna" is a frontal projection ("muhuna") or abutment of land into the sea or lake. See Map
නිකගස්මුන්න
Puththankalai (Ampara)
BUDDHANGALA
This is on the Ampara-Galmunna(Kalmunai) road, ~10km from Ampara, and has an ancient rock hermitage dating to the time of King Saddha-Tissa (137-119 BCE), the father of Dutuamunu, the hero-king of the Pali Chronicle Mahavamsa written in the 5th century CE.
බුද්ධන්ගල

Puthukkudiyiruppu, Puthukudiyiruppu, Pudukaduirippu, Pudukudirruppu, Putukkudi.. (Mooladuwa[Mullaitivu])
ALUTHKULISSA
Disc. 'Means new settlement', or 'new quarters', e.g, of an army.
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – “I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)
This area has ancient Buddhist ruins scattered in the jungle.
This has a hospital and military bases for the LTTE or SLF, from time to time. It had an LTTE "heros" resting place; and it may have had an LTTE air-strip as well. The Govt. Agent during the last days of the war (Mrs. Imelda Sukumar) testified before the LLRC-commission. When asked, stated that the Hospital was not damaged during the war. New monuments to commemorate the victory over the LTTE, May 2009 LTTE base Map
අලුත්කුලිස්ස
Puthukudiyiruppu,Puthukkudiyiruppu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
ALUTHKULISSA
n.b., this is a second entry near Batti; previous near Mulativu. Loacated 5 miles out of Batti., on the Galamuna(kalmunai) road. UTHR-J 1995 Dec. report.
අලුත්කුලිස්ස
Puthukulam Vavnimava [Vavniya])
ALUTHVAEVA
අලුත්වැව
Puthumattalan (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
ALUTHMATTALA   ⚓name, ALUTHMASSALA
Maetta, Maththa, Mattaka, Mattala, Massala etc., are found in the Sinhalese-speaking part of the country, either independently, or attached, as in "Roomassala". On the other hand, the place name "Matale (Maatalé)" is probabaly a simplification of "Mahatalé"

This was part of the no fire zone (NFZ) -last stand area of the LTTE in 2009.   No Fire Zone and area map
අලුත්මස්සල
Puthuvedduvan (Mooladoova)
ALUTHVAEDDA
Meaning: See the discussion under "Makilavettuvan"
'Puthu' in tamil could mean 'new'.
අලුත්වැද්ද
Puthuvilankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
POTHUVILVAEVA
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning, 'Puthukulam' in T. could have meant 'new-tank'. Here 'Puthuvil' is more likely a tamilization of Pothuvila'.
පොතුවිල්-වැව
Puttalam (Puttalama)
PUTTALAMA
Iban Batuta (1344 CE) refers to Puththalama as "Battala". The Galpitiya (Kalpitiya) logoon is near by, and Kalaoya fals to the ocean north of here, at the south end of Wilpattu. Read about this area in Kalpitiya- ගල්පිටිය-Calpentyn-Galpatuna - a historic theater of old battles and new confrontations , and look up the entry under Kalpitiya.
පුත්තලම
Putthankalai,Butthankalai, Buddhankalai (Ampara)
BUDDHANGALA, ⚓ Buddhangala, KARAJIKA-GALA
Disc. The name is not recorded in ancient texts. However, the area was full of ancient Buddhist sites, and Buddhangala is an old (pre-christian) shrine where the presence of Buddhist statues may have inspired the name, as these were visited by pilgrims even in medieval times (see entry under Digavapi). The Tamil names are clearly derived from the name Buddhangala. According to an inscription found at the site, its earliest name may be "Karajika-gala". Given that Brahmi "k" and "n" characters are similar, the earliest name could well be "Naa-rajika-gala", i.e., a shrine to God Natha. The King (Yuvaraja) Mahanaga was an early king of the Digamaulla region and father of Yatalatissa, with links to the Nagas. However, additional data are needed to confirm our view that Kaa-rajika-gala was indeed Naa-rijika-gala. We note the existence of "Rajagala" and "Samangala", other old Buddhist sites like Ilukpitiya, in the Ampara area. According to inscriptions found in the area, early pioneers of the Digamadulla civilization may be Dighayu, Dighagamani and Chitra, with links to the early Anuradhapura rulers. See a photo of modern (2011) Buddhangala, contributed by Prof. Shiromi Samarasinghe. A interesting historical report of the Buddhangala region is presented in Wasantha Rathnayaka, a resident of the area.
බුද්ධංගල
Putur, puttur, Puthur (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BUTHPURA, ALUTHNUWARA
Meaning: There is some evidence that this was 'Buthpura', a
village donated to a Buddhist temple; similar to
many villages of the area, like Telipola, Mallagama, Hunugama etc.
Alternatively, 'ur', or '(p)ur' in T. is a town or village
Tamil 'Puthu'= new, 'Putu-ur' → 'Puttur' means 'newtown'.
This was the first bank robbed by the Tamil New Tigers (which was transfroming into the LTTE) in 1976.
බුත්පුර,   අලුත්නුවර
Puvarasankulam(Vannimava[Vayniya])
See Poovarasankulam
සූරියවැව

Q
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R

Rajadore-ge Idama(Vannimava[Vavniya])
This is currently a private property containing ancient
Buddhist ruins. Accessed via the 'Vaarikattiun road", in it
there is a set of pillars in a circle, stone walls and other
archaeological remnants
Labeled #109 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
x

Rajamittakai (Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
RAJAMITTAKA
Labeled #61 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site
රාජමිත්තක
Raalkuli(Madakalapuva)
Ruval kuliya
"raal' has no valid meaning in Tamil. Ruval in sinhala may refer to sails of fishing boats left ot to to dry in the village sun. "kuliya" in Sinhala is a settlement or village, and occurs both at the end place names, and at the beginning, as in Kluiya-pitiya.
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 the verse (9th century), Sigiri Mirror-wall – “I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province (Jaapanaya)

A new bridge has been built here in 2011.
රුවල්කුලිය
Rama Setu, Raama Setu, Rama Cetu, Ramasethu (Mannarama)
Rama Setuva, රාමසේතුව
Setu in Sankrit (Monier-Willoiams Dict.) means who or what binds or fetters; a bond; a ridge of earth, mound, bank , causeway, dike, dam, bridge, any raised piece of ground separating fields (serving as a boundary or as a passage during inundations); Rama's bridge (setubandha); a landmark, boundary, limit; a help to the understanding of a text, an explanatory commentary; etc.
The same word cetu exists in old Tamil.

1. The UPA Government announced the Sethu-samudram Shipping Channel Project (SCCP) in 2005 to excavate a deep-shipping channel through the Palk-Strait and the Gulf on Mannar (Mannarama) between India and Sri Lanka.
2. This involves dredging across the Ram Setu or Adam’s Bridge. The legend of the Hindus epic Ramayana claims that it was built by Rama, with the help of Hanuman, the King of the monkeys, to go to Lanka and recapture his wife Sita from the Ravana, the King of Lanka. Hence `Rama Setu' is held to be sacred. The shipping channel is proposed to be 30 metres wide, 12 metres deep and 167 kilometres long.
Large-scale diggingalways brings out toxic metals (e..g., arsenic, cadmium, lead etc.) found in geological deposits. Digging under water has the additonal danger of this tixic materials betting dispersed in the ocean and destroying fish sperm, perls, oysters, etc. When plankton and smaller species are destroyed, the bigger fish in the food chain could also be destroyed, strongly endangering the fishing industry in the Indian ocean near Sri Lanka. The toxic metals will also have an impact on coral reefs. However, so far no environmental-impact study has been presented.
3. The Supreme Court of India in 2007 restrained the UPA Government launching the project, and suggested a reconsideration.
4. Janata Party President Subramaniam Swamy, a friend of Mahinda Rajapaksa, had called for the Ram Setu to be treated as a national monument. Swamy also contended that the demolition of Ram Setu will amount to a criminal offense under section 295 IPC.
5. It is believed that US military sources are interested in the Seth-Samudra project as they are looking for a port in the Tamil Nadu region that would counter the alledged string of ports built or updated by the Chinese (e.g., Hambanthota and Colombo). Hence, the Seth-Samudra project, if allowed to proceed, would land Sri Lanka right in the lap of big-power marine confrontation.
6. Hindu groups have formed the "Save Ram Sethu" campaign in 2007 to stop the Government from continuing the project, and environmental groups have joined in the protest to save the special marine ecology of the area. Also, the SCCP was found to be economically nonviable, in a a report prepared by Dr. R. K. Pachauri.
රාමසේතුව rama-sethu image

RangiriUlpot(Gokanna[Trincomalee])
RANGIRI ULPOTHA
Ancient Buddhist site.
Labeled #148 in vanni Buddhist sites map
x
Rektavaikkal, Irraddavaikkal (Mullaitivu [Mooladoov])
see Devakkdé
x

Ridikanda(Gokanna[Trincomalee])
Ancient Buddhist site, unchanged sinhala name.
This site is said to have provided silver for adorning Ruvan-vaelisaeya
This is a hill with an elevation of about 150 meters/ It has possibly
15-20 dugout caves, many broken Buddha statues, and ponds for supplying
water to monks who livd in a monastery at the foot of the hill
Labeled #150, 151 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
x

S

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Sainthamalai Sainthimalai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
RAHATHGALA
History Ancient Buddhist Ruins scattered over a 25 acre area.
Regarded as a unique site by Archaeo. Commissioner Godakumbure
Twin-stage buildings ( 7 century) typical of the Anuradhapura period
Three old temples (see destruction below), Old ponds, other ruins
Deliberate destruction Three Hindu Kovils have been built exactly
on top of the ancient temples, already by 1983
Extensive destruction under recent terrorist activity.
See Report of the Archaeological Commissioner, 1961-62, p 78.
Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/E/27, folio 118
See Annual Report of the Archaeological Commissioner,1961
රහත්ගල
Sainthamaruthu, Saintamaruthu, Saainthamaruthu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
Rankumbukka
"Terminalia arjuna" is a medicinal and hallowed plant with cherry-like fruits. It is claimed to be "Sita's Favourite tree", where Sita is the consort of Rama taken to Lanka by Ravaana.
This is 'Kumbuk'. Ancient Buddhist Archaeological Remains, see Sainthamalai
This location was strongly damaged by the 2004 Tsunami. Indelible memories of kith and kin by Kanagasabapathipillai   Regional map
රන්කුඹුක්ක
Salampaikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
HAELAMABAVAEVA
"Haelamba", Halamba, (bot. Mitragyna Tubulosa) is the Sinhala name of a is a valuable timber tree
There is also a Haelamba vaeva 4.5 km from Divulleva, near Trincomalee
හැලඹවැව
Saliyawewa, Saaliyavaeva (Puttalama)
SALIYAVAEVA
සාලියවැව

Samalankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SAMANALAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #101 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Disc.- 'Samalan' or 'camalan' in Tamil, Malayalm etc has no
clear meaning here. It appears that the Sinhala 'Samanala' was
adopted into Tamil and with an inversion sometimes noted in such adaptations.
සමනැලවැව
Samanthurai, Sammanthurai(Ampare) Hist.- Ancient Buddhist site, listed in Archaeo. Dept. 1982(Somasiri) list.
'Saman' is one of the 'protector gods' of ancient Sri lanka, and 'thara' is 'portal to the sea', a common place-name ending. Legend clams a meeting of 'Saman' with the Buddha in Mahiyangana, one of the most venerated ancient Buddhist sites of Sri Lanka. It also has a `Saman devala'. Mahiyangana (positioned at the A26 and A11 junction, between Randenigala and Maduruoya reservoirs), though not very close, is the dominant ancient historic location near 'Samanthara'.

'Samman' could also probably mean 'sammaana' or donation by the king, hence the 'Saman thuarai' spelling is probably a modification of an earlier form. It is also a possibility that "sammanthuari" here is a distortion of "Sankanthota", where "sanka" in Sanskrit means Conch shells (Turbinella pyrum). Dakshinavarti Shankh, or Valampuri Sanggu is a highly-valued conch shell with a right-turning spiral instead of the common left-turning spiral. Conch shell fishery existed in this region, Kirinda and Hambantota. See the entry under "Hambantota" for more details of Chank fishery etc. It has also been suggested that "Samman" is a modification of "Sampan", (See 'A Dictionary of the World's Watercraft from Aak to Zumbra' compiled and edited by the Mariners Museum 2001. ISBN 1 8617 1821. Here a sampan is defined as a Loose term used in East and South East Asia to designate various small harbour and local coastal craft". But early travellers applied the word and its variant forms more widely even to much larger vessels.) (See Guruge, Mahavamsa, 2nd revised edition, p220 for contacts with Sri Lanka as far back as 3rd century BCE.) This is a Muslim dominated region, with brutal massacres of Muslims
in the 'ethnic cleansing' efforts of the LTTE.
For other details, including the time of the IKPF, see
UTHR report
See also Muslim Expulsion (Lanka Libraray article)
Map
සමන්තර
Sambilithurai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
DAMBAKOLAPATUNA, JAMBUKOLAPATUNA (anchor: Dambakola)
Read discussion of this ancient port under Kankasanthurei
Given the degree of ambiguity that exists in the available data,
we have rendered Kankesanthurai as DAMBAKOLATHOTA
while Sambilithurai has been selected for Dambakolapatune
This site is likely to be the port where the 'Bo-saplling' was
brought to Sri lanka by Sangamitta.Howver, Denis Fernando has contested this view and claims the following:
The sea port adjacent to Tiriyaya had several names at different periods. It was called Jambukola, when the sacred Bodhi tree was brought in the 3rd century B.C. from the port Tamalitti on the Ganges delta. The Sacred Bodhi tree was taken in a grand procession that lasted five days from Jambukola to the city of Anuradhapura, 60 miles away, where it was planted and remains to this day as the oldest tree recorded in history. This ancient sea port was also called Talakori Emporium by Ptolemy in ca. 110 A.C, while in 1150 A.D. in the time of Parakramabahu I, it was called Palavavanka from where he set sail with a fleet on his expedition to Burma.
Today it is called Palavaki and its etymological meaning is very revealing. In the environment of the Yan Oya are also remains of Cist Burials quite different to the Urn or Pot burials near Pomparippu (Ran pariththa).
The identification of a port in Jaffna Peninsula by some historians cannot be accepted as Jambukolapatuna as from all the evidence indicated above, the port of Jambukola-potana of the 3rd century B.C. has to be associated with the port near Tiriyaya Kuchchaveli, presently known as Palavaki.
දඹකොලපටුන දඹකොල පටුන
Sampaltivu (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
DAMPALADOOVA
Dam-pala may be "Jambu", or dam (blue berries), or a variety of plantain with dark-ash-coloured fruit. It could also be "Jambala", a type of large sour citrus (grape)fruit.
දම්පලදූව
Sampalthoddam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
DAMPALATHOTA
This is three miles along the road to Mannarama from Vavniya. Dam-pala may be "Jambu", or dam (blue berries), or a variety of plantain with dark-ash-coloured fruit. It could also be "Jambala", a type of large sour citrus (grape)fruit. The name has been changed to Navalar-panni more recently by Tamil nationalists.
දම්පලතොට
Sampur, Sampoor, Champoor (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee ])
SOMAPURA, SAMAPURA (anchor: Somapura))
Ancient Buddhist archeological site, and a modern Hindu site of the Paththirakali Amman Temple.
In Tamil 'champu' could be 'bulrush (elephant grass)', 'Jambu' fruit, or 'jackal' (c.f., jambuka). That a very old city with a history could be named after some reeds etc., is not too likely. Another meaning which has accrued to Tamil from Sanskrit/Prakrit sources is 'champu ←sampu (p 3885,MTL) calm or 'saamam'. This agrees with the Pali/Prakrit/Sinhala usage in this place name. Soma (=Savumya) and "Samaa" are also, thus closely related in meaning.
The stub 'oor' ← (p)oor ← 'pura' is a name for a city or town
not only in indic languages, but also in Sumarian and Babylonian times.
Coal-power project at Samapura, 2011 report.
Battle of Samapura, The Hindu, Sept.5, 2006
Battle of Sampur, Lanka e-news
GDA Perera's article
සාමපුර
සෝමපුර
Sandilipayi, Sandilippai, Chandilipai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
SANDILIPAE
Meaning. In tamil "ipayi" may mean "net", or "sail", and has no contextual sense
see Jaffna map1
සන්දිලිපේ
Sandiveli, Santhiveli(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
KANDAVAELLA
LTTE shot the Head Priest of the Pulliar Hindu Temple at Sandiveli
for having garlanded the President Mahinda Rajapaksa, on 9 Feb. 2007.
Map
කන්දවැල්ල
Sangamankandai (Potuvila [Pottuvil])
SANGAMANKANDA
Five km. from Potuvial
Hist. Pre-christian era Buddhist ruins
Several Stupas, Viharas, and other ruins
The Archaeo. Dep. Annual report 1928-29
This is a threatened site due to LTTE activity
සංගමන්කන්ද
Sangarathai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
SANGAARADA
Ancient Buddhist site
Map
සංගාරද
Sangupitty, Sangupiddy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HAKPITIYA, SANKAPITIYA
Causeway, Jetty, Ferry, naval clashes near Punranna(Pooneryn). A cerry would connect the 4km lagoon from Sangupiddi to Jaavakaceriya (Chavakachcheri). However, the bridge built in 2011 ensures a land connection via Mannar to Jaffna.
The word "Sanka", is Sanskrit for Conch shell. The sinhala word, Sanka or Hak, as well as the Tamil சங்கு are both derived from Sanskrit. Sankapitiya or Hakpitiya would hence refer to the fact that this part of the sea has been known for Chank (Gastropoda: Turbinella pyrum) fishery for a long time. Chank shells, or Konches ("Hakgedi") are used in Buddhist prcessions. They are considered sacred in Hindu lore, and are associated with MahaLakshmi. The sinistral Turbinella pyrum (with the spiral turning left when the apex is held up), called Dakshinavarti in Skrt., (i.e., right-turning spiral, with the apex held down) are very rare. Thus the name Sankapitiya reflects the fishing for "Hak-gedi" or Conch shells, crud See also, write up under Hambanthota. A new brdige has now been constructed, and opened in 2011. The 288-meters long bridge with two lanes was constructed under the Uthura Wasanthaya programme at a cost of 1.037 billion rupees.
හක් පිටිය
සංකපිටිය
Sankanai, Chankanai(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
Chandana
See entry under "Chankanai"
චන්දනෙ
Sankuveli(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
SANKAVAELLA
Disc.- 'Sanka' is 'Sak-gedi'; the name reflects the fishing for "Hak-gedi" or Conch shells, i.e., Chank (Gastropoda: Turbinella pyrum) in this area. Even the word "Chank" may be borrowed from the Sanskrit. See also, write up under Hambanthota.
see Jaffna map1
සංකවැල්ල
Saravanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
SAARAVANYA
Located in Urathota(Kaytes) Island.
see Jaffna map1
සාරවනය
Sasthirikoolankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SATHARAKOONAWEWA
සතරකෝන වැව
Semamadhu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SEEMAMADUWA
සීමාමඩුව
Sathurukondavil(Madakalapuva[Baticaloa])
SATHURUKANDAVILA
Disc.- This literally means 'place for ambush', and goes back to battles between 'Mukkua' and 'tamilar' fisher folk.
සතුරුකන්ද විල
Savalkattu(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KUKULKAELE
Malayalam 'caaval' also means Cock (fowl). This location has been in the news for clashes between the LTTE and SL Forces.
කුකුල්කැලේ
Savukkady(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Kivulkara
Near Serupura(Eravur and chenkaladi)
Disc.- 'Kivul' water is 'brackish water. The malayalam cavar (or savar), Urdu 'safar' may mean "brakish",
'kady' → kada →, or kara which could mean "shore". Thus the Tamilized 'Savukkady' and the Sinhala 'Kivulkara' are consistent.
කිවුල්කර
Seeniamottai(Mooladova [Mullaitivu])
HEENI-MADE, Heenimote
Near Nandakadola. Land near this area has been offered (2011) by the government as homesteads for returning IDPs who were in Maenik-farm (or Menik farm), with the ancient name `Mahathalithagama'- මහ-තලිත-;;ගම
Mottai, Mottei, or `madaya' is a swampy, marshy or muddy place. The sinhala word 'mada' probably arose from 'Manda', skrt. for 'scum'.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo'.
The greek word 'mydos' means 'damp'. However 'mud', usually claimed to be
linked to old german, may also have come from the latin 'madeo' (marsh)
which may itself be connected with the Skrt. Manda → mire', as in
'quagmire', used even today in english and french (tourbiÚre).
The tamil word for such a place would be 'acumpu', 'ayam', 'cakati', 'sheru', etc.

The place name refers a narrow strip of land.
හීනිමඩේ
හීනිමොටේ

Sembimalei, Sembimalai, Sembumalai (Puhulmotte [Pumodei])
KINIHIRIVEHERA, SEMBAKANDA
History: Located on a Hill close tto Kasbavella (Kuchchaveli), Important Buddhist temple ruins, pre-christian era, 1st century Stone Inscriptions. Paada-Lanchana sculptures, Stupas etc. 8ft Buddha Statue vandalized. Site destroyed and new Hindu temple has been erected. See Daily News 14 Oct. 1980, p3. Archaeological Dept. File EC/B/E/26
The Sinhala name 'Sembakanda' is tentative, and will be modified, when the contents of the stone inscription or other data becomes available. Labeled #137 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කිනිහිරිවෙහෙර
Sempankundu,Cempakundu (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
AMBA-SALAAVA, අමිබසලාව
'Amba-salava' is the village beside (Sinhala 'asmba →amba or
samba →cempa', where the last form is Tamil.)
a grove of Saala trees (diperocarpaceae, or Couroupita guianensis , 'Kunturukkam' in
Tamil, see p996 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
Another set of meanings can emerge from the following:
'cempan' refers to 'Buddhists' who wear red/yellow robes
and Kundu, or 'Dummala' signifies a brownish oleo-resin.
අමිබසලාව
Sencholai, Chencholai, Naddalamottankulam (Mooladuva [Mullaitivu])
HENDOLA, Hengolla
See also entry under Vallipunam, the location of the Tiger torture prison and Victor-I base.
This area (in the aluth-kulissa or puthukudiruppe district) is also called Naddalamottankulam (Naaatu-maetta-vaeva) "Hena" is "chena", i.e., slash and burn cultivation area. This location came into the news after air strikes (August 2006) on an LTTE facility, claimed by the LTTE and certain international observers to be an orphanage, while the Govt. claimed it to be a black-tiger training facility. It has clearly been both, i.e., an orphanage where the orphans get trained for war. The songs of the orphanage, "Sencholai Padalkal" reveal much more:

The tomb shall wait for me
Flowers as offerings shall there blossom
A memorial for me who turn into a myriad atoms
The burning embers shall watch over me.
The poet then describes a variety of possible deaths awaiting her -such as shells and bullets. It then runs: The poison (cyanide) I bore since I became a Tigress Shall also await me.
The hawk and the hound to taste my flesh Shall stalk the field where I do battle.
...All these will I endure for my land
To me a grateful nation shall arise./i
(name of poet) Uthayaletchumi.
See section 6.5 of the UTHR(J) report no: 13, UTHR-#13
See also 'Choncholai', and Chencholai
Unicef: Bombed orphans were not Tamil Tigers ?
හේන්දොල
හේන්ගොල්ල
(Ampare)
SENAAKULISSA
An ancient garrison village. Note that the word `Kuli' is used for village, and found in old sinhala writings, including those of the `Sigiri Mirror wall graffiti'. Thus: 288 th vesre: (9th century) – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province Regional map
සෙනාකුලිස්ස
Senaikudiruppu (Ampare)
SENAAKULISSA
An ancient garrison village. Note that the word `Kuli' is used for village, and found in old sinhala writings, including those of the `Sigiri Mirror wall graffiti'. Thus: 288 th vesre: (9th century) – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambagam-kuli (of the) Northern Province Regional map
සෙනාකුලිස්ස
Serayativu, Seraytivu, Seraitivu, Siriyativu (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
SERADOOVA, SERUVADOOVA
'Sera' is a type of waterfowl (teal). Many variants exist. The 'balal-sera', Pheasant-tailed Jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) is well known.
There is also another small island known as 'Siriyativu' which probably a corruption of the name 'Seruvadoova'.
සේරදූව
Seruwilai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SERUVILA, SERUVAWILA
'Sera' is a type of waterfowl (Teal, Jacana), and 'wila', or its tamilized version 'villu', refers to a lake, swamp or large pond.
This is a UNESCO heritage site, some 45 km from Gantale (Kantalai). It can also be reached purely by boat, starting from Mooduthora (Muttur).
It is a 2nd century BCE Buddhist shrine, said to have been built by Kavan-Tissa as mentioned in the ancient chronicles. A sacred relic (frontal bone of the Buddha) is said to enshrined in the Seruwila Dagaba. The "Bata Gutaha Lene Caduke" phrase occurs in a 2nd century CE stone inscription, and means - "The cave of Lord Gutta is dedicated to the Sangha of the four quarters." Other inscriptions are from King Kassapa IV and V, from the 9th and 10th centuries CE. The Dagaba was rediscoved in 1922 by Ven. Dambagasare Sumedhankara Thero.
සේරුවිල
සේරුවවිල
Sillalai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
SILALE
The name may have arisen from the rock ("sila" in Sinhala and other source languages) fformation seen around here. It may also refer to a Perl fishery facility.
සිලාලෙ
Silavaturai (Mannarama), Chilavathurai சிலாவத்துறை (Mannarama)
KIRAVATHOTA, KIRAVATHARA, SILAVATHARA, SALAAVATHAR
'Kirava' in Sinhala is a small partidge. Note the similarity to
the word 'Girava' (parrot) where the 'g,r' in 'gira' change to 'kili'
in Tamil for parrot. The word 'cravam' exits in Tamil (p1427 MTL).
Another possible source of the word is 'Sraavaka', appears in Tamil as
'ciraavakan', and implies a Buddhist monk or adherent.
The form "chalaapam" , related to the Sanskrit 'jala" may
also be a reference to pearl-fishery activities in this region.
But this would imply a place name "Chalaappatturai", a form which has
not been found in any records associated with this region.
See also the discussion under Arippu, where there is a region called
Arya-Raani-Kotte, with a Dutch fort and a mansion.
This has been an SL army base, captured by the LTTE in 1995s, and
recaptured by the SL army in 2007.
Historical
කිරවතර
Sinnadampan (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
HINNADOMPE, PODIDOMPE
පොඩි දොම්පේ
Sinnaodaippu (Mannarama [Mannar])
HINNI-SOROVVA
Hinni-Sorovva means narow or smaller sluice. This location is near the Yodha vaeva (Giants tank). Yoda veva construction is ascribed to king Dhatusena, and Parakramabahu I Otai in tamil also may mean a wall or a fortification
හි න්නි සොරොව්ව
Sinnapuwarasankulam, Sinnapoovarasankulam (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
KUDAA-SOORIYAVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
See entry under "poovarasankulam"
කුඩාසූරියවැව
Sinnasippikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
PODISIPPIVAEVA
පොඩිසිප්පිවැව
Siraj-nagar, SirirajNagar (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SRI-RAJA-NAGARAYA
සිරිරාජනගරය
Sirambiadi (Puttalama)
HARAMBAPITYA
This is a place where the king's mariners exercised.
සිරිපුර
Siripurai (Ampare)
SIRIPURA
සිරිපුර
Siruppiddy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
KURUPITIYA, KARAMBAPITIYA
'Karamba',also 'Karanda', is Carissa spinarum (Sinhala)
The tamil forms "Sirukila" etc., may refer to the same plant.
කරඹපිටිය,   කුරුපිටිය
Siruvilan (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
KARAMBAVILA, HIRUVILA
'Karamba',also 'Karanda', is Carissa spinarum (Sinhala)
The tamil forms "Sirukila" etc., may refer to the same plant.
Jaffna map1
කරඹවිල
Sithankemy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
SITAAGAMA
This may presumably be a fall-back to Seetha-Ravana legends.
සීතාගම
Sittandi (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
HIK-KANDIYA
Disc. - No clear contextual meaning in tamil.
'Hik' is Lannea coromandelica, a medium sized tree.
හික්කන්ඩිය
Sittaruai Sitt-aru (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
S HIK-IVURA
'Ivura' is the sinhala word for the "shore" of a small stream ("aara" or "oya" in Sinhala, "aru" in Tamil) and "Hik" is the tree Lannea coromandelica
හික්ඉවුර
Somapurai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SOMAPURAYA
established during the time of Kavantissa, 2nd century BCE.
සෝමපුරය
Somativadi (Puttalam)
DHOMAETI-VAADIYA
"Dhomati" is a type of clay, probably similar to "Fuller's earth" or Montmorillite. It is known in Tamil as 'Valalaai'. c.f., Valalai-Sutram in Sidhha-aurveda), This location is in the coastal strip of the Kalpitiya Lagoon.
දොහොමැටි වාඩිය
Sooduventhapulavu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
SUDUVANPOLAVA
Disc. M. Cutu, That which is heated, burnt, roasted
K. sudu, M. cuttu, Tu. suti.] Bundle of sheaves;
The name may indicate a piece of land (Chena) with white ash
formed after burning. It could also be a 'kamatha' for threshing.
සුදුවන්පොලව
Soodaikudai (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
CHUDATHUDAVA
චූඩතුඩාව
Soranpattu (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
SORANPATTU, HORANPATTU
Cloves (karaabu) may also become koran or horan
  Regional map   Clear map of the region
හොරන්පත්තුව
Sodayankulam, Sodiumkulum(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
Yodayanveva
Map
යෝදයවැව
Sodiyankattukarei (Mannarama [Mannar])
YODAYAN-KAENU-KARA
Dis. This means "the bund ior shore dug by the giants; it is a part
of the 'Yodaveva' built by king Dhatusena; see entry under Alavaka.
යෝදයන්කැනුකර
Sonakasalampaikkulam (Vavnimava [Vaniya])
SUNKAELAMBAVEVA
Haelamba is a timber tree. The name may be a contraction of Sunaka-haelamba, Hunu-Haelamab, or Lunu-Haelamba.
Map
සුනකැලඹවැව
Sudolaipidai, Sutholaipitai (Mannarama(Mannar])
Sithulapitiya
LTTE sea-tiger base.
සිතුල්පිටිය
Sungavilia (Polonnaruwa)
SUNGAWILIYA, HUNGAVILA
Near Somavati Chaitya.
හුන්ග විල
Suthumalai (Yapanaya >Jaffna])
SUDUKANDA
Prabhakaran gave a speech here at Suthumalai on August 5th 1987, where the tiger supremo said that "the nature of the struggle could change while the goal remained constant"
සුදුකන්ද
Suduventapulavu (Vavnimava [Vaniya])
SUDDAVANTAPOLA
MAP
සුදුවන්පාලව
Suriyatevarkaddaikkadu (Mannaram [Mannar])
SURIYADEVIBAARAKADUVA
Dis. The Mannar area has relics of many pre-Buddhist, pre-Saiva, animistic
religious observances. Here the in Tamil 'Kaddaikadu→Karaikkadu' could
also suggest that it is the forest near the sea-shore which is
consacrated to the Sun god. In sinhala too, 'Kara' would mean the shore.
Map
සූරියදෙවි රැක්කඩුව
Suruvil (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
Sorovvila
Disc.- 'Soro(vva)' means a sluice or gutter.
The tamil word 'curu(nku)' could also mean an underground channel.
සොරොව්විල


T
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Tadikkulama (Vannimava [Vavniyava])
HAEDIVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri.
Labeled #103 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
හැඩිවැව
Tandiyadi, Thaandiyadi (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
SUNITHTHAPURA
සුනිත්තපුර
Tadduvankoddai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
DEDDUVAKOTTE
Disc.- Deduvan means 'Dee+doova', or two islets, and
kotte' implies a square or fort, 'Kotuva'
The location justifies the name
See Jaffna area Map
දෙදූව කෝ ට්ටෙ
Taiyiddi (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
JAAVEEDIYA
Disc.- Suggets a location used by javanese people.
Map
ජාවීදිය
Thalaiady (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
TALAVAADIYA
Map
තලවාඩිය
Thallady (Mannarama) TALAVAADIYA
Military and Tiger battle zone. see attack on church;   Map
තලවාඩිය
Talaimannar (Mannarama [Mannar])
MANNARAMTHOTA, Thalemannarama
Disc. 'Talai-m' means "front door' to mannar., cf., T.,talai-k-katai
Hence mannaram-door → mannaramthota
Also, Tala is related to Sthala, means ``place' or location
Map showing Pasali,Talaimannar
මන්නාරන්තොට
Thalamkudamunmune (Madakalpuva [Batticaloa])
ThALGODAMUNNE
The suicide bomber Manikkam Leel who is alleged to have attempted the life of Chandrika Bandaranaike in 1999 was a resident of this village.
තලගොඩමුන්න
Talavai (Madakalpuva[baticaloa])
TALAVA
තලාව
Talawilai, Talaivillu (Puttalama)
TALAWILA, Talavila
This is most well known as the sanctuary of St. Anne, and is on the coastal strip of the Kalpitiya Lagoon. See the write up on Kapitiya for maps and details.
තලවිල
Tampakamam(Yapanaya[jaffna])
TAMBAGAMA, Tambagomuva
Hist.- Dutch VOC maps, Tambamme, Tambagamo.
see Jaffna map1
තම්ඹගම
Tampalakamam (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
TAMANATOTA, TAMPALAGAMA, TAMBALAGAMUWA
Meaning. In Tamil "kamam" has no immediate meaning,
Hist. Emerson Tennent: Tambalagamuwa
see P. Arunachalam, "Sketches of Ceylon Histor", reg. "Tamanatota"
This was the port of the then province of "Tamankaduwa".
තමනාතොට,   තම්ඹලගම
Tanmakkeni, Thanmakkeni (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
TAMBAKANNIYA   Regional map
තම්ඹ කන්නිය
Tandikkulam, Tantikkulam, Tanntikulam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
BULUVAEVA
'Bulu' is a large tree (Terminalia bellirica). The tamil form
is 'Thaanri', and may have evolved into 'taandi'.
බුලුවැව
Tanduvan, Thanduvan (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
SANDUVAANA, HANDUVAANA
This located on the Mooladoova (mullaitivu)-Siyambalaveava (Puliyankulam) road. The name is probably related to the worship of a deity representing the sun (Indra → Indu )or the moon (sandu), associated with a Mahayana representation of the Buddha. The Tamil name may have arisen directly from the same cult or that of a sun deity, where "dhatra" is one of the tuvatacatitar . Thus Taattuvan → tattuvan → Tanduvan. Or from the Sinhala, "Sanduvanya → Sanduvaana → Handuvan → Tanduvan".
This is one of the villages in the Weli Oya development ares, which includes Kokilava (Kokkilai), Kalu-naedakaenna (Karunaddukeni), Kokkuthudaava (Kokkuthuduvai), Kumbal-amuna (Kumalamunai East and West), Gammalé (Chammalai), Uththiya-kanda (Othiyamalai), Handuvaana (Tanduvan), Thibbatuvala (Mulliyavalai East), Diyaunna (Thannirootu West), Kaanukaenna (Kannukeni) and Vaellampila (Alampil).
See also Views of Tamil Academics in uthr report 5 issued 15-Sept. 1993, reg. Weli Oya area
හඳුවාන

Tannimarippukulam, Tanimarippukulam, Thannimurippu (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
DIYAMALAN VAEVA, Kurundi
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. (Somasiri, 1982). See also, R. L. Brohier.
Disc.- In tamil, 'marippu' means death;
and one meaning of 'Tani' is isolation, as in sinhala 'Thani'.
Also,' Tanni-marippu' could mean water-dam, or death by water,
as in the Sinhala name.
The tank vas probably called 'Mahinda vaeva.
According to E. Medhananda (2003), p 379, C. W Nicholas has reported
that an inscription contains a reference to King Mihindu (9 CE) and
refers to this tank.
'Janakapura' is a more recent colonization village near here.
Labeled #82 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
දියමලන්වැව
Tantirimalai, Thanthirimale ( Anuradhapura )
RANSIRIMAALÉ
Maradan Maduva, the present Vilpattu office area,
is associated with Sāliya and Asokamāla,
i.e., the time of Dutugamunu. 'Ransirimāle (tantirimalai) is also a
part of the park since 1969, and is associated with the Saliya
see write up under Thanthirimale
රන්සිරිමාලේ
Tanniyuttu, Thanniyuttu, Thanniyutzu, Thannirootu (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
DIYAUNNA
This is located on the (mooladoova) Mullatuvu-(Siyambalavaeva) Puliyankulam road. Encarta Map   map.pdf
දියඋන්න
Tanton Kovil (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
BUDU VIHARE
Ancient Buddhist site, listed in Archaeo. Dept. 1982 Somasiri List
Disc.- 'Kaamarka-tanton' is a name for the Buddha who has conquered 'Kama' or desire.
See page 873 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
Hence we believe that 'Tanton' is a shortened form for this, and this
ancient Buddhist site got renamed as 'Tanton Kovil in post-Ruhunu-kindom times.
බුදුවිහාරෙ

Tapassavalliya(Vannimava[Vavniya])
NOT a tamilized form
Ancient Buddhist ruins.
Labeled #78 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
තපස්සවල්ලිය
Tanakkilippu. Thanakkilippu(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
RANAKELIYA
Disc.- Possibly an arena for war games.
රනකෙලිය
Tankkarukuruchchi Thankkarukuruchchi(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
DUNUKAARAKULISSA
Disc. This is a 'garrison of Archers (bow-and-arrow shooters)'
This place name, and Batakotte (Vaddukkoddai) testify to the fact that
the north has been an ancient battle ground between the south Indians
and the rulers of the Island.
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 (9th century) – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambgam-kuli (in the) Northern Province
Map
දුනුකාර කුලිස්ස
Tambaddy, Thambaddy (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
GAMBAEDDA
ගම්බැද්ද
Tambiluvil, Thambiluvil (Ampare)
THAMBILIVILA
This is in N-akkaraipattu, bounded in the east by the sea, and by the river/vila in the west. It is about 40km north of Arunagama (arugam) bay. The color of the water may have given rise to the place name. The population is mainly christian Tamil and linked with Sirikovila (Tirukkovil). See sectarian politics, LTTE, Karuna etc.
In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning,
තැඹිලිවිල
Tandikulam, Thandikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
DANDAWEWA
Near Vannimava. There are Buddhist artifacts, ruins of a temple,
stone pillars, moonstones, important stone inscriptions etc, all
in private land, with no archaeological attention what so ever.
See Labels 100-116 in Vanni Buddhist sites map.
දන්ඩ වැව
Tannamunai, Thannamunai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
DANAMUNA
දනමුන
Tanankillapu, Thanankilappu (Jaapanaya [Jaffna])
THANA-KALAPUVA
The name implies a shallow-basin of water full of weeds.
. This was an important battle region against the LTTE in operating Rivikirana, and Kinihira in the mid 1990s. Hence a high security zone had been centered around this area.
තණ කලපුව
Tantitrimale, Tantirimalai, Thanthirimale (Anuradhapura)
RANSIRIMAALE
Hist. Recumbent Buddha of the Pollonnaruwa Period; similar to the
Galvihara Buddha; 36 feet long; Arch. Survey of Cey. 1907 p34
Legend A neckless with beads formed like the "Ransiriya"
butterfly was gifted to Asokamaala, and a Temple was built here.
Ransirimaale -> Thanthirimale.
Legend
Ransirimaale vihara projects
Pictures and article
රන්සිරිමාලේ
Tattantotam, Thattantotam, Thattanthotam (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
Thakkanathota, NAVANDANTHOTA
Disc.- 'Navadan' is a caste-designation for smiths.
Tattaan can mean the same caste group, see Madras tamil Lexicon p1718. "thakkana", "Thakshana", and "Technique", or technology are from the same Sanskrit-Pali source.
See Map near Jaffna
නවන් දන්තොට
තක්කනතොට
Thavarakulam [Madakalapuwa [batticaloa])
THAVARAVEVA
Near Vahaneriya (Vakaneri)
Hist. Ancient site, Early Anuradhapura period
Old ruins, stone pillars etc. Not excavated
Archaeo. Dept. file EC/B/E/27 folio 179-180.
තාරවැව
Tarapuram, Tharapuram (Mannarama [Mannar])
THRAPURA
Located near 'Thaleimannar'.
Hist. 'In Mahayana buddhism, Thara or `Tara' is the consort of the Bodhisattva 'Avalokitheshwara'. Mahayana buddhism co-existed and also sometimes contested Theravada buddhism. The place name 'Tharapura' exists in Tamil Nadu as well, where Buddhism flourished during the hey day of Anuradhapura, and into the medieval period.
Today Tharapura is mainly a Muslim village.
War: Two men from Tharapuram were implicated in Burma LTTE-arms Smugl., 2004
Allegations of human rights violations etc., Army/Navy LTTE clashes etc.
Implications of the Sethsamudura Project
තාරපුර
Tavady, Tavadi, Thavady (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
THAMBADIYA, JAAVAADIYA
Jaa-vaadiya is a region used by the Javanese inhabitants in medieval times. 'Thambadiya' refers to the 'amber-coloured (thamba)' water('diya') in the 'Thanmbady region.
Devotee hung on hooks on Thambadiya-Sudukanda road, goint to Sudumalai Amman temple
තම්ඹදිය   ජාවාඩිය
Tavasikulam, Thavasikulam, Javasikulam (Vannimava [Vavnia])
JAAVAESIVAEVA, JaVAESIVAEVA
This is located close to Vavniya town. The name suggests a habitation of Javanese (c.f., Java patuna → Japanaya).
ජවැසි වැව
Teekavapi, Theekavapi, Dighavapi, Digavapai (Ampare)
DIGHAVAPI,DHIGAVAPI DEEGAVAAPI, ⚓Digavapi
See the entries under Ampara, Irukkamam., and Buddhankalai, Putthankallai
This is the name of a pre-CE Daagaeba (Cetiya or Stupa), a very ancient irrigation Tank (vapi) and a modern administrative district in Sri Lanka. See Digavapi cetiya, photo Prof. Siromi Samarasinghe, 2011

In a a pious legend connected with the Digavapi cetiya (Dhajagga Paritta), it is said (in the Saararthapakaasani) that once a samanera (a novice monk), helping to plaster the Dighavapi cetiya, fell from the top. His colleagues shouted to him to recall the Dhajagga Pirita. He did so, and was miraculously saved!
The village of Mahamuni, residence of Sumana, wife of Lakuntaka Atimbara, was in Digavapi (Dhammapadatthakatha, Vol. iv. 50). According to the account given in 'Manorathapurani', Digavapi was nine leagues from Tissamaharama.

The Mahavamsa (Mhv), which contains a mixture of fact and ancient traditions, states that the Buddha himself visited the town, an area of the naga tribe, and on the spot where he sat in meditation a cetiya was later erected (Mhv.i.78; Dpv.ii.60; SamanthaPasaadika. i.89). It seems to have been the regional center (Mandala) for the country (Digaamadulla?) lying between the Pihiti-rata and the province of Rohana. Thus Dutugamunu's brother, Tissa, governed it by the order of his father. Later, on the death of his father, he retired to Dhigavapi with his mother and the elephant Kandula (Mhv.xxiv.2, 14f, 48). When he made peace with his brother, he was again sent there to look after the district. After the re-conquest of the Pihiti rata, Tissa was again in charge of Digavapi, for we find him being sent for from there at the time of Dutugamunu's death (Mhv.xxxii.2). Tissa (later renamed Saddhatissa) founded the Digavapi-vihara, in connection with which he built a cetiya, to which he made valuable offerings (Mhv.xxxiii.9, 14). We hear of Digavapi in connection with the campaigns of Parakkamabahu I. (Chv.lxxiv.89; 98, 110, 180; lxxv.1, 10). (Chv.xcvi.25, 28; for its identification see Chv.Trs.ii.30, n.1).

Later Rajasinha-II gave the district round Digavapi to the settlers who came from Holland The Muslims of Madakalapuva are descendents of Moor refugees settled there by King Senerath 1n 1626, when they were expelled by the Portuguese from the south-west maritimes (see de Queroz, vol. 2 , p 745) Today, the Dighavapi area has become a region of Muslim influence.

Today this is a threatened site, encroached by many settlers who do not know/respect its historical significance. Its great tourist potential is ignored. See the entry under Putthankalai. i.e., Buddhangala, which is an interesting site which is close by. The department has located 35 archaeological sites in Dighavapi itself. The archaeological area is at least 42 square kilometres in extent. Yet the area declared under the Archaeological department is only 400 yards in radius of each site leaving the other areas unprotected, under the Antiquities Ordinance No. 9 of 1940. Digavapi was declared a sacred area on 20-feb-2008 and the documents awarding the status were handed over to Ven. Nannapurawa Buddharakkhitha. There are several ancient inscriptions in the area. In 1986 a gold leaf inscription 14 cms by 1.5 cms had been unearthed. The inscription had been deposited inside a reliquary made of thick gold sheets. The text of the inscription was as follows: "Hail. The stupa (reliquary) of King Mahitisa (Kannittha Tissa) son of King Naka". King Kannittha Tissa reigned from 164- 192 CE. This also shows the links to the Naga people [the early inhabitants of Naagadeepa (modern Jaffna) and Mayarata (Kaelaniya region)], and their God Natha, who was later admitted to Buddhism as a Bodhisatva. News Item 2008
  දීගවාපි
  දීඝවාපි
Tenmaradchi, Thenmaradchi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HENAMURACHCHIYA
See previous discussions of 'Murachchiya' (watch post), and Hena (slash-and-burn cultivation)
හේන මුරච්චිය
Taddukulampattu, ThaddukulamPattu(Gonakanna[Trincomalee])
DEDOOVAKORALEPATTUVA
This where the Siriyaya(Tiriyai) Vatadage, Buddhist ruins, is found
See entry under Tiriyai
දෙදූව කෝරල පත්තුව
Tandiyadi, Thaandiyadi, Thandiyadi (madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
SUNITHTHAPURA
This was an LTTE camp fallen to the SL-army during the ebb
and flow of the civil war.
සුනිත්තපුර
Tamilakulam, Thamilakulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
DAMILAVAEVA
The existence of such names indicates that while the
surrounding area was inhabited by other communities, probably
sinhala speakers, there were pockets or locations which were
predominantly Tamil speaking.
දම්ලවැව
Tatcinamuratamadu, Thaththinamarathamadu, Thachchanamaradamadu, (Vannimava [Vavniya])
DAKUNUMURAMADUVA,   Dakunu-murathaen-maduva
தட்சிணாமூர்த்தி
is a common Tamil proper name, referring to a saiva acetic. It is also used among Jains for
a name derived from an Upanishad. However, here தட்சிணா
refers to the southerly direction, consistent with the Sinhala place name.
දකුණුමුරමඩුව
Terumurikandy, Therumurikandy, Terumurikandi, Therumurukandi (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
TELAMURAKANDA
This is located south of Ranamaduva )Iraanamadu) and north of Kokavila, on the A9 route. 'Tela', related to 'cheri' in Sanskrit here means a street or inhabited region. It could also mean ""what is within the view". 'Murikandy' is a tamilization of Murakanda', or watch hill. See also the place name "Murikandy". Note also that "Thela" is the sinhala name of the milky Mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha) with a poisonous latex which can cause blindness. Telamurakanda LTTE trenches 2008  : Encarta Map  : Fallingrain Map
තෙලමුරකන්ද
Timilativu, Thimilathivu, Thimilathiu (Madaklapuwa [Batticaloa])
Kevuldoova
'Kevula' in sinhalese refers to a fisherman as a 'sinful person'. In Tamil 'Thimil' could refer to a fisher caste using fishing boats. Today this is an island used by the SL air force.
කෙවුල් දූව
Tettakkuli (Mannarama[Mannar])
KAETAKULIYA, GAETAKULIYA
In tamil, 'Theatta' refers to the tree Strychnos potatorum,
known in Sinhala as 'Inginiya (gaha)', as in 'Inginiyagala'.
The word `Kuli' was used in old sinhala for hamlet or village. 288 (9th century) – "I am Gunakara (of) Ambgam-kuli (in the) Northern Province
But we do not regard this to be the source of the place names.
Map
කැ ටකුලිය
Tettavadimarutankulam(Mannarama[Mannar])
KAETA-MATDI-KUMBURE-VAEVA
Map
කැටමැටි කුඹුරෙවැව
Tellippallai, Thellipalai ,Telipola, Thelippali (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
THELIPOLA, TELIPOLA, Theripala
Ancient Buddhist ruins. Mentioned in the Nampotha.
"Buddhavalavva" is in Telipola. The "Andakaara Chetiya"
and the "Aaloka Chetiya" of ancient Pali texts dealing
with the Buddha's legendary visit "may be" here.
The word 'Teli','Thel' are not found in the old Tamil dictionaries.
It may have been 'Theri-pala', a place associated with Buddhist nuns.
Change from Theri→ Theli in tamil usage is quite natural.
Jaffna home of S. J. V. Chelvanayagam. Base hospital.
තෙලිපොල, තේරිපොල
තේරිපල
Thenmaradchi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HENAMURACHCHIYA
Disc. Heana or Chena is a primitive cultivation
'Murachchiya' is a place where a watch is kept
A frequent flash point
හේන මුරච්චිය
Thennamaravady (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
HENMURAVAADIYA
Thennan, thenna-maram etc in T., may mean sweet-coconut toddy, husk etc.
හේනමුරවාඩිය
Theravikulam (Mooladoova [Mulaithivu])
SOROVVAEVA
There may have been a sluice connecting to the causeway here. The word "theravi" may be an adaptation to Tamil from "sorov", or we may note that in Kannada (and Telkigu), teravu and terapa may mean "opening", or gateway. This is located on the Puranthaenna (Paranthan)-Althkulissa (Puthukudiruppu) road which ends in Mooladoova (Mulaithivu)
සොරොව්වැව
Thettativu,Tettativu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GAETTADOOVA, KAETADOOVA, INGINIDOOVA
In tamil, 'theatta' refers to the tree Strychnos potatorium,
known in Sinhala as 'Inginiya (gaha)', as in 'Inginiyagala.
Map    Botany
කැ ටදූව,   ඉංගිනිදූව
Thikkodai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
HIKGODA
Army camp.
හික්ගොඩ
Thimilatheevu, Thimilathiv (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
DAMILADOOVA
The existence of such names indicates that while the
surrounding area was inhabited by other communities, probably
sinhala speakers, there were pockets or locations which were
predominantly Tamil speaking.
දම්ලදූව
Thiraykkeani, Tiraaikeni, Thiraikeni திராய்க்கேணி (Ampara )
HIRIKAENNA
'Kaenna" is from the sinhala word "Kaeneema" which means excavate or dig.
The Tamil word "Keani" may be related to the archaeic "Kenthudal", i.e., excavate.
"Hirikaenna" signifies an "auspicious/occult digging or excavation".
An alternative, but less likely toponymic possibility is to note (MTL p) that the
Tamil, திரா ய், Thiraay, is probably connected with (L), Mollugo Spergula or Glinus oppositifolius .
This is a prostrate herb which contains triterpenoid saponins.
There are at least 30 species of this, "theera palaa", තීරපලා, in the Island. See also the discussion under PAS-IRI_GODAELLA.
The names "theerapalaa", and "Thiray" may have originated from the Sanskrt. "Dheera"
Also, in Tamil "tirāy → Keerai", கீரை is a generic word for herbs.    Botany
හිරිකැන්න
Thiraymadu (Madakalapuva [Batticaloa])
HIRIMADUVA
"Hirimaduva", or "blessed/occult structure", is a type of rustic construction
for devotional purposes, esp. in forest areas, consecrated to jungle deities.
The place name could occur from such a practice, and such names are common.
See also the discussion of the Tamil "Thiraay" under "Thiraykkeani"
Map
හිරිමඩුව
Thirikunamalei (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SIRIGONAKANDA, GOKANNA
Hist. Gokanna, Eng. Trincomali, Trinconalee
Gokarna in ancient texts, Sri Gokanna vihara
Meaning: Siri→Thiri; Gona ↔ Kona, kanda → Malei. According to legend, the hill appeared like a stag ('Gona' in S.) from the sea. This lead to the name 'Gonakanda → Gokanna', and the Sri-Gonakanda vihara gave the name 'Srigonakanda→Thirikunamalei'. Many European names, Trinkimalay(Baldaeus), Tirnquelemale, Trincommali etc.
Read the history of the temple as seen by some Buddhist writers. The "Koneswaram" name should not be confused with temples in India, with similar names and referred to in Hymns by, e.g., Thiru-gnana-sampanthar.
Gokanna was used as a harbour by Parakramabahu I; Mahavamsa records that Panduwasdeva landed at Trino. mouth of the 'mahakandara' river. Historic 'Koneshwaram temple .
Robert Knox surrendered to a Disawa of the King of Kandy, at Moodutara (Muttur), near Trinco.
Robert Knox in his Historical Relation of Ceylon (1681) says:
The King had the benefit of the trade of two Ports, Cotiar (Trinco harbour) and Portolone (Puttalam), into each of which used to come yearly some twenty to thirty sail of small vessels which brought in considerable customs income."
Trincomalee was a flourishing trade centre, as indicated by gold Roman coins (second century CE) found from the area. Ninety seven silver coins with the royal seal were found from Bakmeemade in Kattakulam Pattu and 30 silver coins found from Dambagaha Ulpotha in Hurulupalatha. Demog.1981 census: 86,743 Tamils; 86,346 Sinhala; 74,403 Moors
Terrorism Pulip Padai- precursor to Tigers- launched here on 12 August 1961, in front of Kooneswaram
See Pulip Padai
Kulakkottan padai was an organization that came about in ~2000 under the aegies of the LTTE.
See Map along east coast
ගෝකන්න
සිරිගෝනකන්ද

Thiriyayi, Tiriyai, Tiriyaya; திரியாய்(Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SIRIYAYA, THIRIYAYA
Ancient names used in Pali-prakrit: Grikanttha, Girihadu, Tittuppana
Hist. 'Girikanda Siva' was the name of an uncle of Pandukabhaya. Mentioned in the Mahavamsa, Visuddi magga etc. The two merchants Thapassu and Balluka, who brought the "Kesha dhathu" (hair relic) of the Buddha are credited with initiating the earliest shrine here ~ 2 century BCE or before. The "Vatadage Temple" ("temple with the round pavillion"), is one of the oldest dagobas in the world, with a 2nd cent. BCE stone inscription. As the Theravada-Mahavihara influence declined, Titiyaya seemed to have been an important Mahayana center. An 8th Century CE sanskrit inscription was found here, with a a famous 8th cent. image of goddess Thara. This image from Thiriyaya, was gifted to the British Museum by Governor Brownrigg, and testifies to the status of Mahayana Buddhism during that period, since Thara is the consort of the Bodhisattva 'Avalokiteshvara'. The vatadage may have housed a statue of Avalokithesvara-natha. Iamges See Buddha in the crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Tradition of Sri lanka, by John Clifford Hold, Oxford U press (New York) (1991)
See also entries under 'Tharapuram', Kandasamymalei, Kurukkalmadam, Nallur. Read about Thapassu and Balluka, Girihaduseya
Denis Fernando has claimed that the port "near Tiriyaya Kuchchaveli, presently known as Palavaki, is Jambukola, to which the sacred Bodhi tree was brought in the 3rd century B.C. from the port Tamalitti on the Ganges delta. See the write up under Dambakola
Labeled #133, 134 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Site 133 is the Siriyaya 'forest' area
Site 134 is where the Buddha image was found.
සිරියාය,   තිරියාය
Thirumangalai(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
SIRIMANGALAMA
Located in the Seruvila AGA division
සිරිමන්ගලම
Thirunelveli, Thirunelvely, Tirunelvely (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HIRI-NELA-VELLA
Meaning:   Tamil name, echos 'Thirunelveli' in Tamil Nadu. The Sanskrit word nlvaara and a corresponding Elu form nelavaara refer to 'wild rice'. Thus Hirinela is probabaly a wild variety of rice. In Tamil, the word 'nel' is commonly used for 'paddy' (bot. Oryza sativa), and the sinhala word 've~lla' (වේල්ල)is a bund. Thirunelvely is locaated near the Jaffna University area.
හිරි නෙල වැල්ල
Thirupalugamam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
SIRIPALUGAMA, hiripalugama
Kiripalu, hiripalu etc are names ascribed to 'palu tree'
Mimusops indica variants which may have a lighter shaded leaf etc.
හිරිපලුගම
Thiruviyar, Thuruaiaru (Giranikkae[Killinochhi])
GURUVANOYA
Near Ranamaduva (Iranamadu)
Thamilselvan, (the LTTE spokesman) was supposed to have been bombed here, 2007.
secret meeting
ගුරුවන්ඔය
Thondaimanaru,Thondamanaru (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
THONDAMANOYA
Presumably refers to a Karunagaran Thondaman, sent to procure
salt for the Chola Kingdom. There is a 16th century Muruagn Kovil here, in Selasanithi.The worship at Selvasannithi is unique The temple priests perform pujas without chanting mantrams. Festival cart at the Murugan Temple

In April, 1971, Thangathurai, known as mama (uncle) and some 15 others were making explosives at the Thondamanaru high school when a bomb went off, seriously injuring Chinna Sothi of TLO (Tamil Liberation Organization).
The mangroves here support freshwater and saltwater crocodiles. See
Santhiyapillai and Wijayamohan, Sunday Times, 1st Feb. 2004, p8.
තොන්ඩමන් ඔය

Thonikal, Tonikal,Tonigala(Vannimava[Vavniya])
THONIGALA, ORUGALA
Ancient Buddhist site
The rock cliff has the shape of a canoe (Oruva), and gives the name "Orugala". Tamil for 'Oruva" is 'Toni'. A stupa on top of the rock, and an adjoining have been plundered and destroyed. Two important 4th century stone inscriptions. The Brahmi inscriptions have given rise to the name 'Nagaragama'. They also throw light on ancient banking practices etc. More details may be found in Lakshman Perera,
The institutions of Ancient Ceylon from Inscriptions
(Vol I 2001,Vol II 2003 and 2005)
Labeled #95 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
තෝනිගල, ඔරුගල
Thoppigala, Toppikal (Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
See entry under Kudumpimalai
තොප්පිගල
Thorattapputti (Japanaya [Jaffna])
Doratumukka
This is a very small island in the mouth of the lagoon, and next to the Punnalai (Punnaga) causeway leading to Karaitivu (Karadiva). The word 'doratu' indicates 'entrance to the lagoon.
දොරටුමුක්ක
Thumpalai (Madakalpuva [Batticaloa])
DUMPALAAVA, DOMPAALAVA, Thimbiriya
The name may be related to 'Thimbiri'(Embryopteris glutinifera)
Or it could also be related to a species of wild tobacco, a type of
'milk weed' (solanum mauritianum) with yellow berries, common here.
There is also a Dumpalaagolla (Thumpalan-cholai) nearby.
තුම්පලාව,   තිඹිරිය
Thunday, Thoondai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
THUNDUVA, තුන්දුව
This means a "thuduva" or a piece of land projecting into the sea. It could also mean "thun doova", or a formation as in a triplet of islands. There is a "thunduva" near Bentota, in the Southern province.
තුන්දුව
Thumpalancholai, Thumpalagncholai, Tumpalanchcholai (Madakalpuva [Batticaloa])
THUMPALAAGOLLA, Thimbirigolla
See write up under "Thumpalai".
තුම්පලාගොල්ල
තිඹිරිගොල්ල
Thunukkai, Tunukkai (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
DUNUKAVA, DUNUKEYYAWA
Hist.- Ancient Buddhist site. The Tunukkai inscription
in Sinhala by Kasyapa (10th CE), and by Dappula IV, are significant.
See also Vavnikulam War. Alleged location of LTTE jails
see report, April 2006
Named Dunukava in Vanni Buddhist sites map
දුනුකාව
Thuraineelavanai, Thurai Neelaavanai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
NEELAVAN-THOTA, SIRINEELAVANAYA
This is in the GS area of Kalupanchithuda (Kaluvaagnchikkudi) and the name may be related to the existence of a ferry (thota) here. Another possibility is that the Tamilized name is "Thiri- Neelaavanai", and relates to the use of this site for religious observances. The name "neelavanaya" arises from the blusih aparence of the landscape ("vanaya") as reflected in the lagoon.
නීලවන්තොට
සිරිනීලවනය
Thuvarimottai, Tuvarimoddei (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
THÕRAMOTTE, THÕRAMADÉ
The 'o' sound in Thõra is long. The word madé, is sinhala for 'muddy'.
'Thora' here is wild pea (Vajanus cajan).
'Motté' ← Moddé ← Madé signifies a muddy, swampy place.
Note that 'ma'→'mo' as in 'Bisava'→'Bisova', 'Maharu→Moharu'.
See Gunasekera Comprehensive grammar of the sinhala language.
The sinhala word 'mada' probably arose from 'Manda', skrt. for 'scum'.
The latin word for 'marsh' is 'madeo'.
The greek word 'mydos' means 'damp'. However 'mud', usually claimed to be
linked to old german, may also have come from the latin 'madeo' (marsh)
which may itself be connected with the Skrt. Manda → mire', as in
'quagmire', used even today in english and french (tourbiÚre).
The tamil word for such a place would be 'acumpu', 'ayam', 'cakati', 'sheru', etc.
තොරමොටේ
Tillaiyadi (Puttalama)
THELLIYADDA
"Thela" is the sinhala name of the milky Mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha) with a poisonous latex which can cause blindness. Also, "Liyadda" is a sinhala word for a grove of vegetation. Thus THELLIYADDA has a clear toponymic meaning. This is located near the Kalpitiya Lagoon
ෙතලලිවදද්
Tiriyayi, Thiriyai, Tiriyay; திரியாய்(Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
SIRIYAYA, THIRIYAYA
See under Thiriyai
සිරියාය,   තිරියාය
Tiruketheeswaram (temple) (Mannarama [Mannar])
SRIKETH-EESWARA temple
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
A stone pillar inscription in Sinhala by King Sena III (9 CE)
Old Hindu temple was destroyed by Portuguese in 1589
New Temple built in 1976
Pre-10th century Buddhist ruins
සිරි කේතීස්වරම
සිරි කෙත්ඉසුර (කෝවිල)
Tirukovil(Amapre)
SIRIKOVILA
This location is mentioned in de Queyroz(p. 65) for its temple used by Vedda, Hindu and Buddhist people. The Hindu kovil is referred to as "tricoli" by de Queyroz probably because it had three Gopurams. There was an old Skanda (Murugan) temple associated with the Buddhist-temple complex which was destroyed by the Portuguese General Jeronimo de Azevedo who killed the Buddhist "ganinanses' of the temple. It is also marked in the Dutch map from 1695 Beeldbank National Archives, the Netherlands. At that time this was a sinhala settlement. The Buddhism practiced by the people included, as is the case today, significant Hindu elements. The Greek conqueror Alexander (or Iskander in Persion and Skanda in Sanskrit) has a strong presence here, closely linked to myths about Ravana. The place-name "Kandanpanan thuari' ((Kantapanan Turai) has been mis-interpreted as the port (thurai) or shore-landing of Skanda's weapon - alledgedly Skanda's arrow. (e.g., see Selvarajan Rasiah). However, the name "the port of Skanda's arrow" does not make much sense, and there is no legend about such an arrow locally or in other folk lore. In any case the word `panan' cannot be interpreted as `arrow' in old Tamil 9as may be checked from the Madras tamil lexicon or the Cologne old-Tamil dictionary). Noting that the `p' and `v' sounds easily interchane in place-names, the name is more likely to have arisen from from the "Kanda-vanan thara", where`vana' is old as well as modern sinhala for `forest'. Thus "Kanda-vanan thara" refers to the sea-portal to Skanda's forest. While the apotheosis of Alexander to the divine Skanda probably dates to pre-christian times, the Hindu/Pandyan kovil is believed to be from the 13th century.
Hindu, Buddhist and Veddha people patronized the temple in the 19-20th century, when this was a stopping point for thePaadayaathra pilgrims going to Katharagama.
The prefix "tri" in the Portuguese and Dutch renderings is probably not from "thun (three)", but from the Tamil "thiru" or the Sinhalese "Sri" or "siri" or the equivalent.

Eelam Wars: Piyaratne Ranaweera of Galmunna (Kalmunai) police who escaped
witnessed LTTE renegation of Balasingham's promise to President Premadasa
The massacres of some 600 police were supposed to have been carried out
around Sirikovila (Thirkkovil). See Globe and Mail, Toronto June15, 1990
Map along east coast
සිරිකෝවිල,   කන්දපැන්නතොට
Tirumangalai, Thirumanagalai, Tirumangalavai (Sri Gonakanna[Trinkomalee])
SUNETHRA VAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982
Ruins scattered over ~5 acre region. Ancient brickwork, stone work etc.
Stone water receptacles, stone doors, etc. Currently a Saiva temple is
being erected on this site.
See also p. 300 of E. Medhananda (2003)
සුනේ ත්රා වැව
Tissamalei (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
TISSAMALUVA
Disc. This is village which was part of the ancient complex of 'aaramagam'
or temple villages, like Mallagama,
Buthpura, Hunugama, Gothamaluwatte etc.
තිසාමලුව
Tolpuram(Yapanaya[Jaffna]) Thalapura
see Jaffna map1
තාලපුර
Toppur (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
THUPAPURA, STUPAPURA
GDA Perera's article
තූපපුර
Tunnalai, Thunnalai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
THUNNALA
There is a Tunnalai North and Tunnali South.
One of the earliest recorded caste clashes in independent SL took place here.
See Caste clashes
map
තුන්නල

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U


Udayarkaddu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
UDAYAKADUVA
උඩයකඩුව
Udayarputi,Udayurputi, Uduyurputi (Puttalama)
UDUKURUPOTHTHA
small island, names as such owing to a stone that seemed like an 'upside down' shell.
උඩුකුරු පොත්ත
Udappu (Puttalama [Puttalam])
UDAPPUWA, UDAPURA
Fire walking and Skanda cult of Tamil and Sinhala devotees. Animal scrifices are conducted in temple festivals. See also M. Tanaka, Patrons, Devotees and Goddesses: Ritual and Power among the Tamil Fishermen of Sri Lanka(Kyoto). A Tamil fishing village which is probably Uddappuva is discussed in this book.
උඩප්පුව
Udimbikulam(Amapare)
UDIMBIVAEVA
LTTE activity- Jeevanatham base.
උඩිඹි වැව
Uduppiddy, Uddupiddi (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
URAPITIYA
Ancient Buddhist site, Disc. The Dutch VOC maps give this as 'Urepittie"
Dutch Map, Urepittie
Modern Map
ඌරපිටිය
Uduththrurai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
UDUTHORA
උඩතර, උඩතොට
Uduvil (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
UDUVILA
Meaning. In Tamil "vil" means "Bow" and has no immediate meaning.
This is near Kantarodai. Four stone finials of dagabas, abd Buddha images have been discovered from the site.
උඩුවිල
Uilankulam(Mannarama[Mannar])
VILGAMVAEVA
Vilganvaeva→Villankulam→Uilnakulam.
Govt. check-point on Vannima(Vavniya)-Mannarama road
විල්ගම්වැව
Ulathuveli, Ulatuveli (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
ULKATUVAELLA
'Ulathu', or 'Ulatu' in Tamil provides no contextually useful meaning, and may have originated by a modification of the Sinhala "Ulkati", which means "sharp shells", or corals found on this beach ("Vaella" in Sinhala). Map of Naayara Laggon-උල්කටුවැල්ල -Kokkuthuduva
උල්කටුවැල්ල
Ullukkulam, Ulukkulam(Vannimava[Vavniya])
ILLUKVAEVA
Ancient archaeological artifacts. There is a set of stone pillars, in pairs. This may be an ancient bridge. Also, ruins with pillars. N.b., there are also sites with the same name in Trincomalee south, near Anuradhapura etc.
ඉලුක්වැව
Unavattunai, Unavattanai (Galle-Matara)

UNAVATUNA, UNAWATUNA
Beach and popular resort area close to Rumassla (Roomassala. 'buano vista'), Galle. 'Roomasssal' itself may have come from "Roo-math-hela', or beautiful rock. It has also been claimed that the geomagnetic survey of the island reveals a disturbance in the magnetic field in this region, suggesting a cancellation of the earth's magnetic field due to rocks buried deep in the interior.
The place-name name ‘Unawatuna’ refers to a minor harbour - ‘a cove or a small bay’. The name is most probably derived from from Uuna-patuna (Oona-pattana, ඌන ;පට්ටන) - minor harbour (cf. Dambakola Patuna, Yapa Patuna etc.) or small cove. Javanese sailors or soldiers (cf. Chandrabhanu's invasion) may have used this area, since a place on the shore at Unawatuna bay, known as ‘Ja-kotuwa’ i.e., ‘The Javanese fort’, exits even today.
The Buano Vista school was Alma mater to Senerath Paranavithana, Martin Wickremasinghe, and Oliver Goonatilleke. See also Galle: Eternal Charm, book by Norah Roberts, 2005, Vijitha Yapa Publishers
උනවටුන

Unchalkatty, Unjalkattu (Mooladoova[Mulaitivu])
(Vavnimava [Vavniya])
HUNUGALKATTIYA
Labeled #28 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site, Listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982.
හුනුගල්කට්ටිය
Unnichchai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
URRISSA, URAHISSA
ඌරිස්ස

Uppukulam(Vannimava[Vavniyava]) KIVULVAEVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Disc.-'Kivul' here refers to the water being 'hard' or salty. 'Uppu' in tamil, and 'uppa' in M, K, Tu., refer to saltiness or sweetness. 'Uppara' is also a Telugu caste of tank and well diggers, while 'uppalavan' are salt pans. See also p. 0419 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
The Sinhala name specifically implies salty or hard water.
An inscription at Mihintale refers to a 'Lonapi' or salty tank.
There is a tank and at least 10 meditation caves.
Labeled #130 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
කිවුල්වැව
Uppukulam(Mannarama [Mannar]) KIVULVAEVA
Fishing village in the Mannaram coast close to Vedithalthivu (Vidattaltivu, Andaradoova). The latter was used by the LTTE for weapons import using fishing boats. Earlier, it contained a mixed population of Muslim and Tamil Catholic fisher people. Some upper-caste Land owning Tamils, and a few Sinhalese traders also existed here till the 1980s. The Muslim's were evicted by force in 1990 by the LTTE and many of those IDPs still live in the Puttalama area.

The Muslim-Tamil conflict has re-emerged, after the defeat of the LTTE, when some previously displaced Muslims returned from their Puttlama IDP encampments. The disputes arose in using the "Padawa" areas (a `paduwa' is a fisheries management zone where the fishing huts ('wadiyas') are put up and the boats are moored. The word `Paduwa' probably arose form the sinhalese `paa-doova' or 'lower-islet'. The Tamil 'Konthaipiddi', where 'Konthakarai' implies a sub-caste of fisher people, refers to the areas used by such sub-fisher castes.
For a full report see Mannar: The Inside Story July 28,2012 Disc.-'Kivul' here refers to the water being 'hard' or salty.
'Uppu' in Tamil, and 'uppa' in M, K, Tu., refer to saltiness or sweetness.
See also p. 0419 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
The Sinhala name specifically implies salty water.
කිවුල්වැව
Upparu (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
KIVULAARA, Kivul-ara, Kivul ara Disc.-'Kivul' here refers to the water being 'hard' or salty.
This also agrees with the Tamil usage. 'Uppu' in Tamil, and 'uppa' in M, K, Tu., refer to saltiness or sweetness.
See also p. 0419 of the Madras Tamil Lexicon.
A new bridge was opened here in 2011.
කිවුල් ඇර
Uraniy(Monaragala, Bintenna)
URANIYA
There is a 'Nagadeepa Vihara' close to Uraniya. There are
3 inscriptions, the remains of ancient structures, and the
fragment of a 6-7th century inscription. The temple has also the
ruins of an ancient dagoba.
ඌරනිය
Urezhu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
URRISSA
ඌරිස්ස
Urelu(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
URELIYA
This is located near Vaeligama (Valikamam) and the Palyala (Palaly) base. Urelu was very much in the news even in the 1930s, opposing the attempts by the British government to ensure "equal seating" to school children irrespective of caste. See UTHR(j) report, Indian Army 1987 see Jaffna map1
ඌරුඑලිය
Uridyava, Uridiyava (Puttalama)
HIRIDIYAWA
හිරිදියාව
Uriyan (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
HIRIYAYA
හිරියාල
Urumpirai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
HOORAMPILA   ⚓name
Disc.- "Hoora" is old sinhala for 'Vedda'.
'Piraay' is also a kind of tree (bot. Streblus asper) in Tamil, "Nitul" in Sinhala.
This is a potato-growing, farming area
Village of Sivakumaran, the first cyanide suicide, 5 June 1974, took place
in evading capture while robbing a bank to raise money for a pre-LTTE militant group.
Sivakumaran was claimed to be an "A-Levl" student with Chemistry
as one of the subjects; see however, Rajan Hoole who says that he was an early
school drop out and one of the "boys", i.e., armed militants of the Tamil United National front(TULF). There is also a picture of S. J. V.
Chelvanayagam with Sivakumaran (c.f., article by Michael Roberts), establishing their links.
See a Pro-LTTE report on Sivakumaran
Map
ඌරම්පිල

Uruthirapuram (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
GURUSIRIPURA
Labeled #20 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Pre-Christian Buddhist site; Listed by Archae. Dept. Somasiri 1982.
A large stupa existed (1964) near the tank, with two ancient buildings with stone pillars and other archaeological remnants. These have been destroyed by recent political activities. Tantric Buddhists used the seeds of the plant Elaeocarpus ganitrus to make 'Japamaala' or rosaries. A pre-Buddhist Upanishad is named 'Uruttiraatca'; Also, the the Sansk. name 'Rudraksha' involves Indian mythology regarding the Asura fortress 'tripura' and 'rudraksha' seeds (tear drops) falling from the eye of Siva. Thus the 'rudraksha' seeds have been used by Hindus in their rosaries from ancient times. In Sri Lanka the seed of the Veralu tree is sometimes used for this purpose. In the 'Buddhist' or 'elu' form of the name, the Asura city has become 'siripura', and 'Guru' is now consistent with the Upanishadic and Jain approach of distancing from the Hindu god figures.
ගුරුසිරිපුර
Urvanikanpattu (Giranikke[Killinochchi])
GURUVAN PATTUVA
"Guruvan" may indicate the colour of the ground, or may be related to, "Hira vara", a type of plant "Cadaba indica". Also, "Pattuva" is a standard stem-ending for "Place, Paettha, Pattana, patuna" etc.   Regional map
කරච්චිය
Usan (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
AVUSALA
see Jaffna map1
අවුසල
Uttikulam (Vannimaava [Vavniya]) UTHTHIYAVAEVA
Uttiya and his consort are mentioned in a stone inscription near here, in Periyapuliyankulam.
උත්තියවැව
Uyilankulam (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
GOVINAVAEVA, VILGAMVAEVA
Same place name in (Mannnarama[Mannar])
Vilganvaeva→Villankulam→Uilnakulam.
Map
ගොවින්නාවැව
විල්ගම්වැව

V
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වැලිබුන්න
Vadamarachchi,Vadamaradchi,Vedamarachchi, Vatamaracci (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VA`DDIMURAEKIYA
hist. Baldaeus, 1658 has recorded name forms.
Disc. The name in S. could mean Watch location
(Murakiya → murachchiya)
of the Vedda folk; or 'Vaedi' simply means "arrive = vadeema".
This location controls access to the Vanni from the Yapanaya peninsula.
It is a district subdivision and not a town by itself
War: Army/navy camps, see Gatakaduwa (Kaddaikadu) and
Weralakuruna (Vettlakerni)
See Vadamarchchi debacle etc
SL military medal
Operation Liberation and Eealam war I
වැදි මුරැකිය

Vadamarachchi (Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
VAEDI-MURAKIYA
N. B., this is not to be confused with the area in Jaffna Penn. with same name
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri
Labeled #55 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වැදි මුරැකිය
Vadaliyadaippu (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAEDILIYADDA
n.b. a` as in at; V`adda or Veddha
Disc. ' Vadali' in T. could mean 'young Palmayrah'
However, it seems more meaningful to identify Vada to be from 'Vedda'
consistent with the sinhala
වැදිලියද්ද
Vaddakandal (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VA`TAGANDARA
kandal may also probably be attributed to a type of
mangrove, botanical name Kandelia rheedii.
or Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora candel.
The word 'kandal' may also be atamilization of 'gandara',
that is, the watery edge or swamp, where gan =river and 'dara' is
related to 'addara'. 'The 'vaetta' indicates a demarcated area.
වැද්දකන්ද
Vaddakkachchi (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
VADDAKACHCHIA
Disc. In T. 'Vadakk-' could mean "notherly direction"
But this does not give a complete meaning
  Regional map
වැද්දකච්චිය
Vaddumkaddu(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VAEDAMANKADUVA
Ancient Buddhist ruins, near Hunugama(Chunnakam).
වැදමන්කඩුව
Vadukoddai, Vaddukoddai, Vaddukkodai, Vaddukkodai, Vaddukoddei, வட்டுக்கோட்டை (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BATAKOTTE
Disc. 'Batakotte' in S. means a fortified garrison of soldiers.
Hist. Battecotte, Batecotte
Dutch Historical Record
In the 19th century, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) had founded a Seminary in 1823 and the place name "Baticotta" was used. The "Batticotte" seminary was closed in 1855 as the mission's objective of converting Hindus to Christianity was felt to have been unsuccessful. The Batakotte seminary is also mentioned by Emerson Tennent. The early period of American education has been covered by Dr. G. H. Piyaratna of the Vidyodaya University in "his doctoral thesis; American Education in Ceylon: 1810 to 1855" University of Michigan, USA. The first photograph taken in Ceylon in 1853, by Henry Martyn, is said to be that of a group of missionaries of the Seminary in front of the "Batticotte igreja" (church) built by the Portuguese in 1626. This church is now the Cathedral Church of the Jaffna Diocese of the Church of South India consecrated as such on October 10, 1947
See also, Ratnajeevan Hoole's discussion of What they are and How they Operate through Jaffna Central College and St. John’s College Histories .
Jaffna college was found in 1870, where the Batacotte seminary originally stood. The episcopal control moved from the American Ceylon Mission (ACM) to the Jaffna Diocese of the Church of South India (JDCSI).
The "Vadukkodei resolution" (1976) of the TULF was proclaimed here, officially setting in motion the "two-nation" policy advocated by the Thamil Arasu Kadchi since 1948 (prior to the Vadukkodei resolution, the Arasu Kadchchi sought a Federal constitution as a first step, at least in its english language manifesto. The Tamil publications of the "Arasu Kadchchi" were more separatist). Vaddukkodei was the constituency of the TULF leader Amirthalingam, murdered by the LTTE which regarded him as a politician who was ready to compromise the separatist ("Eealam") objective.
Modern battles for the control of christian missions. TULF resolution in 1976
Rasalingam on the Two-Nation concept of the Arasu Kadchchi. Critique of Tamil Nationalism by Tamil intellectuals
Map
බටකෝට්ටෙ
Vadduvakal, Wadduvakal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VATUVAGALA   ⚓name
the Indian Partridge, 'tittiri' in Skrt., and also in Pali. In addition, 'Kakkara' is used in Pali. A common name for the bird is "vatuva", or 'Us-vattuva'. This is located at the southern end of what was called the "No fire zone", the area used as the last stand of the LTTE in May 2009. The wreck of the Jordanian ship "Fara III" previously hijacked by the LTTE is located near here. Capturing the vatuvagala causeway   LTTE hostages escaping
වටුවගල
Vairavapuliyankulama (Vavnimava[Vavniya])
VAYRAKOTIVAEVA
Disc. In T., 'vairav' could mean "good"
වයිරකොටිවැව
Vakaneri, Vahaneri (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VAHANERIYA
The name may have come from 'Pahaneriya', a jutting out bund(paha ←prakaara)
Names like "Pakaneri, Nanguneri" are also found in Tamil Nadu
[T. neriya.] Cut or broken piece;To arch, curve, bend (MTL page 2344);
Sinhala 'neraa yaama' - to butt out, project, bend
Also, nernci, neri-netti may mean "elephant-grass in T.
There is a tank (vahaneri tank) here. The railroad passes through this area.
Hist. Dagoba, structures, pond etc.
Walter Rupasinghe's account
Clashes between LTTE and Karuna
වහනේරිය
Vakarai, Vaharai (SiriGonakanda[Trincomalee]) [Batticaloa])
VIHARE, VAAKARÉ
About 30 km north of Galthudava (Kalkuda)
The name may mean 'Windy shore', or 'Vaakaré '
The tamil word, vikaram, விகாரம is given on p3635 of the Madras Tamil lexicon as
Vikaram=Buddhist temple (vihara) , but forms derived from the stub 'vakara' do not seem to be listed in this or other tamil, Malm. or kannada dictionaries Tradition holds that a temple complex for monks and pilgrims to the area existed here. Hence an altrantive origin for the name may have been `Vihare'.
War: Eelam IV Eastern front; LTTE/SLF/Karuna in Dec 2006
Army in Vihare' in Jan 2007
Map
Map along the east coast.
වාකරේ,   විහාරෙ
Valaichenai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VALAS-HENA
Paper factory.
Disc. In tamil 'valai' could mean a 'net'
Map
වලස්හේන
Valaippadu (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
VALAPAATHA
වලපාත
Valaiyankaddu (Mannarama)
VALAYAKKADUVA
වලයක්කඩුව
Valagnchiyan Veli, Valanchiyan Vaeli (Mooladoova [Mullaithivu])
PALAN-HETTI VAELLA
Disc.-'Hetti, Chetty', or 'Cheyyar, hettiyar' are merchant groups referred to even in the Buddhist scriptures. Thus Anaathapindika was a "chetty" merchant. The place names Pollonaruwa, Pallonaruva etc., is sometimes said to contain references to Pulasthi, a mythical sage (earliest mention in the Rig Veda, III.53.16). Thus Palan-hetti are Chetty merchants associated with the city of Pulasthipura (Pollonnaruva). Associating Chetty merchants with various cities is quite common. The word 'Pallan' may also be 'Pollan', or 'Poron'. In that sense this mean "puraana-hetti", or simply "Aaadhi-hetti". For example, we also have the name 'Kasi-Chetty' which alludes to Chetty merchants from Benares (Kasi pura). 'Palan-hetti vaella' would thus be a 'sandy-field' associated with 'chetty' merchants from Pollon-nuvara (Pollonnaruva).
It is common to find that the forms 'p','b', 'v' exchange, and 'palan ↔ valan' in many Dravidian languages. However,standard Tamil lexicons ascribe no clear meanings to the lexical forms or variants contained in this place name.
පලන් හෙටිටි වැල්ල
Valalai, Valalay, Valalaay (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VAERALLA, DHOMATIYA, DHOMAETTA
Disc. - Valalai ← Vazhalaay in Tamil may stand for a kind of clay ('Diyamaeti, Dhomaeti, Makulumaeti' in Sinhala) used in washing, and containing Bentonites and Montmorillite. It could be the origin of the place name, as in the case of the same place name found in Mannar. However, unlike in Mannar, there is no Montmorillite found here. This village is in the Vaeligama (Vallikamam) division of Jaffna, close to the Army. High security zone. Valalai has a Kaali temple.
වෙරුල්ල,   දොහොමැටිය
Valalai, Valalayi, Valalaay (Mannarama [Mannar])
DHOMATIYA, DHOMAETTA
The word 'Valalaai' in Tamil may refer to the Montmorillite and Bentonite clay (Fuller's earth, c.f., Valalai-Sutram in Sidhha-aurveda), found in this region. It is used in washing and clensing ('Dhomaeti') and may be the origin of the place name. The name 'Ottacci' is also used in Tamil for Fuller's earth. The Sittivinayagar temple, Neerpiddi murugan temple., and the St. Emilion church are
found here.
දොහොමැටිය
Valithundal, Valiththundal (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAELITHUDUVA
වැලිතුඩාව
Vallaipadu, Valappadu (Giranikke [Killinochchi])
VAELLAPATUNA
Map with A32-B69-A9 roads.   Regional map
වැල්ලපටුන
Valliyapalli, Valliyappolai, Variyappalai (Mannarama)
VAARIYAPOLA
වාරියපොල
Vallipunam (Mooladoova [Mulaitivu])
VAELIBUNNA, VELIBUNNA
The sinhala name 'vaeli-bunna' probabaly means a place with broken (cf. 'sun-bun' සුන් ;බුන්) stones and sand. An arid, sandy, broken-up field.
This is a small place on the Paranthan (Puran thaenna)-Mulative (Moladoova) highway where the Tigers had torture prisons and Victor Base I. the notorious "Sencholai" suide-cadre training center said to be used for training young girls and into Suicide cadre. When the army dsetroyed it in August 2006, the Tigers claimed that this was an orphanage. The army claimed that it was a training center that they needed to justify. See more details under Sencholai'
Victor Base 1, Vallipunam – LTTE”s secret prison & torture chamber for POWs & Tamils
Vallikaman, Vellikamam (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAELIGAMA, Valukagama (in Chulawamsa)
This is a district subdivision and not just a village
Hist. 'Vaeligama' is mentioned in 'Sigiri Griffiti' -possibly 8th century CE. Dutch maps also indicate large parts of the jaffna peninsula as "Valikamam", and show that the name "Waeligama" වැලිගම held continuously till the time of the Sankilli era when the name was tamilized to Vaelikamam.
See history
වැලිගම
Vallipuram (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAELIPURA, Bandakara-Aethana
Disc. In cases where the original toponym was definitely `Vaeli (sand)', we have the tamilization 'Valli'. However,the possibility that 'Valli' may refer to 'Valliamman' and related Pattini cults etc., is less likely given the Buddhist history of this site, and earlier recorded name as 'Vaeligama'.
Hist. Vasabha Gold plate (1st century CE), pre-christian Buddhist Temple complex probabaly dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The inscription has been translated by Paranavithana in 1936 as: "In the reign of the great King Vasabha, and when the Minister Isigiraya was governing Nagadipa (modern Jaffna peninsula), Piyaguka Thisa Vihara was built at Badakara Athana [S. Paranavitana, ``Vallipuram Gold-Plate Inscription of the Reign of Vasabha." Epigraphia Zeylanica, vol. 4 pp 229-236, (1936).
The Vallipuram plate has been discussed in more recent works as well (c.f., Ven. E. Medhananda), and by tamil-nationalist historians who have looked for a different interpretaion without much success. This inscription also supports the view that 'Nakadivu' (Naagadeepa) is the whole of the modern Jaffna peninsula.
Map
වැලිපුර
Valukkiaru, Vallukkiaaru (Yapanaya {jaffna])
VAALUKA-AELA, VAALUKA-ARA
'Valukagama' is an ancient name mentioned in the Deepavamsa.
This is an old water stream which has existed from ancient times,
but interrupted by sandy patches ('valuka'), as it is
mainly fed by water
වාලුකඇල,   වාලුකආර.
Valvettithurai, Valvedditturai,Vellvettithurai, Velvettithurai(Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAELIVAETITHARA
Disc. 'Va`ti', or 'Va`di' in S. is from 'Va`deema', 'vadda', approach, c.f.., Pali "vattani" for path, road.
'Thara' is 'portal to the water', as in Sanskrit 'Theetha', Tamil 'thurai'.
Thus the name means 'Sandy or scrub-land approach to the water'
This is a Fisherman-Smuggler's village, mainly Catholic. When the Portuguese opened the sea lanes by controlling the Arab and other pirates, many ships passed through this region. Chetti traders from Tamil nadu built schooners similar to Portuguese ships and operated them using sailors from this area, and from Pt. Pedro (Peduru thuduva, Parithithurai)   Valvettithurai sailors   Westward Ho
In 1942, April 7 leftist leaders Philip Gonawardana, NM Perera,
Colvin R de Silva escaped to India in a 'Vallam" from VVT
It is the birth-village of the LTTE leader 'V.Prabakaran'
who eliminated and replaced the Colombo Tamil leadership. The LTTE
developed fighters carrying cyanide pills, a sucide-bomb cadre,
marine units, as well as child fighter brigades.
Prabakaran and associates are wanted for the murder of Rajeev Gandhi,
and murders of many Tamil, Muslim and Sinhala political leaders.
He is hailed as fighting for "Eelam", an independent Tamil state, by many Tamils.
P. Nadesan, LTTE polic chief, and political spokesman, is also from this town.
Map
වැලිවැටිතර
Valvetty (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAELIVAETIYA
වැලිවැටිය
Vanathawilluwa (Puttalama)
VANAATHAVILA
වනාතවිල
Vankalai (Mannarama [Mannar])
VAKKALA, VAKGALLA
'Vakkala' probably signifies a curved (sea?) passage among stones: Vakgalla → Vakkala → vankalai. Archaeological site (Carswell, John. 1991. "The Port of Mantai, Sri Lanka." ).
The Vankalai sanctuary and Ramasar wetlands - the proposed area is bounded by Vankalai, Puliyantivu Island and Tiruketiswaram and includes the causeway between the mainland and the Mannar island. Ramasar wetlands and maps
War: Home of Mary Qincy, LTTE suicide bomberr who attacked (17 Mar 1999) Chief Inspector Mohammed Nilabdeen, head of the anti-terrorism unit who survived the attack. The woman bomber jumped in front of a car carrying Chief Inspector Mohammed Nilabdeen of the Mount Lavinia police terrorist investigation unit, police said. Nilabdeen was wounded and hospitalized but doctors said he was out of danger. The attack took place when Nilabdeen was driving home from the Mount Lavinia police station after receiving a phone call saying that his wife was ill, police said. Beside the bomber, the dead included a man who swallowed a cyanide capsule when apprehended at the blast site, police said. Nilabdeen cracked the Chadrika assasination attempt However, under continued LTTE threat Nilabdeen left the country

Birth place of Rev. Br. Baptist Croos, FSC
වක්කල
Vannankeni(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VANNAKAENNA
vanna-kaenna' is a dugout (well) used by the washer caste
see Jaffna map1
වන්නකැන්න
Vannankulam (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VANNARAVAEVA, VANNANVEVA
'Vannan' probably refers to use by the washer caste.
However, it is unusual to delegate a whole tank to a washer caste,
unless it is a very minor tank.
'Vannara' refers to any type of monkey
Map
වන්නරවැව,   වන්නන්වැව
Vannarponnai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VANDURUPEANNA
වඳුරපැන්න,   වානරපැන්න
Vannivilankulam (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VANNI-VILA, Vannivil vaeva
'Vanni' in sinhala/prakrit means "forest". In Tamil 'vanni' refers to "clothes for washing", and "Vanniyar" is the corresponding caste. See Madras tamil Lexicon, p3565 for this another meanings which have no toponymic relevance.
This place is located on the (Muvaavaeva)Mankulum-(Bellanvaeva)Vellankulam road Administrative Map, DS division Manthai East
වන්නිවිල වන්නිවිල්වැව
Vantharumoolai, Vantharamullai, Vandaramoolai,Vantharumoolai Colony (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VANDURUMULLA, BANDARAMULLA, BANDARAGAMA
Sinhala names like `Bandaragama' etc. exist in the south.
It is not clear if the name comes from the kandyan 'Biso-bandara'
name or not, since this is an old site from the Ruhuna-kingdom times
In reverting from tamilized forms, we need to respect history AND also
remain close to current usage.
Hence a compromise choice for the name would be
BANDARAMULLA
Map
වඳුරමුල්ල,   බන්ඩාරමුල්ල
Vannathi Palam(SriGonakanda[Trincomalee])
SAMANALA AMUNA
The 'Ceylon Steel Corporation' was a 'public benefactor' who repaired
the Ancient temple here, in the late 60s.
සමනැලඅමුන
Varany (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VALAANA, Varama
වලාන,   වරාන
Vasavilan (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAASAVILA
වාසවිල
Varanai Iyattali(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VARAN-YATTALA
Disc.- Signifies a hamlet occupied by those
'who have been granted permission'.
see Jaffna map1
වරන් යට්ටල

Varikottur, Warikkottur, Varikuttiuruwa, Varikuttiuruva (Vannimava [Vavniya])
VARIGANAM PURA, VARIKOTHTHOORUVA
Disc.- 'Variganam pura' is an old town where tax levies were probably settled. In Tamil the 'ur' ending is a remnant of "(p)ur" for a town. 'vari' and 'Kottu' fit in with the above meaning. Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dep. Mr. Somasiri, 1982. Labeled #120 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වරි ගනම් පුර
වරිකොත් තූරැව
Vathiry (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
VAHIRA
වහිර
Vatharawathai, Vataravattai, Vatharawathal(jaffna[Yapanaya])
VAASALVATTA, KAEKURUVATHTHE
Vathari (or more commonly Nari-Illanthai) in Tamil,
is The Masan or Kaekuru Tree in Sinhala, Ziziphus jujuba.
'VAASALAVATTA' points the origin to the location of a 'stately mansion'.
see Jaffna map1
වාසලවත්ත,   කැකුරුවත්ත
Vattappalai, Vattarappalai, Wattraipalai   வற்றாப்பளை (Mooladoova [Mulaitivu])
YATRAPOLA, VATAVIHARE
The name Vattapalli or round-temple (VATA-VIHARé) is associated with the Pattini (Kannaki) temple, built by Gajabahu I (114-136 CE) thus fusing Buddhist and Pattini worship. This is also a rest-point for a 'Paadayatra' (Paada=feet, yathra= means of locomotion) pilgrims going south, for example, to Katharagama, or going North, following the sacred places mentioned in the Buddhist text Nampotha.
Rural resting spots for such pilgrims were known as `ambalams'. They existed all over the country. Images of `Ambalams' in the Meerigama area. The town known today as `Ambalangoda' in the southern coast had many such `ambalams' used for Paada-Yathra to Katharagama (Kathirkamam) via the southern route. "Pattini" as well as "Alexander" (Iskander → Skanda) are deified in Katharagama, within a non-Saivite (Murugan) devotional setting.
Vattappali Amman Temple

The alternative allonym may be related to 'paadayathra', or to the use of the location as a marina for boats.
We may also note that 'vattapalai' is one of the ancient Tamil musical arrangements, although its relevance is probably minimal. The sinhala word 'vala' →'palai' in tamilization provides
another possible etymology for this place name. Thus 'vaturavala'
may suggest a source of water or a spring.
It is today claimed to be an LTTE sea-Tiger base.
යාත්රපොල
වටවිහාරෙ
Vavunakkulam (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VANNIVAEVA
'Vanni' in sinhala/prakrit means "forest". In Tamil 'vanni' refers to "clothes for washing", and "Vanniyar" is the corresponding caste. See Madras Tamil Lexicon, p3565 for this another meanings which have no toponymic relevance. "Vavuna" does not exist in Tamil. The transformation of "vanni" to "vavni" is already noted in sinhala, with respect to Vavniyava.
වන්නිවැව
Vavnative, Vavunativu, Vavunathivu(Madakalapuwa (Batticaloa])
VANNIDOOVA, Vavniduva
'Vanni' in sinhala/prakrit means "forest". In Tamil 'vanni' refers to "clothes for washing", and "Vanniyar" is the corresponding caste. See Madras tamil Lexicon, p3565 for this andother meanings which have no toponymic relevance. "Vavuna" does not exist in Tamil. The transformation of "vanni" to "vavni" is alredy noted in sinhala, with respect to Vavniyava.
වන්නිදූව
Vavnikulam(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
VANNIVAEVA
This in the Dunukaava (Tunukkai) DRO div.
'Vanni' in sinhala/prakrit means "forest". In Tamil 'vanni' refers to "clothes for washing", and "Vanniyar" is the corresponding caste. See Madras tamil Lexicon, p3565 for this andother meanings which have no toponymic relevance. "Vavuna" does not exist in Tamil. The transformation of "vanni" to "vavni" is already noted in sinhala, with respect to Vavniya. Ancient Buddhist site; A brick foundation, two pillars, alter
moonstone, several ancient mounds, and a torso of a standing Buddha
have been found. See also, Ven. E. Medhananda (Pachina passa-uttara passa 2003)
වන්නිවැව
Vavnikulam[Mooladoova[Mullaithivu])
VANNIVAEVA
This is 11km S-W of Muvaveava(Mankulam), in the
Tunnaka(Tunnakai) DRO division.
It is the biggest Tank in the Mooladoova district. Jayapalan, a Tamil poet ('Kavithaigal - Perunthogai') has drawn attention to the caste struggle in the Vanni villages. Ancient Buddhist site; A brick foundation, two pillars, alter moonstone, several ancient mounds, and a torso of a standing Buddha have been found
වන්නිවැව
Vavuniya (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
VANNIMAVA
Traditional entry to the Vanni , a word derived from
the Sinhala vana = forest.
Disc. The name 'Vavnimava →Vavnia' is sometimes interpreted as meaning
'end of tank construction', but it is more likely that the name is
a modification of 'Vanni-nimava', i.e, the end of the Vanni.
Thus 'Vannimava → Vavnimava →Vavniya' 'Vanni' in sinhala/prakrit means "forest". In Tamil 'vanni' refers to "clothes for washing", and "Vanniyar" is the corresponding caste. See Madras tamil Lexicon, p3565 for this and other meanings which have no toponymic relevance. "Vavuna" does not exist in Tamil. The transformation of "vanni" to "vavni" is already noted in sinhala.
For Vanni caste, sociology etc. Manual of the Vanni J. P. Lewis.
War Currently, the Army checkpoint to and from the Vanni, is at Omanda (Omanthai), just north of Vannimaava.
See Youth gangs name after tamil films.
Army map
වන්නිමාව

Veddikkinaramalai, Vadukkamalai,Vedukinarmalai (mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
VAEDIKINNARA KANDA, vaddamana kanda
Ancient Buddhist ruins, Listed in 1982 by Archaeo. Dept. Somasiri, 1982.
This is near Ariyamauva and Naedunkurana. Sevearl abandoned tanks; the
folk legends claim this to be an ancient domain (Vaddamana hill)of the
Naaga people of early legends. There are remnants of two stupas on
the hill. The stupas have been plundered by treasure hunters.
Possibly some six or seven stone Sri Padas, remnants of buildings
as well as many meditation caves seem to have existed.
2nd century BC Brahmi inscriptions are found in three caves. These inscriptions
are discussed by Ven. E. Medhananda, p 376 (Pachcina passa-uttra passa, 2003).
Vaedi 'Kinnara' is a low 'cast' Veddha group.
Labeled #49 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වැඩිකින්නරකන්ද
Veddukkadu(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
Vaevumkaduva
Disc.- 'vaevumkaduva' is a piece of jungle land brought
under cultivation; The sinhala name could be translated
as 'vettu-k-kaatu' into Tamil, and may have become veddukaadu.
  Regional map   see Jaffna map1
වැවුම්කඩුව
Vedithaltivu, Vedithalteev, Vettithaltivu, Vidathaltivu (Mannaram [Mannar])
Andaradoova,
This 'fishing village' was the main entry-point of LTTE weapons from the Mannaram coast, borugh in fishing trawlers from the Tamil-Nadu coast. The area was 'ethincally cleansed' of Muslim inhabitants in 1990 by the LTTE. see entry under Vidathaltivu
අන්දරදූව,   විසගල්දූව
Vedivaithakallu (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
VAEDAVASGALLA, Vedawasgala
rocky caves used for mediation existed here.
වැඩවස්ගල්ල

Veherabaenda Vaeva(Vannimava[Vavniya])
Ancient Buddhist site
Remnanats of a large stupa, said to be built by Viharamaha devi.
Labeled #104 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වෙහෙරබැන්දවැව
Velanai (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BELLANA
Disc.- 'Velan' in tamil connotes meanings related to the Velala caste, as well as to Skandha.
However, this part of the ocean and shore were connected with
Oyster fishery, and we consider that to be the origin of the "Bellana" name,
where "bella" is generic sinhala word for Oysters, Clams etc.
'Muttu' or pearl fisheries were also part of the tradition here.
Near Uruthota(Kayts), Perumkulam Muttumari Amman Kovil
Civil war
බෙල්ලන
Velankulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
BELLANVEVA
බෙල්ලන්වැව
Velikkandai Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
VAELIKANDA
වැලිකන්ද
Velikkandal (Giranikke, [kilinochchi])
VAELIGANDARA
This name may probably be attributed to a type of
mangrove, botanical name Kandelia rheedii.
or Rhizophora mucronata and Rhizophora candel.   Botany
The word 'kandal' may also be a tamilization of the sinhala 'gandara',
that is, the watery edge or swamp, where gan(ga) =river and 'dara' is
related to 'addara', neighbourhood.
වැලිකන්ද
Velikulam (Vavnimava [Vavniya])
VELIVEVA
වැලිවැව
Vellamanal (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
VAELIVAELLA
වැලිවැල්ල
Vellamullivaikkal, Vellaimullivaikkal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VAELBATU-AGALA,Vael-batu-vakkkadé VAELBATUVAKKDE   ⚓name
Sign board Meaning:  In S., Agala is a channal or sewer. Vakkadadaya is a water sewer or "Agala, (va)ggala, vakkala". In Tamil vaikkal could also mean a water sewer or drain. "Mulli" could also refer to "Batu"and "Vaelbatu" is a common species here.
This is in the No Fire Zone in 2009   designated in 2009 during the LTTE last stand, Karaithuraipatru (Karathota-pattuva) AGA division, Mooladoova.
  Claims of civilian casulties in the NFZ   report in the Island, 16-may-2009   Tiger protests in world capitals   Velupillai Prabhakaran, the Leader of the LTTE was killed here in May 17 2009.
See discussion under "Mulliyavalai"
වැල්බටුවක්කඩේ
වැල්බටු අගල
Vellankulam (Mannarama [Mannar])
Ancient Buddhist ruins, see p78 E Medhanada(2003)

BELLANVEVA
බෙල්ලන්වැව
Vellavely (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VA`LIVELLA
වැලිවැල්ල
Veloor (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
VELGAMA
n.b.: Sanskrit/pali "pura" → "(p)oor" → Dravidian/tamil: "oor"=village or city.
වෙල්ගම
Veerancholai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VEERGOLLA
'Veera' is a tree, 'Drypetes sepiaria', found in the dry zone.
වීරගොල්ල

Veerappanumaduva, Veerapanmadu(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
VEERA-PAENUM-MADUVA
Ancient Buddhist site, listed by Archaeo. Dep. Somasiri, 1982
Labeled #81 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
වීරපැනුම් මඩුව
Venavil, Vaanavil (Mooladoova [Mullaithivu)
THIRUVAANA VILA, VAANAVILA
This is located close to Aluthkulissa (Puthukudiruppu) and believed to be part of the LTTE military establishment. 'Thiruvaana' is a quartz-like stone.
තිරුවානවිල
Vennappuva, Wennappuwa வென்னப்புவ(Puttalama)
Vennapura, Wennappuwa.
This place name is probably the one mentioned in the Chulavamsa and may have come from a name like wenpura, where 'vena', wena' is a caste that weaves baskets using reeds. Given the closeness of this village to Kalpitiya (Galpitiya) and the watery neighbourhood where reeds abound, this etymology may be reasonable.
Today it has a significant catholic presence, and the family of Sardiel (19th century hero) has links with this town.
වෙන්නප්පුර
Veppankulam (Vannimava[Vavniya])
Kohombavaeva
Disc.- Kohomba is Sinhala for 'Margosa' (Azadirachta indica)
'Veppan' is one of the many word-stubs in Dravidian (Tamil,Malayalam, K)
referring to Margosa related trees, oils, leaves, bark etc.
4 km west of Vannimava(Vavniya), on the Mannarama road.
LTTE-SL army, constant clashes
කොහොඹවැව
Veppanveli (Ampare)
KOHOMBAVAELLA
This is close to Thoppigala and has been an LTTE camp
කොහොඹවැල්ල
Vettilakerni Vettilaikerni (Yapanaya [Jaffna])
BEDILI-KAENNA, VEDILUNUKAENNA
vettila in Tamil refers to Betel pepper. However, this is a beach head where no betel could possibly grow. The Sinhala name "Bedili-kaenna" implies a digging to partition the land. The sounds "V" and "B" interchange easily esp. in Dravidian etymology. That the name seems to imply a digging (Kaenna) for saltpeter (Vedilunu) used
in gunpowder, has also been suggested to us but there is no supporting evidence.
War: Army camp-Naval base east of Alimankada (Elephant Pass). The first battle for Alimankada, i.e., Operation Balavegaya , a massive amphibious operation under Kobbekaduwa was attempted via a sea borne landing at Vettilakerni (Bedilikaenna), located 12 kilometers east of Elephant Pass, scheduled for 14:30 hours on July 15, 1991. Once the beachhead was secured, Gen. Kobbekaduwa authorized Brig. Wimalaratne to link up with the garrison in Alimankada (Elephant Pass), about 10 km away.
Sea piracy: in October 1994 LTTE destroyed the MV Ocean Trader off Vettilaikerni shores.
බෙදිලි කැන්න
වෙඩි ලුනු කැන්න
Verugalai (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
BERUGALA, VEHERAGALA
There is also a Verugal Ara, which is simply the "aara" which flows by Verugalai. Beru is a type of tree as discussed in regard to the place-name Beruwala. Hence the name may have originate from trees growing between the rocky regions in this old Buddhist site. The more likely etymology is as follows: this old Buddhist site may have also been called "Veheragala", as stated by some traditions. However, there is at present inadequate source material to decide on the name. In Tamil, the word "Veru" வெரு may mean "poisonous drug",or "fear, dread", etc., and has no appropriate contextual meaning here. War: LTTE base till 2006, see links under the entry Somapura, sampur
වෙහෙරගල
Verugal (Sirigonakanda [Trincomalee])
VEHERAGALA, VIHARAGALKANDA (temple)
New Hindu temple named Verugal Mohotturan Neela Amman Kovil build in 2002
See SL Parliamentary debates, Oct. 7 1983, distr. of Buddhist shrine
Vihara Gal kanda
වෙහෙරගල
Vidatalpalai, Vidattalpalai,Wedithalpalai, Vidathtalpazhai (Yapanaya[Jaffna])
ANDARAVALA, VISAGALPALLA, VISADALPALLA
See also Vidataltivu
Andara, Dichrostachys cinerea , or Mimosa cinerea is a thorny shrub known as 'Vidaththal' in Tamil.
This plant has over 70 tamil names and some 20 Sanskrit names (Bahuvaraka,..,Virtaru).
The Tamil name 'Anantter' may be derived from the sinhala 'Andara'
It could also refere to a centipede.
'palai' may also have evolved from the sinhala 'vala'.
Map
අන්දරවල,   විසගල්පල
Vidataltivu, Vidattaltivu, Wedithalthivu, Vedithaltivu விடத்தல்தீவு (Mannarama [Mannar])
ANDARADOOVA, VISADALDOOVA
Disc.- 'Visa-dal' may refer to a kind of centipede, snake or a type of vegetation (plant). 'Andara', Mimosa cinerea, a thorny shrub, is known as 'Vidaththal' in tamil.
The 'thorns' are the 'visadala' in Andara. This plant has over 70 tamil names and some 20 sanskrit names (Bahuvaraka,..,Virtaru). The tamil name 'Anantter' may be derived from the sinhala 'Andara'
It could also refere to a centipede, since, in tamil, 'vitataali' may also mean a centipede as well. The tamil form விடுதலை .... could also be related to "liberation", "emancipation" etc., but this place name cannot be connect with such a meaning except by a big lexicological stretch.
Fishing villages in the Mannaram coast close to and centered at Vedithalthivu (Andaradoova), were used by the LTTE for weapons import using fishing boats. Earlier, it contained a mixed population of Muslim and Tamil Catholic fisher people. Some upper-caste Land owning Tamils, and and a few Sinhalese traders existed here till the 1980s. The Muslim's were evicted by force in 1990 by the LTTE and many of those IDPs still live in the Puttalama area.

The Muslim-Tamil conflict has once again raised its head, after the defeat of the LTTE, even while the previous displaced Muslims remain in Puttlama. The disputes arose in using the "Padawa" areas (a `paduwa' is a fisheries management zone where the fishing huts (wadiyas) are put up and the boats are moored. The word `Paduwa' probably arose form the sinhalese `paa-doova' or 'lower-islet'.
For a full report see Mannar: The Inside Story July 28,2012 Army captures Andaradoovaඅන්දරදූව (Vidattaltivu) sea tiger-base 16-july-2008
අන්දරදූව,   විසගල්දූව
Valaikattiravu(Madakalapuva[Batticaloa])
DAEL-PARITHTHA
Disc.- The name in Sinhala means "net-spread", or a place used
to spread fishing nets., In T. it means 'fishing nets used to catch fish'.
දැල්පරිත්ත
Vilattimoddai, Vilaaththimoadddai (Vannimava [Vavniya])
DIVULMOTTE, DIMBULMOTTE
'Divil, Dimbul' is woodapple (bot. Feronia limonia) in Sinhala.
'Motte' is a marshy, watery, shallow 'vila'.
දිවුල්මොටේ
Vilattikulam, Vilathikulam (Vannimava [Vavniya])
DIVULVAEVA
'Divul, Dimbul' is woodapple (bot. Feronia limonia) in Sinhala.
දිවුල්වැව

Vilgamvehera, Vilgam Vehera, Velgam Vehera(Gokanna[Trincomalee])
VELGAMVEHERA is the ancient name, also called Periyakulam since 1929.
Pali texts have also used the name 'Sarogaama' Vihara. Inscriptions,
BathiyaTissa II(142-168 CE), suggest that the vihara developed during that time.
However, much later, during the Chola period, Tamil Buddhists also paid homage to
this temple. One Tamil inscription found here glorifies the victories
of Rajendra Chola. Tamil Buddhists continued to use the old Sinhala name
Velgam Vihara, as seen from the Tamil inscriptions.
where the usage "Maanaavathie rate velgmvehera raja raja perum palli" is found.
Maanavathie is the tank known today as "Periyakulam".
The temple was also called "Rajarajaperumpalli" by the Cholas.
Labeled #167 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Also see under 'Periyakulam'
Some 4-5 km west of Velgamvehera, the site known "Buriyakulam kanda"
contains remnants of a large Dagaba, stone pillars, rock caves, as well as
pre-christian era Brahmi inscriptions.
විල්ගම් වෙහෙර
Vilankulam Periya-Vilankulam(SriGonakanda[Tricomalee])
MAHADIULVAEVA
This is a part of the Moravaeva (Muthalikulam) colanization
scheme, mostly developed in the 1980s.
මහදිවුල් වැව
Vilpanakulam, Wilpankulam(Sri Gonakanda [Trincomalee])
VILPANG VAEVA
Disc.- 'Vilpang' is presumably 'Eleocharis Plantaginea'
Ancient Buddhist site; in the list by Archaeo. Dept., Somasiri, 1982
විල්පන්වැව
Vilpattu, Wilpattu (Anuradhapura and Puttalama)
VILPATTUVA, VILPAETTTA
Disc.- 'Vil' is the plural of 'Vila', i.e., 'natural lake'
The tamil word 'Villu' is probably derived from the sinhala 'Vila',
a point of view endorsed by Swami Gnanaprakasar.
Thus it is not given in the Tamil lexicons or used in Tamil Nadu.
The Tamil-lexicon meaning "bow" or "circle" is found for 'Vil".
'Pattuva' is most probably from the Pali 'Passa', 'direction', cf. 'Paeththa'
Thus 'Vilpaetta' is the 'direction' where there are lakes.
Note that 'Pattuva' is a subdivision of a 'Korale'.
Vilpattu was designated a game sanctuary, 1905 (National park in 1938).
The park is 425 Sq. miles, and 50km west of Anuradhapura.
In ancient times the area contained historic hamlets, harbours etc.
Legend has it that Kihirikanda(Kudiramalai), a point on
the shore was the landing place of Vijaya,
while Kuveni lived in 'Kālivila(Kali Villu)', in the Vilpattu. A place named Tammaenna vaetiya has been mentioned and associated with Kuveni (c.f., Kokila sandesha, 15th century), is inthe Puttalam district.
Kihirikanda was visited by Roman sailors during the time of
Claudius (417 AD), and Pliny talks of a large settlement here.
There are stone pillars and other remnants of Buddhist ruins at Kālivila.
More ruins are found near the Kokmotte bangalow; and near the
Aelavuna Gala (Ochappu Kallu). A 2nd century BCE inscription is found here.
Maradan Maduva, the present Vilpattu office area,
is associated with Sāliya and Asokamāla,
i.e., the time of Dutugamunu. 'Ransirimāle (tantirimalai) is also a
part of the park since 1969, and is associated with the Saliya
story (see entry under Tantirimalai) as well as Sangamitta's arrival
with the Bo sapling. Ranpariththa (Pomparippu) is
also in the Vilpattu region and is a part of the pre-history of the
island (see entry under Pomparippu). There are ancient ports at
Palangathota (Palangathurai) and Kollankanatte.
There are some 30 lakes ('Vil', ot 'Villu') in the park, and their names are
simple tamilizations, with the names usually ending in 'Villu'.
Kumbukvila, Nelunvila, Kalaoya, are important 'villu'.
"Kokmotte" or "Kokmote" is a popular Bangalow which has an "oya" (water stream: modaragam-aara) running near it. Manawila, Panikka Wila, Talawila, Maradamadu, Maenikapola uttu (Menikapola uttu) and Kala Villu are other well known bungalows. The place name "Maenikpola Uttu", has the word "Uttu" which is a Malayalam word meaning "feeding place".
The park was closed in the eighties, and reopened briefly in 2003,
but remained closed due to terrorist activity, landmines and other hazards, till 2010, after the Eelam wars.   Remembering 1985 A'pura and Wilpattu massacre Wilpattu vandalized, March 2010 7nbsp; The Road Through Wilpattu= by Kiyaz Deen
There are many small "tanks" (irrigation reservoirs) in the area.
Maradamaduwa Tank, Ikiriyagollewa Tank, Mahawewa Tank, Andaragollewa Tank, Paarci-Baendi wewa, Moragllewa Tank, Palukola wewa, Walaswala Tank, Maenikaeththu Tank (Menikeththu =Menik Uttu) and Thela vaapi (Telveepu Tank).
විල්පත්තුව
Vimankamam, Vimankraamam(Yapanaya[Jaffna])
MINUVANGAMUVA
Buddhist ruins, Viharaya etc. Mentioned in the 'Nampotha' a book listing Buddhist pilgrimage sites, dated in its 'modern' form to at least the fourteenth or fifteenth century.
ම්නුවන්ගමුව
Viralai (?)
Viraela
x
Vinayagapuram (Ampare)
VINAYAGAPURA
විනයාගපුර
Visvamadu, Vishvamadu (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
BISAVMADUVA
In 2010 February the Police discovered a small scale factory which had once manufactured bombs in Vishvamadu. The police had acted on a tip off given by a member of the LTTE's former Charles Anthony Brigade. The is also a village/tank here known as "Visvamadukulam"
(Viswamadukulam)
That is BISOMADUVAEVA
බිසෝමඩුව

W
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Wadduvakal, Vadduvakal (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
VATUVAGALA   ⚓name
the Indian Partridge, 'tittiri' in Skrt., and also in Pali. In addition, 'Kakkara' is used in Pali. A common name for the bird is "vatuva", or 'Us-vattuva'. This is located at the southern end of what was called the No Fire Zone in 2009, the area used as the last stand of the LTTE in May 2009. The Jordanian ship "Fara III" previously hijacked by the LTTE is located near here. Capturing the vatuvagala causeway   LTTE hostages escaping
වටුවගල
Walathapiddy (Madakalapuwa [Batticaloa])
VALASPITIYA
වලස්පිටිය
Warikkottur Warikottu Ur (Vannimava[Vavniya])
see under "Varikottur"
වරිගනම්පුර
Wilpattu, Vilpattu (Anuradhapura and Puttalama)
VILPATTUVA, VILPAETTTA
This is discussed under Vilpattu (letter V)
විල්පත්තුව
Wilpothai, Vilpothai (Puttalama)
VILPOTHA
විල්පොත

X

Y

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Yala (Tissamaharama and Lahugala Districts)
YALA, YAALA
This is not a tamilized name
The Sanskrit (also Pali) word, 'Sakala'=cart, becomes 'Hayala'
in Sinhala. By a process of inversion known to linguists,
'Hayala' becomes 'Yahala', and 'Yaala' in popular usage.
Thus, according to Prof. Meegaskumbura (Sinhala Dept., Peradeniya),
'Yahala', and 'Yaala' connote an extent of paddy land which
requires a cart load of seed paddy for sowing.
A small area within the present 'Yala sanctuary' was originally
called 'Yala'. The sanctuary, also called the Ruhuna National Park, or Yaala national Park, was established in 1898, becoming
the first "protected area" in asia, according to
Prof. S. Ekaratne (Zoology Dept., Colombo).
Local personalities in Yala and Kumana.
Glimpse into Yala
World's largest Crocodile (mugger) population in Ruhuna National Park
යාල
Yalpanam, Yaalpanam (Jaapanaya [Jaffna])
JAAPNAYA, YAAPAAPATUNA
See full write up under Jaffna
යාපනය   ජාපනය
යාපපටුන
Yakumaduyayai(Mooladoova[Mullaitivu])
YAKMADUYAYA
Labeled #59 in Vanni Buddhist sites map
Ancient Buddhist site
Stone pillars, slabs, statues etc.
යක් මඩුයාය
Yogapuram (Mooladoova [Mullaitivu])
YOGIPURA
යෝගි පුර
Yogiyani (Puttalama)
YOGIYANA
Buddhist temple
Sri Lankan/British artist Tissa Ranasinghe's village
Map
යෝගියාන

Z
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Tambimuttu's 1949 Article is one of the first after Independence to discuss Tamilized place names,
at a time when these issues had not become politically over heated.


Had the Tamil North a Buddhist background?


by Paulinus Tambimuttu

Dagobas at Kantherodai

The view held by some archaeologists, that for some centuries before and after the beginning of the Christian era the majority of the Tamils in India and Ceylon were Buddhists, has been strengthened by the discovery of the ruins of two dagobas at Kantherodai and antique coins and beads which point to ancient Buddhistic influence in the North. Mr. D. T. Devendra, during a visit to Delft , discovered a mound which on closer examination turned out to be a Dagoba, proving that Buddhist influence extended even to the farthest islands.
The Administration Report of the Director of National Museums, for 1948 states that collecting trips made by the museum staff to the Chavakachcheri sand dunes resulted in the finding of other evidence near Chunnakam in the peninsula.
It is however, to the efforts of the late Mr. J. P. Lewis, CCS, that we owe the discovery of the first image of the Buddha in Jaffna . It was unearthed close to the Vishnu temple at Vallipuram and had lain in the lumber room of the temple for years until, in 1902, Mr. Lewis requested the manager of the temple to part with it.
It was set up in the Old Park at Jaffna , under one of the bo-trees. Another image of the Buddha was later dug up at Chunnakam by Mr. Lewis, and placed under another of these bo-trees. In 1906, the Vallipuram Buddha was presented by the then Governor, Sir Henry Blake, to the King of Siam who was particularly anxious to have it, owing to its antiquity.
Discoveries
The first dagoba in Jaffna was discovered by Dr. Paul E. Peiris to whom, moreover, we are indebted for many of the discoveries of Buddhist remains in the North. At Makayappiddi, in the courtyard of the Meenachchi Amman Temple , Dr. Peiris discovered a remarkably fine image of the Buddha. At Kantherodai, Dr. Peiris came across a large fragment of the torso of what must have been at one time a gigantic stone statue, being used at a well for washing clothes. At Mallakam, he discovered a Sinhalese pond cut in the rock in a fair state of preservation. At Kantherodai again, which appeared to Dr. Peiris to be a miniature Anuradhapura in the Tamil country,� a large number of coins were found. The Acting Superintendent of the Madras Museum was of opinion that these were Buddhist coins of the 2nd and 3rd Century B.C. He added that similar coins had been found on both sides of the rivers Vaigai and Tambraparni in South India .
Many valuable Sinhalese coins have been discovered in the Jaffna District. During a visit to Vallipuram Mr. J. P. Lewis learnt that the Police Vidane there was in possession of a gold coin which had been discovered in 1890. He obtained the "find" and sent it to the Archaeological Commissioner, Mr. H. C. P. Bell, for identification. It turned out to the Iraka or Daraka Sinhalese coin of very debased gold. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Lewis received from the Very Rev. Father E. Vorlander, OMI, copper coins dug up at Pandateruppu. They proved to be the coins of Queen Lilavati (12th-13th Century A.D.). Dutch coins and the coins of Parakrama Bahu, Bhuvaneka Bahu, etc., have also been found. Stone Images Several images of the Buddha have also been found in the Mannar District. There is ample evidence carved in stone all over the Mannar and ullaitivu districts that the Sinhalese had occupied these districts. Inside the Fort gateway at Mannar, for instance, was disinterred a stone which had for modern Mannar, where there are no Buddhists, a strange device, viz, two hansa with interlocked necks-a Buddhist emblem. Mr. Lewis found Buddhist ruins at Vavuniya as well. Some authorities believe that the discovery of Buddhist images and coins in Jaffna does not prove that Jaffna was occupied by the Sinhalese. They argue the majority of Tamils were Buddhists. The Tamil classics of the era were Buddhists. e.g. Manimekhalai , a Tamil poem written in the 2nd Century A.D. by Chittalaich-Chattanar, a poet of the third Tamil Sangam and a Buddhist, is about the life of Manimekhalai, a daughter of the famous dancer for whom Kovalan, husband of Kannaki (known as Pattini Dewiyo among the Sinhalese) abandoned his faithful wife, and of her renunciation of the world and entry into a Buddhist nunnery.

Place names.
The poet gives a learned exposition of Buddhist philosophy. The authorities are of opinion that the Buddhist remains found at Jaffna belong to the period when the Tamils were Buddhists. Any remaining doubts can be dispelled by the evidence furnished by the place names in Jaffna . The Sinhalese origin of the place-names in Jaffna was first pointed out by Messrs. B. Horsburg and J. P. Lewis, both of the CCS. They stated that place-names which ended in "pay" like Manipay, opay, Sandilipay, etc., and in "kamam" like Kodikamam, Valigamam, etc., were of Sinhalese origin. This late S. Gnana Prakasar, the philologist of international fame, agreed with them and furnished his own list of place-names. He mentioned village ending in "vil" like Kandavil, Kokkuvil, Inuvil, etc.; those ending in "vattei", like Polvattei, ittavattei, etc.; villages from the word "kumbura" like Markkamburei, etc., from "yaya" like Moolay etc., from "deniya" like Narandanei, etc., from "eliya" like Puloly.
The Northern Province will, no doubt, prove a fertile field for the archaeologist. Dr. Paul E. Pieris wrote as follows in 1919: "When again a trained man is placed in charge of the work in Ceylon . I hope he will not ignore the Tamil districts. I venture to express the conviction that the archaeology of Ceylon cannot be understood, and should not be studied, apart from the Archaeology of India and that it is a pity that the great knowledge, and experience which is available in India should not be taken advantage of in the work here.?
(This article appeared in the Ceylon Observer Friday Evening on 14 October 1949). Go back to top of List



LTTE Pistol GANGS, TERRORISTS -SL ARMY Flash point

(Typical News Item of the year 2006.)
Two More Civilians & Soldier Fall Victim To LTTE


TRINCOMALEE: LTTE PISTOL MEN on Monday (05-June-2006) shot and killed two more civilians in SERUNUWARA, KANTHALAI around 7.00 p.m. 6-June-06 The bullet-riddled bodies of the two civilians were found by the KANTHALAI Police. One of the had been identified as THANGANAGAR KUGAN (28) of RB-04, THANGANAGAR, SERUNUWARA, KANTHALAI. as of Tuesday (06) afternoon. Meanwhile, a soldier on duty at a sentry point in ACHCHANKULAM, MANNAR was injured on Monday (05) when LTTE terrorists in hiding fired at him using small arms and several rounds of 40 mm Grenade Launchers around 3.30 p.m. and he later succumbed to his injuries. Private K.P. DISSANAYAKE sustained severe injuries in the LTTE firing and was admitted to MANNAR hospital for treatment. Go back to top of List



Credits and Acknowledgments- jobs done and to be done

See background to the Place.names project and its association with science in sinhala
from 1975

Some collaborators and interested parties:

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Extract from Paranavithana: "The Arya kingdom of North Ceylon"


The Sinhalese name "Yäpãpatuna" means the port of "Yäpã". .. . It seems to have come into vogue after the Malays or Jävakãs gained political influence in the Island. The word Jãvã or Javakä is also found in the form Yãvã or Yävakã. The Chinese equivalent of Jãvã, Chipo, indicates that the "v" was one time pronounced as "p", i.e. Jãpã. The "Kulöttunkan Kóvai" in one stanza mentions Cavakam (Jãvaka) as a country which acknowledged the supremacy of Kulóttunka III, and in another stanza makes a similar mention of Cãpam. It is possible that Cãpam and Cãvakam both refer to the same country, Java or Javaka. If so, the change of "v" to "p" in the name is attested in Tamil also. The change of "v" to "p could also have developed in the course of the name being pronounced by the Sinhalese, for this phonological process is attested in that language by such words as "lapa" for Sanskrit "lava" and "Sapana" for Sanskrit "Carvana". "Yãpãpatuna" would thus signify the "Port of the Javakas".... The modem form "Yalpanam" must also go back to this Sinhalese name.
Go back to "Jaffna"
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TOPONYMICS
The United Nations Organizations have established standards on toponyms, allonyms, endonyms, exonyms, romanization of names for transcription and transliteration. We have used simple transcription as many readers may not be used to phonetic alphabets. A scientific approach to toponymics is needed to avoid the pitfalls usual to this subject. See
Manual of standardization of Geographic names
Toponymy: The Lore, Laws & Language of Geographical Names, by Nathali Kadmon,
(N.Y., Vantage Press 2000)
United Nations Statistics Division
United States Board of Geographic Names, Gazetteer on Ceylon 1960; Old copies of Ferguson's Directory are also useful. However, much of toponymics is inspired guess work which needs to be controlled as much as possible by archaeological, historical, literary, geographic, anthropological and all other conceivable sources. One can always find exceptions to any 'rule' of the toponymist. Finally, in choosing between several allonyms, it is best to choose the alloform closest to existing current usage, even if the existing usage is deemed "a corrupt form" according to toponymists.

Tamilization

See James W. Gair and S. Suseendirarajah,
International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics (Trivandrum)
10, no.2 (Jun 1981) 370-384

See phonetic changes in tamilization and regional differences in Tamil.
South Indian Tamil place names often have endings not found in
Sri Lanka's North and East, because SL place names are mostly
derived from Sinhala place names.

Tamil Nadu and Offical Tamil Place names and language Politics.

In Tamil Nadu, south India, the population is 60% Tamil speaking, and in 1997 the State government passed a law requiring the use of tamil place names.
Also, Tamil is the only official language even though Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada are large minority languages.
Tamil is also the official first language of instruction for all citizens of Tamil Nadu
South Indian Tamil place names often have endings not found in Sri lanka's North and
East, because SL place names are mostly derived from Sinhala place names.
see for South Indian Place names and references there-in.
See politics in place name changes in India
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WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT

The North and East of Sri Lanka were populated by people who were largely Buddhists till about the 12th century. This lead to a gradual modification of the original names which acquired a Tamil garb, as stated by many scholars like Paul E. Peries, Horsburg, T. Devendra, S. Paranavitana, Dr. Indrapala, Ven. E. Medhananda and others. See for example, 1948 article by Tambimuttu, or Tambimuttu as html doc from Tripitaka.net
Horsburgh 1916.
Dr. Indrapalan, Tamils of Jaffna, 1965; Evolution of an ethnic identity 2005
After that these areas were populated by south Indian forces who understandably tamilized the names of the old towns, water reservoirs, rivers, and villages. Similarly, many Buddhist temples were replaced by Hindu shrines.
See destruction of old sites in modern times, as reported by angered public opinion.
The Sri Lanka Parliamentary debates on Oct. 7, 1983 are on the same issue. These places were partially returned to their original state when Sinhala kings returned to these areas. This in turn involved demolition of Hindu shrines, or their absorption into Buddhist shrines. This ebb and flow of the Sinhala and Tamil influence in the North and East had left a rich cultural legacy which is unknown to most people. In these web pages we focus on just one aspect of this cultural heritage. Dr. Michael Roberts mentions "toponymic evidence involving over a thousand place names of distinctly Sinhala origin in 'tamil garb'. The fact that the names were slightly modified, instead of being completely removed, shows that the people co-existed, even when the rulers fought. In fact, Parakramabahu's inscription at the Uruthota (Kayts) harbour has Tamil text as well. The British period saw the colonization of the East coast with Tamils from the Malabaar coast, pushing out the local settlers (see F. d'A. Vincent's Sessional paper XL11 of 1882, Administration of Ceylon). However, the post-independent Sri Lankan political forces have not been helpful in correcting the problems and building up a peaceful cultural legacy.
See Iriyagolla's analysis
East coast

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Some References Short History of Ceylon by Codrington
Ancient Irrigation Works of Ceylon by R.L.Brohier
Our Place in the Civilization of the Ancient World, by the late Hon. K. Balasingam
The Dravidian Origin and Philosophy of Human Speech by the late Fr. T.C.Closset, S.J.
Ancient Jaffna by the late Mudaliyar S. Rasanayakam
Studies in Etymology and Etymological and Comparative Lexicon of the Tamil Language by the late Fr. S. Gnanaprakasar O.M.I.
Dravida by E.L. Tambimuttu
Madura Manual edited by J.H. Nelson
Madras District Gazetter, vol.1 (Government of Madras)
Dravidian and Aryan by Chidamparampillai, editor Tamilian, Nagercoil, India.
Dravidian Element in Indian Culture, by Dr. Gilbert Slater
Budhist India by Dr. Rhys Davids
History and Culture of the Indian People, by Professor S.K.Chatterjee
Hindu View of Life, by Professr Sir. S. Radhakrishnan, ex-President of India
Indian Thought and its Developments by Dr. Albert Schweitzer (Nobel prize winner)
Mohonjadaro and the Indus Civilisation by Sir. John Marshall.
The Origin of Sumerian Writing, by the late Fr. Heras S.J. (Journal of the University of Bombay, July 1938).
The Sumerians by Dr. Leonard Woolley (The excavator of Ur.)
Glimpses of World History by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
The Phoenician Origin of Britons, the Scots and the Anglosaxons’ and The Sumer-Aryan Dictionary by Col. A.L. Waddell (William & Norgate, London).
Armalurish by Clemens Schooner
Lands and Peoples of the Bible, by James Baikie
Diffusion of Culture, by George Eliot Smith
The Story of the Nations Series, (i) Chaldea, (ii) Assyria, (iii) Ancient Egypt, (iv) Phoenicia, (v) the Jews, and (vi) Vedic India.







































Quote from Prof. Michael Roberts.


This quotation from Indrapala's early work, given by Roberts, provides an assessment of the empirical integrity of that historiograhical era. Historical studies relating to the North and East, Sinhala-Tamil interactions etc., have been subject to great stress in more recent times, and need to be taken with caution.
See
Dr. Indrapala, Tamils of Jaffna, 1965
N. B., Here we have profited from discussions with Professor Michael Roberts.
Indrapala's thesis was supervised by Prof. J. G de Casparis.

In the more recent book, Evolution of an Ethnic Identity , 2005,
Dr. Indrapala revisits these and related topics within an
expanded canvas. Here he attempts to argue that the whole
souther Indian sub-continent has to be looked at, especially to
understand megalithic settlements.
A review of his book appeared in the newspaper "Island",
by Bandu de Silva, in several parts: Sep. 2-8, 2007
[Bandu de Silva is a historian turned civil servant.
He has research on the 'Kadaimpoth']




Omantha check point during Eelam time At Omanthai (Omantha), the SL army check point (women on the left, men on the right) is 700 meters before the Tiger checkpoint (rs. 5 for the shuttle bus to the edge of tiger control). Then you take another bus to arrive at the LTTE checkpoint 4km north in Puliyankulam (Siyambalaveva). Foreigners are handled at gate 2, while locals go to gates 10 and 11. Non-Tamil Foreigners get a free transit visa, but those planning to venture of the A9 road needs a Rs. 1000 "passbook" that needs documents from the "Tamil Rehabilitation Organization (TRO)", banned in the west for collecting funds for terrorism. Locals, and Tamil expats have to pay "taxes", "duties", and declare valuables. The taxes may cover extortionary sums for several years of "income tax" including those years where the individual lived abroad.

The express bus during the Eelam period made a stop at the Amman temple where a Hinu priest gets aboard and smears "holy ash" and collects funds for the tigers. Then passing Murakanda (Murukandy in tamil) you see the "Captian Pork" statue of a suicide Tiger who attacked the Muvavweva (Mankulam) Army base in 1990, as well as the tiny "Ankaran Temple". There is a stop here for coconut cracking,. smearing holy ash and prayer followed by Hindu travelers, as well as some local Buddhists who tend to respect Hindu deities.

The buses travel through Giranikke (Killinochchi), the adminstrative capital of the Tigers, usually without stopping, and pass through Alimankada (Elephant pass). The checkpoint for leaving Eelam (Tigerland) is in Muhamaalé (Mukamalai in Tamil) and the SL army check point is 0.5km further up, where there are CTB buses to Jaffna.
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